It is truly horrendous to know that our women are trafficked to the Middle East and some are now stranded in Oman. TV news broadcasts have cited them crying for help and conveying their helplessness and the hopeless of the situation they are in. On 22 November, TV news had it that their plight was raised and highlighted by MTV in their broadcasts. The Minister of Foreign Employment said they had been working on it.
The Editor of the Sunday Island of 20 November very succinctly and sharply focused attention on them. It has been imputed that the trafficking was for sex purposes and not mere employment at low salaries in any old place; the Middle East countries harbouring sex fiends and thus accommodating money grabbers through the selling of mostly innocent flesh. The apparently stranded women were taken to a safe house in Oman but it was far from safe since an official or persons of our country doing duty of overseeing safety, exploited the poor women by forcing them to degradingly serve their sex urges. Talk of a fox placed to guard a hen coop!
And what pray have embassy staff done in Oman and adjoining countries? There were, and probably are, labour offices specially posted in the Sri Lankan embassies in West Asian nations to see to the welfare of the blue-collar workers – more especially the woman who are vulnerable to exploitation and even torture. They seem to have been hand in glove with the traffickers.
Cass, more than a decade ago, worked voluntarily for a trade union that had as one of its major concerns women who went overseas to work in menial jobs, more so as house-maids. Also included in the Union’s purview were Free Trade Zone women workers and estate labourers. These three categories were then recognised as the major earners of foreign exchange; and probably still are. And they, quite the backbone of our forex earners, were the most exploited and tortured and left with little protection and unnoticed when they cried for help.
Cass was introduced to the Foreign Employment Bureau (FEB),which gave the ones selected to go overseas pre-departure training and made them aware of what to expect in their overseas homes and jobs. The FEB oversaw the welfare of those who went through the Bureau while employed overseas and ensured them insurance and even kept an eye on children and families left behind. Cass remembers they conducted programmes for returnees, mostly to have them use their earnings profitably. Thus, Cass’ immense surprise that women go overseas for jobs arranged by agencies, many of them dubious if not totally suspect. Her weekly domestic’s daughter-in-law in sheer desperation has registered with such a private and illegal agency. People should know a government Bureau recruits and sends women for jobs overseas. They may not be aware the Bureaux’ selection of workers and places of work are scrupulous and the benefits of going via the FEB. Illegal agents go from door to door, probably, pouncing on innocent women and cheating them totally, though showing concern and promising great wealth earned in a short while.
Cass blames our women folk and their avaricious husbands and willing to sacrifice older relatives. Many of the women go being tired of their marriages and seeking diversion; many to spite husbands; and most believe the pot of gold lies at the other end of an exciting plane ride and merely cooking in a house. Then dawn realities: large families to cook for, babies to care for; hijabs to be worn, food deplorable as Cass has heard: camel meat and invariable tomato curry. Passports confiscated; total lack of freedom, and women of the household deaf to meek complaints of sexual harassment.
Cass is hardhearted but realistic when she lays the greater blame is on the women who are duped than on the duping illegal recruitment agencies. Don’t these women read newspapers? Watch TV news? Hear of the travails undergone by many workers? No, they dream and proceed dubiously to jobs abroad only to find them difficult and conditions far from what was promised, or they imagined. Then starts the sniffling and appeals to families and the SL government to bring them back.
Cass travelling to the UK a decade and more ago on British Airways, had a woman seated next to her who did not know where she had to get off; would not eat or drink, or even answer solicitous questions asked of her. It was a one stop in a Mid East country flight. When the plane landed at this one spot (Oman. Dubai or wherever) the woman did not move. Fearing she would be over-carried to Heathrow, Cass summoned the airhostess – white and rude. She looked into the woman’s passport and taking her roughly by her shoulder, angrily led her out. Cass was haunted by her landing and what awaited her. This sort of thing could happen even now.
India banned labour class women going overseas for jobs; so also Malaysia to name but two South Asian and South Eastern countries. The Filipinos spoke English and were prepared for what awaited them and met with minimum trouble. Our country encouraged women to go overseas for menial jobs no matter harm done to them and their families. It was a way of earning foreign money.
