The selection by Democratic Party presidential hopeful Joe Biden of California Senator Kamala Harris as his running mate points to the emergence of national integration as a key issue in the upcoming US presidential election.’Black votes’ matter very much in the US now more than ever before and all credit to the Democrats for seeing this with notable clarity.
Such perceptiveness is particularly important against the backdrop of the ‘Black lives matter’ movement which took on phenomenal proportions recently with the killing of Afro-American George Floyd by the US police. The US is bound to realize that without national integration it would be difficult to continue to project itself as a model democracy.
The so-called blacks and other minorities constitute an important support base of the Democratic Party and the observer would not be erring by foreseeing a substantial rise in support on the part of the US’ minority communities for the Democratic presidential candidate and his running mate at the November poll. The George Floyd killing is certain to emerge as a catalyst in this possible upswing in minority support for the Democrats.
How the US could score on the foreign policy front through a projection of itself as a veritable epitome of national integration and multiculturalism ought to be plain to see. Considering that Harris would be the first African American woman and the first Asian American woman to be chosen as the running mate of a major US presidential contender, her election would re-convey to the world that the US is accommodative of racial and cultural diversity. That is, the US could come to be seen as an exemplar of national integration once again. The phrase ‘once again’ is prompted by the fact that the election of Barrack Obama to the US presidency emphatically underscored the commitment to multiculturalism and democratic pluralism on part of significant opinion in the US.
Needless to say, the latter credentials have been undermined severely during the Trump years. A victory by the Democrats is bound to reverse these negative tendencies in US politics. Since, as a general rule, foreign policy replicates in its essentials domestic policy, the US would be better suited and qualified to be seen as an international peace-builder and healer of division. That is, the US would find greater acceptance as a reconciler and ‘bridge-builder’. The divisive policies of President Donald Trump render these foreign policy aims difficult to achieve.
It is bound to be argued that the world didn’t see much evidence to support the ‘bridge-building’ capability of the US during the Obama years but the US was much more at peace with those states which were considered to be at cross-purposes with her. Two of these were Iran and China. Today, the US is at loggerheads with the latter states. International peace-building too is a process and the achievements of a big power on this front could only be evaluated in relative terms.
Nevertheless, a state, regardless of status, is obliged to work towards and uphold its national interest. This was done during the tenure of President Obama as well and it would be in the interests of small states in particular to bear this in mind. However, a US that works with greater vigour and purpose towards national integration is bound to be friendlier towards the global South.
A US under Biden and Harris is also likely to expect much from the South in terms of democratic development, at the heart of which is national integration. Those countries of the South which are prone to be ultra-nationalist in domestic and foreign policy will find themselves to be at cross-purposes with a US under a Biden-Harris combine.
Sri Lanka, for instance, would be obliged to be on the best of terms with the US under a Biden administration on account of her continued dependence on the US on a number of fronts. It would do well to pursue a Non-aligned foreign policy with vigour since she cannot antagonize any of the major powers, considering her economic vulnerabilities in particular.
Women politicians of a Democratic persuasion were at the receiving end of President Trump’s ire. Such outpourings of scorn were seen as attempts to denigrate women and the gender equality cause in general. With Harris coming to the forefront of Democratic Party politics the women’s cause would likely be bolstered. On this score too, democracy would gain in the US since democracy, correctly understood, is gender blind.
The possibility of a political change for the better in the US could not have come at a more crucial time for her. As the latter continues to stagger under the COVID-19 cataclysm, not only ethnic and gender parity but also national economic integration emerges as a priority. The state cannot afford to ignore the economically backward and deprived social sections, whose well being is central to national economic rejuvenation.
The US centre continues to be committed to social welfare spending of considerable proportions but deprived US sections, such as the country’s more depressed communities, tend to be wooed by and cared for more by Democratic administrations. The possibility of the coming to power of the Democrats would be good news for the US’ deprived groups who are likely to feel a greater sense of identity with a Democratic administration.
The big question is, what are the chances of real political change occurring in the US, come November? Going by current opinion polls Trump will be facing an uphill struggle to remain in power. If he is defeated, the lessons for the rest of the world will be plain to see. Power wielders at the centre who thrive on aggravating racial and cultural divides may enjoy some short term gains but a lengthy stay at the top could never be guaranteed. This is a prime lesson. The better option, however, is for central administrations to work consistently towards national integration, ideally through power sharing and a decentralizing of governmental functions. All in all, human welfare and not power should be seen as primal.
Strong on vocals
The group Mirage is very much alive, and kicking, as one would say!
Their lineup did undergo a few changes and now they have decided to present themselves as an all male group – operating without a female vocalist.
At the helm is Donald Pieries (drums and vocals), Trevin Joseph (percussion and vocals), Dilipa Deshan (bass and vocals), Toosha Rajarathna (keyboards and vocals), and Sudam Nanayakkara (lead guitar and vocals).
