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Will CEB make an effort to comply?

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President’s target on renewable energy share in power generation:

by Dr Janaka Ratnasiri

IMPLEMENTING THE NEW POLICY DIRECTIVE OF PRESIDENT

As described in detail by the writer in an article published in The Island of 25 and 26 September, a press release issued by the President’s Media Division on 14.09.2020 said that the President had directed that plans should be made to generate 70% of the country’s overall electricity requirements from renewable energy (RE) sources by 2030. Apparently, this has been decided at a meeting that President had with the State Ministry of Solar, Wind and Hydro Power Generation Projects Development and the Power Minister at the Presidential Secretariat on the 14th September. The Press Release also said that The Government has made the promotion of renewable energy a top priority and President advised the Secretary to the President to issue a gazette calling for all the institutes to assist in this endeavor. See http://www.pmdnews.lk/70-of-electricity-demand-will-be-generated-using-renewable-energy-by-2030/.

However, as required by Section 5 of the Sri Lanka Electricity Act, No. 20 of 2009, to give effect to this policy decision, it has to be referred to the Cabinet to get its approval and incorporate it in the General Policy Guidelines in respect of the Electricity Industry. Thereafter, the PUCSL will be able to direct the CEB to comply with the new policy guidelines. Being a matter concerning RE share in power generation, the relevant cabinet paper will have to be presented to the Cabinet by the Power Minister. The general practice is for the Secretary to the Ministry to draft the paper in concurrence with the Minister. The question is how long the Power Ministry will take to attend to this.

 

CEB’S LONG-TERM GENERATION EXPANSION PLAN

According to the Sri Lanka Electricity (Amendment) Act No. 31 of 2013, any capacity addition to the country’s power system requires that the new plant shall comply with the provisions in the CEB’s Long-term Generation Expansion (LTGE) as well as the approval of the PUCSL and the Cabinet. The LTGE Plan for 2020-2039 prepared by the CEB in May 2019, when submitted to the PUCSL for approval, PUCSL returned it saying that it did not confirm to the Policy Guidelines of the Ministry on Electricity Industry as decided by the Cabinet in March 2019 which had specified a target of 50% as share of renewable energy (RE) sources to be achieved by 2030 and also saying that it did not include the externality costs.

In response, the CEB has revised its LTGE Plan and resubmitted it to the PUCSL in March 2020. (See https://www.pucsl.gov.lk/lcltgep-2020-2039/). However, the revised plan too has a RE share of only 35% as in the original draft and it has not been adjusted to achieve a target of 50% of RE by 2030, though requested by the PUCSL. By its letter dated 28.05.2020, the PUCSL has reiterated that the CEB Plan be revised to achieve the requisite target of 50% of RE share by 2030. However, with the President giving specific directions recently to generate 70% of electricity from renewable sources by 2030, there is an urgent need for the Policy Guideline document to be amended through a Cabinet decision to give effect to the President’s new directive. The CEB will then have to revise its LTGE Plan to comply with this policy.

 

BUILDING THE FIRST GAS POWER PLANT IN SRI LANKA

The Chairman of the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) was reported in the weekly Sunday Morning of 18 October 2020 as having said that the power purchase agreement (PPA) for the 300 MW combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant to be built at Kerawalapitiya selected after calling for tenders in 2016 would be signed once the Cabinet approval is received for it. (http://www.themorning.lk/300-mw-kerawalapitiya-lng-plant-ceb-awaits-cabinet-nod/). Though the CEB Chairman has said that approval of the Cabinet has been sought for the PPA to be entered into with the supplier of the CCGT power plant, according to the Sri Lanka Electricity Act No. 31 of 2013, once the project is approved by the Cabinet, the PPA needs the approval of the PUCSL only.

It may be noted that the CEB invited proposals through a 500-page Requests for Proposals (RFP) for this power plant in November 2016. However, the decision on the award of the tender took more than 3 years for reasons described in detail by the writer in several of his previous articles published in the Island including the one that appeared on 19.08.2019. The writer pointed out that the CEB should be held responsible for delaying this project.