The birthday of the Elder ‘Royal’
One day in the recent past, TV news captured a part of the celebration of Mahinda Rajapaksa’s birthday celebrations with all brothers present. Monks were lined up and would have chanted pirith or given first place to the focus of attention – a white clad woman who placed a crown like object on the ex Prez/ PM’s head. Wondered whether it was Gnana Akka, whom Hirunika sought a predicting session with and was denied by an entire battalion of police officers. Friends said it was a not so powerful and sought after upasikawa since the ceremony was a kiriammas’ dane. Good for MR – he got double blessing from monks and upasaka ammas (NOT bhikkhunis, Cass hastily adds). Cass has never witnessed fully ordained Bhikkhus being upped by lay women of silwathkama – true or pretend. This must be the way of Sinhala Buddhism, promoted by the Brothers and observed and loudly proclaimed by the Pohottuwas.
MP brings in King Ravana
Sri Lanka is in the suicidal grip of the worst economic crisis in its entire period of known history and ensnared in the constant protest of millions of dissatisfied and frustrated persons. In this dire country condition, SJB MP for Matara District, Buddhika Pathirana, ups with a motion to enable “a systematic study about King Ravana, on whom there is no specific historical information.” Matter of life and death to the nation? What has come over this so far wise and honest MP whom we admired as having sense and speaking it? Cass wondered whether to laugh or cry or better, hoot with derision.
She did the last at Deputy Minister Diana’s constant suggestions to earn forex. She started by suggesting the installation of a Disney Land theme park here in SL. We want people to enjoy and appreciate our diverse natural beauty and our wild life. Then she comes up with creating a Macau or Las Vegas Strip in Mannar. Pooh-poohed by the public she wants to encourage farmers to grow ganja extensively. She should go for honesty and elimination of corruption in Parliament and government if she truly feels patriotic kekkuma for the country, she returned to recently. How to do that is the question when she is there as State Min ister supposedly holding double you-know-what.
The IUSF protesting ‘Buddhist Monk’ has been released on bail, we heard on Wednesday morning. Good and proper. Please release Wasantha Mudalige too. Then protests should stop and this parched for dollars county might get tourists a-coming. Our hotels are so prepared and so languishing for stayers.
Teaching feminism at SL universities
“Feminism is not a synonym for man hater though we need a new man now”:
By Aruni Samarakoon
Recently, I was in a discussion on Feminism with the members of the Post-Graduate Research (PGR) community at the University of Hull, in the United Kingdom. They were my colleagues, from the Middle-East, Asia and Europe, representing the natural and social sciences, but, apparently, did not possess any prior knowledge on feminism. I say this because most in the natural sciences seemed to characterise feminism as a political ideology against man (man in this context represents male). This discussion provoked me to recollect why feminism was stereotyped by these scholars, who were researching for their doctoral degrees at the time.
The objective of this article is to extend my argument of teaching feminism at the Sri Lankan universities in my last Kuppi column (25/10/2022), which drew attention to the gaps in teaching and learning feminism in the classroom and practicing it in everyday life.
I introduced the basic notion of feminism in my last Kuppi column, but would like to extend the conceptual understanding of feminism in a new direction, that is the notion that feminism is not an anti-man discourse. bell hooks—lowercase letters symbolise, for hooks, resistance to injustice and prejudice in the capitalist system or a “new language” of equality and justice for all—in Feminism for Everybody: Passionate Politics (2000) states, “Feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression… and it was my hope at the time that it would become a common definition everyone would use. I liked this definition because it did not imply that men were the enemy ” (p.01). hooks’ proposition was further reinforced by socialist feminist Sheila Rowbotham in her book, Women, Resistance and Revolution (1972). Rowbotham suggests that feminism is a new political project to empower both men and women and create a new man and woman. Notably, hooks and Rowbotham did not agree with ‘binary politics’ that constructs man as “enemy” and woman as “victim”.
Who is the “New Man”?