The plus factor, where the new lineup is concerned, is that all five members sing.
However, leader Donald did mention that if it’s a function, where a female vocalist is required, they would then feature a guest performer.
Mirage is a very experience outfit and they now do the Friday night scene at the Irish Pub, in Colombo, as well as private gigs.
Dichotomy of an urban-suburban New Year
Ushered in by the ‘coo-ee’ of the Koel and the swaying of Erabadu bunches, the Sinhala and Tamil New Year will dawn in the wee hours of April 14. With houses to clean, preparation of sweetmeats and last-minute shopping, times are hectic…. and the streets congested.
It is believed that New Year traditions predated the advent of Buddhism in the 3rd century BC. But Buddhism resulted in a re-interpretation of the existing New Year activities in a Buddhist light. Hinduism has co-existed with Buddhism over millennia and no serious contradiction in New Year rituals are observed among Buddhists and Hindus.
The local New Year is a complex mix of Indigenous, Astrological, Hindu, and Buddhist traditions. Hindu literature provides the New Year with its mythological backdrop. The Prince of Peace called Indradeva is said to descend upon the earth to ensure peace and happiness, in a white carriage wearing on his head a white floral crown seven cubits high. He first plunges, into a sea of milk, breaking earth’s gravity.
The timing of the Sinhala New Year coincides with the New Year celebrations of many traditional calendars of South and Southeast Asia. Astrologically, the New Year begins when the sun moves from the House of Pisces (Meena Rashiya) to the House of Aries (Mesha Rashiya) in the celestial sphere.
The New Year marks the end of the harvest season and spring. Consequently, for farming communities, the traditional New Year doubles as a harvest as well. It also coincides with one of two instances when the sun is directly above Sri Lanka. The month of Bak, which coincides with April, according to the Gregorian calendar, represents prosperity. Astrologers decide the modern day rituals based on auspicious times, which coincides with the transit of the Sun between ‘House of Pisces’ and ‘House of Aries’.
Consequently, the ending of the old year, and the beginning of the new year occur several hours apart, during the time of transit. This period is considered Nonegathe, which roughly translates to ‘neutral period’ or a period in which there are no auspicious times. During the Nonegathe, traditionally, people are encouraged to engage themselves in meritorious and religious activities, refraining from material pursuits. This year the Nonegathe begin at 8.09 pm on Tuesday, April 13, and continues till 8.57 am on 14. New Year dawns at the halfway point of the transit, ushered in bythe sound of fire crackers, to the woe of many a dog and cat of the neighbourhood. Cracker related accidents are a common occurrence during new year celebrations. Environmental and safety concerns aside, lighting crackers remain an integral part of the celebrations throughout Sri Lanka.
This year the Sinhala and Tamil New Year dawns on Wednesday, April 14, at 2.33 am. But ‘spring cleaning’ starts days before the dawn of the new year. Before the new year the floor of houses are washed clean, polished, walls are lime-washed or painted, drapes are washed, dried and rehang. The well of the house is drained either manually or using an electric water pump and would not be used until such time the water is drawn for first transaction. Sweetmeats are prepared, often at homes, although commercialization of the new year has encouraged most urbanites to buy such food items. Shopping is a big part of the new year. Crowds throng to clothing retailers by the thousands. Relatives, specially the kids, are bought clothes as presents.
Bathing for the old year takes place before the dawn of the new year. This year this particular auspicious time falls on April 12, to bathe in the essence of wood apple leaves. Abiding by the relevant auspicious times the hearth and an oil lamp are lit and pot of milk is set to boil upon the hearth. Milk rice, the first meal of the year, is prepared separate. Entering into the first business transaction and partaking of the first meal are also observed according to the given auspicious times. This year, the auspicious time for preparing of meals, milk rice and sweets using mung beans, falls on Wednesday, April 14 at 6.17 am, and is to be carried out dressed in light green, while facing east. Commencement of work, transactions and consumption of the first meal falls on Wednesday, April 14 at 7.41 am, to be observed while wearing light green and facing east.
The first transaction was traditionally done with the well. The woman of the house would draw water from the well and in exchange drop a few pieces of charcoal, flowers, coins, salt and dried chillies into the well, in certain regions a handful of paddy or rice is also thrown in for good measure. But this ritual is also dying out as few urban homes have wells within their premises. This is not a mere ritual and was traditionally carried out with the purification properties of charcoal in mind. The first water is preferably collected into an airtight container, and kept till the dawn of the next new year. It is believed that if the water in the container does not go down it would be a prosperous year. The rituals vary slightly based on the region. However, the essence of the celebrations remains the same.