The writer understands that the award of the tender to the local tenderer, Lakdhanavi Ltd, who had submitted the lowest tender was approved by the Cabinet last December. Further, soon after President Gotabaya Rajapaksa assumed office, he has instructed the award be made to this tenderer. It is therefore surprising that the CEB is seeking the approval of the Cabinet again for the project and in addition is seeking the approval of the AG’s Department for the PPA, which are not necessary according to the provisions in the Electricity Act.

According to a report appearing in the Sunday Times of 25.10.2020, the matter has run into a controversy as the AG’s Dept. has not granted its approval for the PPA. Apparently, some changes have been proposed by the tenderer whereas the RFP has not made provisions to make such changes after the bids are closed. Nevertheless, the CEB as well as the Ministry are in agreement to the changes and want to proceed with the signing of the PPA.

The report says that the Minister will submit a Cabinet Paper seeking its approval to authorize the CEB to sign the PPA with Lakdhanavi at the agreed levelized tariff and issue a letter of intent to build the power plant. (http://www.sundaytimes.lk/201025/news/power-plant-ministry-ignores-ags-advice-seeks-go-ahead-from-cabinet-421184.html). If the RFP did not have provision to make any changes after the bids are closed, it is a lapse on the part of the person who drafted the RFP and should have been rectified at the beginning and not brought up nearly 4 years later and cause further delay.

 

CEB’S IMMEDIATE PLANS FOR POWER SECTOR DEVELOPMENT

In the CEB Chairman’s statement given to the press, he has also given the following list of additional major thermal power plants planned to be built within the decade.

A 300 MW CCGT power plant operating with gas to be built by a local contractor

A 300 MW CCGT power plant operating with gas to be built jointly with India and Japan with financial support from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as a joint venture with CEB.

A 600 MW coal power plant as an extension to the existing coal power plant at Puttalam.

According to a report appearing in the Island of 26.10.2020, the CEB Chairman has stated that “the government would go ahead with the fourth power plant at the Norochcholai, as soon as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) was completed. He has further said that the Cabinet had already endorsed the plant’s fourth unit although the AG’s Department and the PUCSL were still studying the proposal. (https://island.lk/govt-to-go-ahead-with-fourth-coal-plant-at-norochcholai-once-eia-is-ready/).

In the writer’s above article, he pointed out that in order to achieve a target of high RE share in the energy mix for power generation, all the existing and proposed coal power plants and diesel operated generators will have to be removed and correspondingly increase the share of RE sources such as solar, wind and biomass power plants. In the President’s vision for clean energy, coal has no place, which unfortunately the utility has still not understood.

The meeting that the President had with the Power Ministry and Renewable Energy Ministry on the 14th October would have been attended by the CEB Chairman. Hence, he would have been aware of the President’s directive when he made his statement to the press last week proposing to build new coal power plants. In any case, the President announced his policy to give high priority for RE sources in his manifesto. It appears that the CEB is not keen in meeting the President’s target of achieving 70% share of power generation from renewable resources since it is planning to build more coal power plants which will make it impossible to achieve the President’s target.

 

BRINGING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) FOR THE NEW POWER PLANTS

The new CCGT power plant is required to operate with natural gas once it is available and until such time, it is permitted to operate with petroleum oil – fuel oil or diesel oil. In order to realize the President’s vision to have the existing CCGT plants converted to gas and to operate new CCGT plants to be built soon, it is necessary to have LNG available in the country by the time these power plants are built. However, the importing of LNG for operating the power plant has been a problem because there are no suitable locations to build a land terminal on the West coast close to Colombo and even mooring a floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU) off the West coast has been a problem.

