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Solution to water deficit in NWP and NCP




Former Section Engineer (Dam), Kothmale Hydro-Power Project and International Dams Consultant, Melbourne, Australia

(Based on an interview with Srilal D. Perera (Construction Project Manager), Melbourne, Australia)

Sri Lanka is now a middle-income country with consistently high economic growth over the recent years. The government’s public investment plans include several development plans and projects for the coming years, to further accelerate economic growth and promote social and human development.

Being a tropical island located close to the equator, Sri Lanka is highly susceptible to adverse effects of climate change. The Global Climate Risk Index (CRI) 2018, which indicates how countries have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, earthquakes, heat waves etc.,) ranks Sri Lanka as the fourth among the most affected countries of the world. This is an alarming situation. Adverse effects of climate change are evident from the severe and long duration droughts as well as severe flooding occurring almost every year in several parts of the country. Water availability is becoming more variable and uncertain, even as demand for bulk water supplies for agriculture, new industries and tourism and clean water for drinking increases. Studies confirm that these impacts are likely to exacerbate, and the wetter areas of the country would eventually become wetter, and the drier areas drier and drier.

The government of Sri Lanka has taken steps to address these challenges with the successful completion and commissioning of Moragahakanda and Kalu Ganga reservoirs, and the ongoing and planned construction of dams and associated feeder canals, hydraulic facilities, Hydro Power enhancements to comply with Paris Convention that His Excellency the President of Sri Lanka has consented under renewable energy promotion in Sri Lanka; as well as, other water resources development investments envisaged under the Public Investment Plan (PIP). The Government is also implementing several other programs and investments to mitigate flooding and flood damages in several river basins which are vulnerable to flooding.

Planning and investments in additional water storages, and transfer infrastructure to transfer water from water surplus river basins of the wet zone to water deficit river basins, will be a major priority to meet the growing demands and challenges of climate change impacts. Additional investments will be required on a priority basis for developing water resources to provide potable water supplies to people and areas currently affected by chronic kidney disease.

These new investments on water resources will demand diligent planning, protection, management and allocation of water for multiple uses and users within river basin context. As the water infrastructure expands through additional infrastructure bringing water to water deficit geographic areas, to new and current groups of farmers, large and small industries, urban and rural drinking water consumers, mechanisms will be required for diligent planning, allocation, and monitoring of bulk water supplies from the major water conveyance systems beyond the mandate and the role played by the existing Water Management Secretariat (WMS) of the Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka (MASL).


The Project

With the present climatic uncertainty, North Western Province (NWP) and the North Central Province (NCP) are among the most affected areas without reliable supply of water for irrigation, about 40,000 ha, and ensuring domestic water supply to families in such provinces. Major diversions of this water are supplied through the Polgolla tunnel (875 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) / Year) for both the seasons of Yala and Maha. This volume of diversion is entirely depending on the storage above the Polgolla barrage. At present only the Kotmale reservoir with 174 MCM supports to regulate this water. However, the Polgolla tunnel is functioned only with 60% of its capacity, and the tunnel has additional capacity to divert around 400 MCM / Year, if the upstream storage is available.

Therefore, a proposal for increasing the height of the Kotmale dam to increase the retention capacity by additional 250 MCM would be one of the feasible proposals to solve the water deficits in NWP and NCP. Also, the increased head and volume would boost the hydro-power generation by about 20%, once the supplementary water starts to pass through Kotmale and Ukuwela power stations.

The Kotmale Hydropower Project was one of the first projects taken up under the Accelerated Mahaweli Development Program (AMDP). It was the most upstream among those headworks in the Mahaweli river basin, and exploited the hydropower potential of Kotmale Oya, a major right bank tributary of the Mahaweli Ganga. The Kotmale dam site is at Kadadora, located about 6.6km upstream of the confluence of Kotmale Oya with Mahaweli Ganga, where the river forms a narrow and deep valley with steep banks. The powerhouse is underground and situated in the belly of the Atabage mountains, about 6.4km downstream of the Kotmale Oya – Mahaweli Ganga confluence.