Anointing of oil is another major ritual of the New Year celebrations. It falls on Saturday, April 17 at 7.16 am, and is done wearing blue, facing south, with nuga leaves placed on the head and Karada leaves at the feet. Oil is to be applied mixed with extracts of Nuga leaves. The auspicious time for setting out for professional occupations falls on Monday, April 19 at 6.39 am, while dressed in white, by consuming a meal of milk rice mixed with ghee, while facing South.
Traditionally, women played Raban during this time, but such practices are slowly being weaned out by urbanization and commercialisation of the New Year. Neighbours are visited with platters of sweetmeats, bananas, Kevum (oil cake) and Kokis (a crispy sweetmeat) usually delivered by children. The dichotomy of the urban and village life is obvious here too, where in the suburbs and the village outdoor celebrations are preferred and the city opts for more private parties.
New Year games: Integral part of New Year Celebrations
Food, games and rituals make a better part of New Year celebrations. One major perk of Avurudu is the festivals that are organised in each neighbourhood in its celebration. Observing all the rituals, like boiling milk, partaking of the first meal, anointing of oil, setting off to work, are, no doubt exciting, but much looked-forward-to is the local Avurudu Uthsawaya.
Avurudu Krida or New Year games are categorised as indoor and outdoor games. All indoor games are played on the floor and outdoor games played during the Avurudu Uthsava or New Year festival, with the whole neighbourhood taking part. Some of the indoor games are Pancha Dameema, Olinda Keliya and Cadju Dameema. Outdoor games include Kotta pora, Onchili pedeema, Raban geseema, Kana mutti bindeema, Placing the eye on the elephant, Coconut grating competition, Bun-eating competition, Lime-on-spoon race, Kamba adeema (Tug-o-War) and Lissana gaha nageema (climbing the greased pole). And what’s an Avurudhu Uthsava sans an Avurudu Kumari pageant, minus the usual drama that high profile beauty pageants of the day entail, of course.
A salient point of New Year games is that there are no age categories. Although there are games reserved for children such as blowing of balloons, races and soft drinks drinking contests, most other games are not age based.
Kotta pora aka pillow fights are not the kind the average teenagers fight out with their siblings, on plush beds. This is a serious game, wherein players have to balance themselves on a horizontal log in a seated position. With one hand tied behind their back and wielding the pillow with the other, players have to knock the opponent off balance. Whoever knocks the opponent off the log first, wins. The game is usually played over a muddy pit, so the loser goes home with a mud bath.
Climbing the greased pole is fun to watch, but cannot be fun to take part in. A flag is tied to the end of a timber pole-fixed to the ground and greased along the whole length. The objective of the players is to climb the pole, referred to as the ‘tree’, and bring down the flag. Retrieving the flag is never achieved on the first climb. It takes multiple climbers removing some of the grease at a time, so someone could finally retrieve the flag.
Who knew that scraping coconut could be made into an interesting game? During the Avurudu coconut scraping competition, women sit on coconut scraper stools and try to scrape a coconut as fast as possible. The one who finishes first wins. These maybe Avurudu games, but they are taken quite seriously. The grated coconut is inspected for clumps and those with ungrated clumps are disqualified.
Coconut palm weaving is another interesting contest that is exclusive to women. However men are by no means discouraged from entering such contests and, in fact, few men do. Participants are given equally measured coconut fronds and the one who finishes first wins.
Kana Mutti Bindima involves breaking one of many water filled clay pots hung overhead, using a long wooden beam. Placing the eye on the elephant is another game played while blindfolded. An elephant is drawn on a black or white board and the blindfolded person has to spot the eye of the elephant. Another competition involves feeding the partner yoghurt or curd while blindfolded.
The Banis-eating contest involves eating tea buns tied to a string. Contestants run to the buns with their hands tied behind their backs and have to eat buns hanging from a string, on their knees. The one who finishes his or her bun first, wins. Kamba adeema or Tug-o-War pits two teams against each other in a test of strength. Teams pull on opposite ends of a rope, with the goal being to bring the rope a certain distance in one direction against the force of the opposing team’s pull.
Participants of the lime-on-spoon race have to run a certain distance while balancing a lime on a spoon, with the handle in their mouths. The first person to cross the finish line without dropping the lime wins. The sack race and the three-legged race are equally fun to watch and to take part in. In the sack race, participants get into jute sacks and hop for the finish line. The first one over, wins. In the three-legged race one leg of each pair of participants are tied together and the duo must reach the finish line by synchronising their running, else they would trip over their own feet.
Pancha Dameema is an indoor game played in two groups, using five small shells, a coconut shell and a game board. Olinda is another indoor board game, normally played by two players. The board has nine holes, four beads each. The player who collects the most number of seeds win.
This is the verse sung while playing the game:
“Olinda thibenne koi koi dese,
Olinda thibenne bangali dese…
Genath hadanne koi koi dese,
Genath hadanne Sinhala dese…”
Six nabbed with over 100 kg of ‘Ice’
Happy New Year!
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