 

But acquiring and operating a land terminal or a FSRU are complex affairs and under the current situation, the country lacks the necessary expertise to venture into such an exercise. Realizing this, India, Japan and South Korea offered assistance in this regard, but authorities here are somewhat reluctant to accept such assistance. As described previously, even the selection of a CCGT power plant on BOOT basis and signing its PPA could not be accomplished by our professionals even after a lapse of nearly four years despite the fact that several CCGT power plants are in operation in the country and CEB has entered into PPAs with hundreds of independent power producers in the past. Therefore, one cannot imagine how long our professionals would take to finalize a PPA for a hitherto unknown operation of a FSRU or an LNG land terminal.

There are several other options available for bringing LNG into the country. One is to use a mini-terminal at Dikkowita adjoining its fisheries harbour for which the Cabinet approval has already been granted. LNG is brought to the terminal in small shallow carriers which could be accommodated in Dikkowita terminal. After re-gasification, the gas could be taken to the power plant site using pipelines. The writer understands that Its commencement is awaiting the approval of the relevant regulatory authorities. It appears that there is no one in authority willing to take a decision on this matter.

Another option available is to make use of insulated standard containers conforming to specifications of International Standard Organization (ISO). These containers could be used both for transport and storage until the gas is used in the power plant. Once a container is brought to the Port in a standard container carrier, it is unloaded on to a trailer drawn by a prime mover and taken to a yard close to the power plant site. As and when required, a container is moved to a platform built close to the power plant and LNG is fed to a re-gasifier with storage from which the gas is fed to the power plant. There is no additional infrastructure required to import these containers other than what is already available within the Port. The only requirement is that it needs the clearance from the Ministry of Energy, Ports Authority, Motor Traffic Dept. and the Central Environmental Authority.

A third option is to negotiate with China who is building an LNG terminal within Hambantota Harbour to feed its 400 MW CCGT gas power plant currently being built there to supply power to industries in the Chinese Industrial Estate planned in Hambantota. If the capacity of this terminal is increased, the additional gas could be brought to the city in a pipeline laid along the highway reservation for operating the gas power plants planned near the city. In addition, the government should be able to provide a bunkering service to LNG operated vessels passing Hambantota for which Singapore is already building the necessary infrastructure.

A fourth option is to develop Trincomalee Harbour as a hub for natural gas distribution. LNG could be brought in large carriers to Trincomalee Harbour which has the ideal depth and area to build a large land terminal. Once re-gasified, gas could be stored and brought to the city and other load centres through pipe lines. Surplus gas could be supplied to South India who has been negotiating for decades to bring gas from suppliers in the region including Myanmar, Turkmenistan and Iran. Sri Lanka need not spend any capital on the project other than providing the land and regulatory mechanism while building the actual facility could be assigned to an investor with good track record.

 

CONCLUSION

With the President announcing his new policy on incorporation of 70% of power generation from renewable resources, the Ministry Policy Guidelines on Electricity Industry needs amendment through a Cabinet decision to give effect to this policy decision. Further, the CEB will have to revise its long-term generation expansion plan to align with this policy as its current plans only yield a RE share of only 35%.

Achieving a 70% target of renewable energy share in power generation by 2030 is feasible both technically and financially as pointed out by the writer in his recent articles which appeared in the Island of 25th and 26th September. However, the question is whether the CEB is willing to give up coal enabling it to meet the President’s target.

There are several options available for bringing LNG to the country to make achieving this target feasible. However, a suitable regulatory mechanism needs to be put in place before such mechanisms are implemented along with necessary facilities for monitoring of operations and ensuring safety protocols are adhered to following acceptable international procedure including guidelines laid down in international classified societies.

With the President giving the leadership for adopting cleaner technologies for power generation, it is essential that the relevant organizations, particularly the CEB, do their utmost to achieve his targets without giving lame excuses or its engineering staff threatening trade union action to get the President to change his policy as they have done in the past.



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THE DEMOCRATIC PARADOX OF SRI LANKA

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by R.J. de Silva, Attorney-at-law

In the distant past, there were many approaches to running civilizations. Cruel and ruthless dictators perpetrated assault on human rights, with impunity. The best known among these tyrants were ATTILA the HUN (AD 434-453 of present day Hungary ), GENGHIS KHAN ( 1206-1227 in Central Asia and China ), TIMUR ( 1370-1405 of modern Syria, Iran , Afghanistan) and QUEEN MARY alias ‘Bloody Mary’(1553-1558 in England ).