The basic elements of the Kotmale Hydro-Power Project are a concrete face rockfill dam (87m high and 600m long) having the active storage capacity of 174 MCM and a tunnel system leading to 201MW power plants with outfall to the Mahaweli Ganga. The primary function is the generation of electric power. Additional benefits arise from an increase in the amount of irrigation water available at the Polgolla diversion, as well as mitigation of floods in the Gampola area as a result of the regulation of flows in the Kotmale Oya. The Project construction work commenced in 1979 and was completed in 1985, with financial assistance provided by the Government of Sweden.

The dam has been provided with basic facilities for future rising, to three alternative levels 715m, 725m and to 735m above the sea level (capacity of 370 MCM at 728m FSL). The provision for the extension of foundation from the downstream face, and the land around the reservoir rim up to 735 m elevation, have already been acquired since the beginning to enable the future upgrading.

However, the raising of Kotmale dam would be an engineering challenge and need in depth study to check the stability of the Concrete Face Rockfill Dam (CFRD), during and after construction, instrumentation, reliability of foundation and geology, supplementary grout curtain, spill gates and chute with elevated ogee (Flip bucket), added pressure head to tunnels, height of the surge shaft and power station equipment etc., Also, the heightening of the dam shall not affect the ongoing annual supply of water to NCP, as it would generate critical social problems and, therefore, the live construction method statement with the active storage of water available for downstream use would be the most practical approach.

Therefore, a comprehensive feasibility study shall be originated to find a solution for the critical water deficit in NWP and NCP, and for harnessing addition of renewable energy, considering above referred to facts at earliest possible.

The original consultant of this project was Sir William Halcrow & Partners (Halcrow Water) of the United Kingdom (UK); and Skanska (Sweden) with joint collaboration of Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau (CECB) , then local Consultant to the Mahaweli Ministry, had been involved in a preliminary feasibility study, the project design and supervisions during the first construction phase of this development in the year 1979 to 1984 period. Hence, the re-engagement of previously involved qualified consultants would be highly recommended for future studies and development, as well as the previous data, knowhow and experience that retained with them would be essential for accomplishing this challenging task.

In addition, consideration should be given to appointing a Panel of Experts from local & overseas professional bodies, who have extensive knowledge and experience in CFRDs, gates and valves, geology, geotechnical engineering, instrumentation and dam safety.

Consideration should be given to employing a minimum number of expatriate engineers and a maximum number of local engineers.



Following studies are needed to execute to enhance the project more feasible to meet the challenges in climate change, and the supply of more renewable hydro-energy, especially from the power plants newly built in Mahaweli Basin from the Kelani water.

1. Raising Kotmale Dam (15, 25, 30m). Note all lands are already acquired and there is no social impact;

2. Check the possibility of building dams at locations 11, 12, 14 etc., in Master Plan above Polgolla near Ginigathhena (Koladeniya, Carolina, Trapalga, Rosalla, to increase the retention above Polgolla, as the water about 1,000 MCM / Year is spilling down Polgolla during flood;

3. Enhance the capacity of Kandalama-Huruluwewa Canal to carry about 200 MCM / Year, at a rate of 10m3/second;

4. Built a new tunnel from Bowatenna Reservoir to Dambulu Oya where the capacity is 30m3/second. This would enhance the deficit of water in NWP (150 MCM / Year) and the water need in Anuradhapura;

5. Expand the capacity of power generation in Ukuwela Powerhouse adding one unit; and

6. Revisit the canal availability from Kalawewa to Nachhaduwa, Tissawewa and Basawakulana etc. via Yoda Ela.

7. A supplementary study to check the availability of water from Kelani Basin to Mahaweli Basin would further enhance this proposal.

The writer has B.Sc. Eng. (Hons), M.Eng. (Structural Engineering & Construction), MASCE, MIE Aust, CPEng NER, APEC Engineer, IntPE(Aus).



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A journalist of courage and deep conviction



Robert Fisk (12 July 1946 – 30 October 2020) was a legendary journalist and author who penned down meticulously the sufferings of millions of people reporting not from secondary sources or keeping a safe distance from the theatres of the war but from the battle front, endangering his own life. He was attacked many times, once even with the possibility of losing his life.


During the period of the Cold War, North America and Europe never became war zones and the battle for ideological domination shifted to the non-European world primarily West Asia (Middle East) and Southeast Asia. This led to untold suffering for ordinary people in these areas. Whereas Southeast Asia has now settled for a relatively peaceful order, many regions of West Asia are still riven by strife and uncertainty.