The political notion of the “New Man” was developed by Rowbotham. She critically examined women’s representation in post-French revolution politics and asked how the latter “represents the voice of women in the French Revolution”? She suggested that women moved once again into the second sex (subordinate role) paradigm at the end of the French Revolution as revolutionary politics turned into patriarchal politics. Therefore, she suggested the concept of “New Man,” a man who recognizes class and sex oppression as the primary determinants of exploitation. The “New Man” understands the equal significance of ending classism and sexism at once. I draw on hooks and Rowbotham to propose that a “new man” is a necessary condition for teaching and learning feminism at Sri Lankan universities.
The question is whether you see the “New Man” in any context in Sri Lanka? Let’s start with the recent peaceful uprising of “Gota- Go-Home-2022”. Revolutionary political agents of both male and female sex were visible at the beginning of the uprising. For example, the image of a woman carrying a child in one hand and a placard in the other went viral on social media. The female undergraduates were on the front lines of the protests, holding the banners and shouting the slogans. The activities of women in this scenario took me back to the French Revolution;
“The idea of a march of women to Versailles to stop the bloodshed spread in April 1871. Beatrice Excoffon, the daughter of a watchmaker who lived with a compositor, told her mother she was leaving, kissed her children and joined the procession at the Place de la Concorde. Nobody was clear about the aims of the march or knew definitely what they should do, but there were political rather than strictly economic motives” (Rowbotham, 1972, p.104).
The women who came to the streets in the Sri Lankan uprising had both political and economic motives. They were not certain about the plan, though their voice was to end the “dictatorship” and restore “democracy”. The fundamental question is where are these women now? How many of these women were in the political party negotiation table at the end of the uprising? How many were able to voice their political motives? I argue that these revolutionary women were thrown to their private spaces by the “Old-Man”- the agent of patriarchal politics. The irony is that the “Old-Man” was preoccupied in ending the dictatorship in parliament, while maintaining sexist dictatorship in their revolutionary political bodies. Thus the “New Man” is a necessary condition to practice feminism as political ideology for everybody.
The aims of feminist academic discourse and activism were/are to raise women’s political consciousness and empower them to be the “New Woman”. The scholarship of hooks and Rowbotham interpret the “New Woman” as one who opposes patriarchal politics. The “New Woman” can be found today in every sector; these women are in a hard struggle to establish the “Woman’s identity” in those settings. For example, the underlying impetus driving the ongoing Iranian protest is to recognize Women’s identity as a human being. Tearing off their hair cover was a symbolic representation of their voice to get identified as human, in my interpretation. However, creating the “New Woman” is a contested and difficult political process. What is the role of teaching and learning feminism at universities in creating the “New Man” and “New Woman”?
“Learning outcomes” of Feminism
A key “learning outcome” of Feminist pedagogy would be to critically examine a given social reality. The given social reality contains the stereotypes, power hierarchies and objectification of the human body. Feminism then, will throw light on this social reality and raise the critical mindset of both woman and man to question that given social reality.
Feminism, in that case, plays the role of activism for social transformation. The focus of old school pedagogy was examining theory; activism was not a part of older pedagogical approaches. It was feminism that introduced activism as a new method of teaching and learning Amy K Levin states in Questions for a New Century: Women’s Studies and Integrative Learning (2007) that, “feminist studies programmes work to meet knowledge and skills goals and activism is the requirement of the course” (p.18). Connecting knowledge and personal experience is a part of feminist activism.
However, in the context of Sri Lankan universities, activism is yet to be recognized as a legitimate pedagogical activity. In my experience, the most university academics in Sri Lanka maintain a hierarchy of academia and activism. They tend to present the theoretical arguments of other prominent scholars in academic language, rarely understood by the public. In activism, the theoretical explanations are discussed in simple language and examples of everyday life are connected to theory, to engage the public.
In conclusion, the point of feminism is not an anti-man thesis, but to create the “New Man and Woman” . The “New Man ” concept in Sri Lanka can and must be improved and expanded by teaching feminism at higher education institutions. Training undergraduates in activism is necessary for social transformation, which should be the ultimate objective of education. It is worth noting that the Kuppi collective has taken the lead in discussing new approaches to education; feminism is part of that discussion.