The combination of divine or absolute power and lack of contact with people made Dictators and Autocrats fascinating as well as terrifying. It is unclear if such characters suffered from mental illness as defined by current standards or whether their lives were marked by incidents that made them ruthless.

Hadenius and Teorell ( 2007 ) identified distinct dictatorships in monarchies, military regimes, one party regimes and restricted multiparty regimes. Studies have revealed that many dictatorial regimes, have democratic facades or some functioning democratic institutions, some holding regular elections and some having operational political parties and legislatures.

Dictatorships are a form of government in which all power remains in the hands of one person enjoying unlimited governmental power obtained by force or fraudulent means in sham elections. Dictatorships are often characterized by deaths or killings because of greed, hatred, pride and yearning for power. For instance, Hitler caused millions of deaths of Jews, Pol Pot killed millions of Cambodians to forcibly change its culture and Idi Amin was responsible for killing hundreds of thousands of Indians in Uganda.

Autocracy is very similar to a dictatorship. Here too, the supreme power lies in the hands of an individual with some supported by a slavish political party. Autocrats use little or no consultation when making decisions and exercise independent authority over policies and procedures. Their decisions are not subject to any legal restraints. The system suppresses public debate and makes criticism of the government, a criminal offence.

Like in dictatorships, autocracies also use force and punishments to those who disobey the leader’s commands. Autocrats manifest in many ways in despotism, oligarchy and fascism.

In the ideology of benevolent or enlightened despotism (popular in the 18th Century Europe),a absolute monarchs enacted a number of changes in political institutions and enlightened governance. Most of the despots started their careers as “freedom fighters”. Many of them amassed wealth abroad while the world was in denial.

An oligarchy is a form of government where power is in the hands of a small group of elite people, holding wealth or family or military prowess. Oligarchies are where a small minority rules the government and exercise power in corrupt ways. Such governments are frequently ruled by prominent families whose children are raised and coached as oligarchy’s heirs.

Fascism is a political ideology that elevates the nation and race above the individual and advocates a ‘Consolidated Autocratic government’ led by a dictator under strict economic and social regulation while suppressing the opposition. Fascist administrations were seen in Italy’s Fascist Party under Mussolini ( 1925-1945 )and the National Socialist German Worker’s Party ( Nazi Party ) under Adolf Hitler ( 1925-1943). Interestingly, the majority of the modern dictatorial regimes refer to their leaders by a variety of titles such as President, King and Prime Minister.

The 20th and 21st Century dictators and autocrats ruled with tyrannical power and never tolerated dissent. Some of them were VALDIMIR LENIN ( 1917-1924 Russia ), JOSEPH STALIN ( 1924-1953 Russia ), BENITO MUSSOLINI ( 1925-1945 Italy ), ADOLF HITLER ( 1933-1945 Germany ), FRANCISCO FRANCO ( 1939-1975 Spain ), MAO ZEDONG (1949-1976- China ), IDI AMIN (1971-1979 Uganda), AUGUSTO PINOCHET ( 1973- 1990 Chile ), GEOGIS PAPANDUPOULUS ( 1967-1974 Greece ), COL MUAMMER GADAFI ( 1969-2011 Libya ).

Dictator led countries are also associated with severe poverty, repression, decreasing health and life expectancy, famine, poor education and rising mental illnesses. Eight of these brutal and repressive autocracies which caused poverty in their countries were : KIM JONG UN since 2011 ( North Korea- 40% poverty ), NICOLAS MANDURO since 2013 with his Presidency in dispute ( Venezuela – 82% poverty ) , BASHA AL ASSAD since 2020 ( Syria -82% poverty ), PAUL KAGME since March 2000 (Rwanda -39.1% poverty ), RECEP ERDOGAN since 2014 ( an elected President in Turkey- 21.9% poverty ), and NGUEMA MBASOSGO longest standing President in the world since 1979 for 40 years to date ( Equatorial Guinea -76. 8% poverty). Two of them – PIERRE NKURUNZIZA ( Burundi ) and IDRIS DEBBY ( Chad ) died in June 2020 April 2021 leaving 64.6% and 46.7% poverty respectively, in their impoverished countries. However, VADIMIR PUTIN (since 2000 Russia ) and XI JING PING ( since 2013 China ) are leading economic powers, but these two countries have also never tolerated dissent.