Robert Fisk (12 July 1946 – 30 October 2020) was a legendary journalist and author who penned down meticulously the sufferings of millions of people reporting not from secondary sources or keeping a safe distance from the theatres of the war but from the battle front, endangering his own life. He was attacked many times, once even with the possibility of losing his life.

Fisk’s journalistic career began with covering the conflict in Northern Ireland as a London Times correspondent in 1972. His reports annoyed British authorities as it tilted towards the republicans. He earned in the process a massive following. Out of his reports he published a book The Point of No Return: The Strike which Broke the British in Ulster in 1975. In his Ph.D. thesis he explained the issues connected with Irish neutrality during the Second World War. Later on, he took up Irish citizenship.

He also had a stint in Portugal during the 1974 Carnation Revolution (April Revolution), which not only ended the authoritarian regime in Portugal but also led to the demise of Portuguese colonialism in Africa. But the most important evolution in his journalistic career was his appointment by The Times as its Middle East correspondent in 1976.

For the next forty-four years from Beirut where he witnessed fifteen years of Lebanese Civil War (1975-90), he reflected on the unfoldment of history in the region full of bloody conflicts, ethnic cleansing, wars, revolutions and uprisings. His parting of ways with The Times came in 1988, when he sent a report on the US warship Vincennes having shot down an Iranian civil airline. Fisk’s scoop was not published because by the time the report reached the newspaper editorial office the ownership of the newspaper had gone to media Mughal Robert Murdoch. He was also advised to take up more balanced reporting. Fisk switched to left-leaning British newspaper The Independent, where he spent the rest of his journalistic career (His contributions to both newspapers were re-published in The Statesman.)

As part of his journalistic requirements Fisk travelled extensively. That included Algeria, Libya, the Balkans and Turkey, strife torn homelands of Kurds and Afghanistan. What made his reporting different from other journalistic accounts was his understanding of both colonial and postcolonial history in comprehending contemporary conflicts in West Asia. He was trenchant in his criticism of the Western powers led by the USA and Israel as their policies and machinations had humiliated local people fuelling their anger.

Even when he was grievously injured after being attacked by Afghan refugees in Pakistan he wrote that this “brutality entirely the product of others, of us – of me who had armed their struggle against the Russians, and ignored their pain and laughed at their civil war and then armed and paid them again for the war for civilization” just a few miles away and then bowled their homes and ripped up their families and called them ‘collateral damage’.

In 1982, Fisk was amongst the few journalists to enter the Palestinian refugee camps in Sabra and Shatila where more than a thousand unarmed people were massacred by pro-Christian, Lebanese militia in the presence of Israeli armed personnel. He described this as a war crime. In 1993 in Sudan, he was the first Western journalist to interview Osama Bin Laden, whom he subsequently met twice. The title of his article was “Anti-Soviet Warrior puts his army on the road to peace”.

Laden in the first interview revealed that he was a construction engineer and an agriculturalist. But instead of taking the road of peace he became the most dreaded terrorist who successfully planned and meticulously executed the killing of 3,000 innocent people in the destruction of the Twin Towers in New York in 2001. Laden praised Fisk for his neutrality. The latter tried to remain neutral but severely condemned the brutal attack and also reminded the need to highlight and investigate the motivation of the attackers.

Fisk examined in detail the Israeli-Palestinian animosity, the US led invasion of Kuwait and Iraq and the US entry into Afghanistan. He was critical of the former as he pointed out that there were no weapons of mass destruction. The US bombing of Kosovo under NATO auspices and other involvements of the USA in the Middle East were examined critically by him. Though he was critical of the USA, he was a frequent visitor and popular speaker in the USA. He analysed war but despised it as he was a proclaimed pacifist.

Regarding being neutral as a journalist, Fisk had this to say “if you watch wars the old ideas of journalism that have to be neutral and take nobody’s side is rubbish. As a journalist you have got to be neutral and unbiased on the side of those who suffer”. His magnum opus The Great War for Civilization (2005) chronicled critically the relationship of former colonial powers with the ordinary people of Arabia. His journalistic outpouring was always controversial and divisive. Some even blamed him for self-promotion and for being biased.