(Aruni Samarakoon teaches at the Department of Public Policy, University of Ruhuna)
Kuppi is a politics and pedagogy happening on the margins of the lecture hall that parodies, subverts, and simultaneously reaffirms social hierarchies
Indian model as wayforward
By Jehan Perera
President Ranil Wickremesinghe’s statement that district committees can be considered as part of the solution to the vexed problem of power sharing between the ethnic communities has caused a considerable furore in the Tamil community. It came as both a shock and a disappointment as the president has also been speaking about fast-tracking the national reconciliation process. The president said he is ready to reintroduce District Development Councils when former president Maithripala Sirisena proposed setting up of district councils under the provincial councils as a cost cutting measure. “Former President, I listened to your comments on District Development Councils and I am ready to do it,” the President is quoted as having said. Subsequently, the president’s media unit clarified that the President meant that the District Development Committees (DDCs) will be established within the Provincial Councils.
The president’s media unit further elaborated that the DDCs would provide a platform for coordination between the government, the provincial councils and the local governments for all executive decisions. It also said this will ensure the process is not duplicated and will reduce financial wastage. The concept of the district as the unit of devolution was tried before in 1981 by the president’s uncle, the late president J R Jayewardene during whose period the government established DDCs to be part of the solution to the ethnic conflict that was getting worse by the day. The Sri Lankan security forces had been ordered to control the growing Tamil militancy. The security forces were armed not only with guns but also with the Prevention of Terrorism Act which was abused then as it is abused today though to a much greater extent then, than it is now.
The memory of the brief period of the DDCs is an unhappy one to the Tamil community. The elections to the DDC were contested by the ruling party, the UNP, to which the president belongs. The government’s attempt to rig those elections and win them at any cost led to the catastrophic burning of the Jaffna Public Library in 1981. This seat of learning was one of the most sacrosanct institutions of Tamil civilisation that symbolised the high quality of education in the north of the country that was the envy of other parts of the country. It is therefore not surprising that the president’s media unit was quick to deny the very negative inferences made with regard to the president’s speech.
The president’s media unit can be relied upon to accurately portray the president’s cryptic remark with regard to his willingness to resuscitate the district council system. However, the very idea of creating a complex platform for coordinating the central government, provincial councils and local government bodies for all executive decisions seems to be a difficult task. It runs the real risk of killing any possibility of decision making through a multiplicity of committees. Coordination within one level of the government is difficult enough. Coordinating between multiple levels will be even more difficult. There have been issues when two drivers sit at the wheel. Who does the Government Agent in a district report to as he also serves as the District Secretary? What is the protocol when a central deputy minister and provincial minister attend a formal meeting?
The questions noted above have been raised in the past and many remain unresolved and making further units of devolution will be confusion compounded. The irrelevance of the proposed district committees to the solution of the ethnic conflict can be seen by another problem. The provincial councils, which were formulated to be the solution to the ethnic conflict, and to represent the wishes of the people of each province, do nothing of the sort at the present time, as they are non-functional where people’s representation is concerned. For the past four years, the provincial councils have only been administrative bodies run by a presidentially appointed governor who can act, and does act arbitrarily, without consulting the people of the province. During this period, elections to the provincial councils have not been held. Far from being institutions of devolved power, the provincial councils now represent the centralised power of the state, both unfortunately and perniciously.
The ability of the government to neutralise the provincial councils by the undemocratic method of not permitting elections to be held for 4 years gives impetus to the Tamil community’s rejection of them. The provincial councils were brought into existence in 1987 as the main democratic part of the solution to the ethnic conflict. They were meant to provide the people of each province with the power to decide on locally relevant matters. But this right has been denied to them. This would be the main reason why the demand for federalism is once again coming to the fore. In a landmark judgement the Supreme Court in August 2017 with Chief Justice Priyasath Dep presiding ruled that “Advocating for a Federal form of Government within the existing State could not be considered as advocating Separatism.” The court dismissed a petition that ITAK (or Federal Party) had, as one of its “aims” and “objects” the establishment of a Separate State.