It is common to see dictators and autocrats appointing prominent members of armed forces in civilian positions and show disrespect towards the independence of the judiciary and freedom for the media. Such systems and their rulers show no concern for human rights or dissent. For instance in China, when a popular national movement for democracy was precipitated by Chinese youth and students calling for greater accountability, constitutional due process, freedom of the Press, speech and association drawing about one million people to the Tiananman Square and about 400 other cities, China’s Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping violently suppressed the movement in one day on June 4, 1986, similar to what happened in Rathupaswela in Sri Lanka, subsequently.

The suppression of the Pro- Democracy movement by the use of the army was followed by the wide spread arrest and deportation of foreign journalists and the strict control of the Press. In Russia, VADIMIR PUTIN, characterized his rule with endemic corruption, jailing political opponents, intimidating media freedom and free and fair elections. When Russia invaded Ukrain in February 2022, Putin ordered the arrest of thousands of its own citizens for protesting against the war. Tsarist minded Putin decreed that the independent media and journalists will be will be given 15 year jail terms if the cruel destruction of Ukrain’s infrastructure, historical monuments, hospitals and bombing civilian targets are reported to the Russian people.

Dictators and Autocrats are prone to create personality based autocracies surrounded by family members. Family bandyism weakened State infrastructure in Sri Lanka after 2005. The Rajapaksa family based autocracy weakened the State, democratic practices and institutionalized corruption. Family members and lackeys of Iraq and Libyan leaders weakened the State apparatus of Iraq and Libya. The weakened States of Iraq and Libya were such that, it failed to produce nuclear weapons as planned, to meet the threat of Israeli expansion. Saddam Hussain ( Iraq ) appointed his son- in- law and notoriously brutal Hussein Kamil, to fast track the production of nuclear weapons. That resulted in scientists in Iraq intentionally further slowing down the programme and nicknamed it the “unclear power”.

In contrast, the tyrant Gadaffi ( Libya ) was surrounded by ‘yes men’ and female bodyguards and an ego trip as a result of which, had no inclination to produce scientists and engineers for the country capable of dealing with complex technicalities associated with the production of nuclear power.

Dictators and Autocrats are prone to interfere with the sovereignty of other countries. Chinese dictator XI JING PING despite being an economic power, is accused of subtle problematic debt trap diplomacy since 2018 in many poor countries in Africa and Asia ruled by corrupt and mismanaging leaders. PUTIN is facing credible allegations of gross violation of human rights in Ukrain and widespread calls for investigation leading up to a trial for war crimes.

Citizen tired of being oppressed and controlled made widespread demands for democracy and the creation of independent Nation States in Europe. Those revolutions popularly known as the ‘Peoples Spring’ in 1848, brought upheavals in Europe mainly due to the dissatisfaction with monarchies, which were at the helm of each country. The revolution started in Sicily and spread to France, Netherlands, Italy and Hungary, Austrian Empire, German Empire and the whole of Europe. Monarchies were replaced by Republics. Old leaders were forced to grant liberal constitutions.

Caught off guard, aristocracy and their allies plotted to return to power and many leaders of the revolutions went into exile. In the decades after 1848, little had changed. Many historians considered the “People’s Spring” a failure, due to the seemingly lack of permanent structural changes. Karl Marx, disappointed with the bourgeois character of the revolution, expressed the theory of a permanent revolution according to which the proletariat should strengthen democratic bourgeois revolutionary forces, until the proletariat itself was ready to seize power.

The Autumn of Nations between 1981 and 1991 (143 years after the political upheavals in Europe), brought down the former Soviet Union (USSR) which was beset with economic stagnation, mismanagement and excessive dogmatism of the Communist Party. It disintegrated USSR without bloodshed to endorse democratic reforms in their countries. Poland was the first to shrug off communism in 1989 after almost a decade of struggles. It was followed by Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria and Romania.

Another wave of pro- democracy uprisings began in Muslim countries such as Morocco, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Bahrain in 2010/2011. It was named the “Arab Spring” and started in December 2010 from Tunisia. However, not all the nations that witnessed such social and political upheaval changed for the better. Some of the very same leaders who fought for democracy in the Muslim world (and in many other parts of the world), presided over the gradual decline of democratic rule in their countries.

In Egypt for example, despite the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak, authoritarian rule returned after the controversial election of Morsi in 2012 leading to a coup by his Defence Minister Abdel Fatah El-Sisi in 2013 and he remains in power till today. Libya, since Col Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown violently in October 2011, has remained in a state of civil war with two opposing governments ruling separate regions of the country. The civil war that began in Syria with the Arab Spring has lasted for several years due to ISIS declaring a CALIPHATE governed by Islamic Law in North East of Syria. The ISIS has been effectively defeated, but the oppressive regime of BASHAR AL ASSAD continues with Russian support.

Democracy

In modern times, generations have rebelled against dictatorships and autocrdacy and fought for human rights and respect for the Rule of law. DEMOCRACY is the method of rule most countries have begun to approve. Although democracy is vulnerable it is very resilient. Mahatma Gandhi said: “Democracy and violence go ill together. States that are today minimally democratic have either to become frankly totalitarian or if they must become fully democratic, they must become courageously nonviolent” and Langstone Hughes ( 1902 – 1967 ) wrote “Democracy will not come today, this year, not ever through compromise and fear. I tire so of hearing people say, let’s things take its own course. Tomorrow is another day. I do not need any freedom when I am dead. I cannot live on tomorrow’s bread.”

To be continued

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My intention was to create a safe place, a place without judgment says Beyonce

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Beyonce, shown attending the 2016 MTV Video Music Awards, is slated to release a new album in July 2022

Beyonce’s soaring vocals have their place on “Renaissance” but it’s the rhythmic, urgent call to the dance floor that stands out, with a tapestry of influences paying homage to pioneers of funk, soul, r Six years after she shook the culture with her powerful visual album “Lemonade,” Beyonce’s seventh solo studio work is a pulsating, sweaty collection of club tracks aimed at liberating a world consumed by ennui.

Beyonce, the paradigm-shifting music royal whose art has long established her as one of entertainment’s seminal stars, released her hotly anticipated album “Renaissance,” a house-tinged dance record primed for its summer needle drop

Eminently danceable and rife with nods to disco and EDM history — Queen Bey interpolates Donna Summer and Giorgio Moroder along with James Brown and the archetypal synth line from “Show Me Love,” the 1990s house smash by Robin S — the 16-song album is poised to reign over the season.

Prior to releasing her opus Beyonce had dropped “Break My Soul” to acclaim, setting the tone for her house revival that highlighted the Black, queer and working-class artists and communities who molded the electronic dance genre, which first developed in Chicago in the 1980s.The megastar has indicated that “Renaissance” is but the first act of three, in a project she said she recorded over the course of three years during the pandemic.

“Creating this album allowed me a place to dream and to find escape during a scary time for the world,” Beyonce on her website.

“It allowed me to feel free and adventurous in a time when little else was moving,” she continued. “My intention was to create a safe place, a place without judgment. A place to be free of perfectionism and overthinking.”

“A place to scream, release, feel freedom. It was a beautiful journey of exploration.”

– ‘Expansive listening journey’ –

In the weeks preceding the release of “Renaissance” Beyonce teased the album with the steady stream of glossy, curated portraits of herself that over the past decade have become her signature.But though she’s received wide praise for keeping the world of music videos on the cutting edge, Beyonce put out her latest record sans visuals (they’re promised at a later date.)