The TNA which is the largest Tamil party (with ITAK as its major component) has responded positively to the president’s announcement that he intends to seek a solution to the ethnic conflict by the 75th anniversary of Independence. They have said that they will seek a solution on the basis of federalism. Their spokesperson M. A. Sumanthiran has pointed out that there are more than 25 countries in the world which have federal system and they are very much united, and contain over 40 percent of the world’s population. The United States, India, Switzerland and Malaysia are examples of federal states. The key feature in a federal state is that the government will not be able to change the way a provincial council is governed. Certainly, the government will not be able to arbitrarily postpone elections to a provincial council for four years and then run it centrally through a governor of its own choice.
On the other hand, from the time that the Tamil polity has asked for federalism, beginning in the 1950s, the Sinhalese polity has rejected it as being injurious to the country’s national sovereignty and security. There is misapprehension that federalism might be the first step to secession. The examples of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia are given as examples of federal states that broke up on the lines of their federal units. The Sinhalese position is that a unitary form of government would protect the country from being divided in this manner. However, even unitary states have been divided if they did not manage their ethnic relations in a constructive manner as was the case in Sudan (which divided into South Sudan) and Serbia (Kosovo). The enlightened reasoning and decision of the Sri Lankan Supreme Court in 2017 needs to be explained to the political parties and to the general population.
The 18th century English poet Alexander Pope wrote “For Forms of Government let fools contest whatever is best administered is best.” Just across the seas from Sri Lanka the world has a good example of a diverse and huge country that has held together as one and is now getting stronger and stronger, both in terms of its economic might, but also its international stature. The Indian form of government is neither wholly federal nor wholly unitary, but can take on aspects of either as the situation demands. In times of peace it is federal, in times of stress it can become unitary. This was the solution that India and Sri Lanka agreed to in the Indo-Lanka Accord of 1987 and which was distorted in the 13th Amendment. Recently in parliament, former president Mahinda Rajapaksa went one step forward to say he was for discussions on 13th Amendment plus. India has been Sri Lanka’s best saviour at the present time in terms of the economic crisis, giving Sri Lanka far more than other countries. With India’s political support to a political solution based on its own learning and experience, a viable solution can be found and Sri Lanka can forge ahead as a truly united nation to economic development.
Top acts heading overseas…for 31st night
Sohan & The X-Periments, and the new-look Mirage outfit, will not be around to usher in the New Year – 2023.
While The X-Periments will take a break, from 31st night activities, their leader Sohan will be away, in the UK, making sure that the folks, over there, have a ball, as the New Year approaches…and after!
He will be at the Honeymoon Banquet Hall, in Hounslow, London, together with the band Roots, and guest artiste Damin David – UK Lankan’s Voice Winner – to welcome 2023.
This dinner dance will commence at 7.00 pm and wind up at 1.00 am, and will be held in typical Sri Lankan style, with kiribath, tea, coffee, after the countdown.
Among the highlights will be the selection of the New Year Queen.
This will be Sohan’s third trip to the UK, for this year, and it did come as a surprise, he says, adding that he is glad that he is in demand in the UK, as well.
Sohan will also take wing for Australia, to perform at a very important event – a concert to honour the late Desmond de Silva.
It will be held on 11th, February, 2023, in New South Wales, and will also feature Mignonne and Suraj, Melantha Perera, Mariazelle, Corrine, and Sohan Pieris, among others.
This concert will showcase the music from Desmond’s incredible musical journey…with the Spitfires, Jetliners, Foreign Affair (UK), Replay 6, Desmond and The Impressions, and the baila king himself, in ‘hologram.’
In the meanwhile, the new-look Mirage, who captivated a full house at the Peacock, Berjaya Hotel, Mount Lavinia, last Friday night – December 2nd – is scheduled to head for Oman for two important seasonal gigs – on 23rd December and 31st December.
On Friday, the 23rd, they will be at the Grand Hall, Al Falaj Hotel, in Muscat, for ‘Sri Lankan Musical Night’ – from 3.00 pm onwards.
In addition to their Christmas Eve and New Year’s Eve gigs, the General Manager of the Al Falaj Hotel, Praveen George, indicated to me that Mirage will also be seen in action at a few more events, in Oman.
Down Under, too, elaborate plans are being made to celebrate the dawning of another New Year.
Two popular bands, in Melbourne, Replay 6 and Ebony, will be at the Grand On Princess, to provide the right kind of music to make this New Year’s Dinner Dance nostalgic.
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