In a statement her label Parkwood Entertainment and Columbia Records lent insight into the decision, saying the artist “decided to lead without visuals giving fans the opportunity to be limitless in their expansive listening journey.”

Beyonce’s soaring vocals have their place on “Renaissance” but it’s the rhythmic, urgent call to the dance floor that stands out, with a tapestry of influences paying homage to pioneers of funk, soul, rap, house and disco.

“Unique / That’s what you are /Stilettos kicking vintage crystal off the bar,” she sings on “Alien Superstar,” which samples Right Said Fred’s “I’m Too Sexy” in a sonic ode to voguing, the stylized house dance that emerged from the Black LGBTQ ballroom culture of the 1960s.

That song closes by sampling a speech from Barbara Ann Teer, who founded Harlem’s National Black Theatre.

On “Virgo’s Groove” Beyonce gets raunchy with an unabashed sex anthem, adding a titular nod to her star sign — the Virgo turns 41 on September 4.Along with a smattering of deep house cuts as well as tributes to gospel, funk and soul, Beyonce’s collaborators on “Renaissance” include Nile Rodgers, Skrillex, Nigerian singer Tems, Grace Jones, Pharrell and, of course, her rap mogul husband Jay-Z.

– Album leaks, Beyhive stings –

Beyonce has long bucked music’s conventional wisdom, and is credited with popularizing the surprise album drop.She later made waves by releasing “Lemonade” — the groundbreaking work that chronicled her own emotional catharsis following infidelity within a generational and racial context — first on cable television, and limiting its streaming availability.

Since “Lemonade” she’s released “Homecoming,” a live album and film featuring footage from her mythic 2018 Coachella performance, as well as the critically acclaimed song “Black Parade” — which dropped amid mass protests ignited by the police murder of George Floyd.

That song saw the megastar, who first gained fame as a member of Destiny’s Child, become the winningest woman ever at the Grammys with 28, and the gala’s most decorated singer.But for all her cultural clout and an indisputable throne in music’s pantheon, Beyonce’s songs have not seen the same commercial dominance as other contemporary global stars — her last number one solo hit was 2008’s “Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It).”

That’s poised to change with “Renaissance.”

The album’s release saw Queen Bey return to music business as usual, deploying pre-sales, a lead single drop, a tracklist and polished social media fodder.But it wasn’t without a hitch — in the days prior to the official release, the album leaked online.

Bey thanked her hive for waiting, and added that “I appreciate you for calling out anyone that was trying to sneak into the club early.”

“We are going to take our time and Enjoy the music,” the megastar told her fandom. “I love you deep.”–AFP

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Are we to burn borrowed dollars just to cook a meal?

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Eng. Parakrama Jayasinghe

How many of the consumers who opt to use LPG for cooking, realize that they are burning the dollars borrowed with difficulty, just to cook a meal, while the use of LPG hardly brings in any foreign exchange? The reality is that while the country is struggling to raise the dollars even through loans to import adequate supplies of transport fuel, taking loans to import LPG, which will not result in any Forex earnings could hardly be considered ethical or a priority.

The CBSL data below shows the immense amount of dollars drained out of the country in the past years, purely due to the high powered promotions to coerce and trap the consumers to this non sustainable consumption.

With the escalation of world market prices and the depreciation of the rupee , the impact in rupee terms in year 2022, if we are to import the same quantities, would be much greater as estimated. The Governor of the Central Bank has quite rightly stated that

Sri Lanka will have to manage with available dollar inflows, not bridging finance: CB Governor

By Economy Next • Issue #391

However, the attempt by the government appears to be determined to continue this practice at whatever cost and detriment to the economy, to perpetuate a practice foisted on the people by unscrupulous officials, and thereby try and pretend that the gas queues are over. This has been achieved for the present, thanks to a further loan of $ 70 Million from the World Bank, to import 30,000 tons of LPG recently. Perhaps the daily visuals of the gas queues, that the electronic media took pleasure in broadcasting, may also have pushed the government to this short sighted move.

The other side of the coin is that, before the arrival of this load of LPG, while the empty cylinders remained in the queues, the people were absent. No doubt they sought and found alternative means of cooking their meals, albeit with less convenience than using gas. Obviously they would also have been helped in this by the intrepid efforts of many Sri Lankan entrepreneurs who designed and manufactured cooking stoves to use either fuel wood or charcoal, which do not require any dollars.

The novel stoves are yet to be available in adequate numbers in the market, although the manufacturers are running long waiting lists. As such some consumers may have been forced to revert to direct use of fire wood, accepting the disadvantage of smoke and soot. But Sri Lanka has already introduced most acceptable models of cooking stoves to use wood and wood charcoal, devoid of any smoke and soot. These have proved to be acceptable alternatives to the use of gas stoves for the daily cooking needs, even in high rise apartments.

The reality is that the consumers have recognized the fact that the government or the officials cannot be relied upon to provide their essential needs, and their salvation lies in seeking indigenous alternative solutions themselves which have proven to be equally effective.

But shouldn’t this positive change have been noted by the authorities and fostered with the same vigour with which the use of the imported LPG was promoted? What about the media? They diverted their cameras to the petrol and diesel queues, obviously the emerging negative scene of news value.

The officials of the Litro gas company are heard to give assurances of continued supply of LPG in the future, while they admit the loan received is adequate for supplies up to October only. According to their web page their customer base exceeds 4,000,000. The consumption in 2020 was 437,000 tons, purchased at a cost of $ 236 Million. By now it would exceed 450,000 tons annually. How far would the $ 70 Million loan go at present day gas prices? What happens next? Are they hoping to get yet another loan, when the Ministry of Power and Energy is forced to restrict the issue of essential transport fuels to a minimum, due to lack of dollars? Isn’t this a willful deception of the consumers?

Therefore, the discerning consumers are well advised to consider the following points in their decision making for the future.

  • = The import of LPG is possible only through loans which will have to be paid by our children and grandchildren
  • = Continued dependence on LPG is a never ending problem and will need more and more loans with no chance of the LPG used leading to any foreign exchange earnings
  • = The loans taken have to be repaid by the entire country ,while the benefit is enjoyed by only a limited section of the society, which is morally unacceptable
  • = For those fortunate to get even a cylinder of LPG, adopting the already available options of stoves using either charcoal or wood , for the cooking of the main meals , would substantially reduce the monthly expenditure as shown below. This would preserve the LPG cylinder bought with difficulty, to be available for any limited usage in between and for any emergencies for many months
  • = The consumers can be the drivers of the change which would reduce the demand for LPG and thus save the country millions of dollars year after year
  • = This would create a significant indigenous industry whereby the millions of dollars sent out would flow to the local industrialists and rural communities supplying the charcoal and wood. Even a 50% reduction of the imports could result in a local industry worth over Rs 80 Billion annually.

These are indeed practical and worthwhile contributions to resolve a national problem. Are each of us ready to commit to extend the use of our LPG cylinder to last several months, thereby reducing the demand to 50% or even to 25% in the coming year? This should be considered a national duty by all of us.

Just to assuage any fears of deforestation, contrary to popular belief, Sri Lanka already has adequate renewable and sustainable biomass resources formally counted as over 12,000,000 tons annually, contributing to 50% of the total primary energy demand. Simultaneously, a practical program of social reforestation has to be encouraged where the user of charcoal, plants wherever he can, plants trees to compensate for the charcoal he uses. In this way the next generation will also be assured of their own sustainable supply with absolutely no impact on the forest cover. A plant that can be recommended is Gliricidia Sepium among others, which can be harvested in two years, and thereafter every eight months.

(The writer is past president of the Bio Energy Association of Sri Lanka www.bioenergysrilanka.lk
Email: parajayasinghe@gmail.com)

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