The most serious controversy came up during the ongoing civil war in Syria. Fisk accompanied the Syrian army while fighting the Islamic State (ISIS) and Syrian independent militias. However, though he was critical and condemned the Syrian army’s atrocities before, he exonerated President Assad in 2018 for lack of evidence of using chemical weapons in Duma. A follow up book to the Great War for civilization would be published posthumously which would cover the period of US intervention in Iraq to present times.

Fisk was winner of many journalistic awards and is widely revered in the Arabian Peninsula. He was a critic like IF Stone. His journalistic accounts were not based on official briefing as these did not fully and properly reflect the actual situation. His account of the protracted civil war in Lebanon was published as Pity the Nation, a phrase that he borrowed from Khalil Gibran (18831931). He referred to reporting that was not based on first hand accounts as ‘Hotel Journalism’. He looked to journalism as search for truth and his enduring legacy is the dedication of his entire journalistic career to search for roots of conflicts and war.

(The Statesman/ANN)

The writer is a retired Professor of Political Science, University of Delhi

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Who cares for our dumb friends?



On 29/11/20 Al Jazeera had shown ‘Kavaan’ being transferred to Cambodia, where he would live the rest of his life in a sanctuary for elephants. Kaavan was a gift from Sri Lanka to Pakistan. I understand he had been very cruelly handled and a certain group had been agitating for some time for his release. Firstly, why should we gift our elephants to anyone? Secondly who owns the elephants in the wild and Pinnawela? Is it the party in power who owns these elephants? Elephants are gifted to countries and places of worship, and most times the treatment meted out to the elephants is disgusting!

I wondered why Kaavan was not brought back to Sri Lanka. We are supposed to be very religious, but the way we treat our animals is shocking.

Recently a dog had been injured by sniffing a “hakka patas” and his mouth was blown off. The dog was a female and pregnant. Fortunately, some kind organization took charge of the dog. It had five pups, and a couple of days later passed away. Fortunately, the pups are taken care of. Cruelty to animals goes on daily, but unfortunately there are no laws for punishment. The existing laws go back to the year dot!

Once again appeal to the President to have the Animal Welfare Bill’ passed as soon as possible. I am aware, Mr. President, that you have enough on your plate, but I am sure some sort of priority will be given to our “dumb friends”



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China has overtaken the US – says IMF



It was expected but not so swiftly, possibly the Covid-19 has expedited what was inevitable. A report published in “The Our Asian Times” on 1st December 2020, titled ” IMF Admits China Has Overtaken The US As The World’s Largest Economy; But Why Is The Media Silent?” says the world has to wake up to the new reality – China is the undisputed new economic super power.

In the past, economists have traditionally been using the index called MER, which means Market Exchange Rate, to calculate the GDP when comparing the economic performance of different countries. This method has been viewed with extreme suspicion as it doesn’t reflect the real figures because it underestimates the buying power of currencies of many countries. More reliable and now widely accepted yardstick called the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) which is used by IMF, enables you to compare how much you can buy for your money in different countries.

To explain this further, according to the traditional exchange rate, one US Dollar is equivalent to 6.9 Chinese Yuan, but 6.9 Yuan can buy in China more than one US Dollar in America. On this basis 99 trillion Yuan the Chinese produced in 2019, is equal to USD 26 trillion which is much greater than the USD 21.4 trillion America actually produced in 2019. This is the PPP method which is said to be better than the MER method to compare economies.

The IMF is clear in its report, it says “PPP eliminates differences in price levels between economies and thus compares national economies in terms of how much each nation can buy with its own currency at the prices items sell locally. Using the PPP method, the Chinese economy is determined to be USD 24.2 trillion compared to America’s USD 20.8 trillion”. This is a huge difference, for USD 3.4 trillion is lot of money.

After the IMF, the CIA also decided to switch from MER to PPP in its Annual Assessment of National Economies. The CIA Fact Book notes “The official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China’s output; GDP at the official exchange rate (MERGDP) substantially understates the actual level of China’s situation, GDP at purchasing power parity provides the best measure for comparing output across countries”

Everybody knows that IMF is pro-US in its approach in matters of global finance and economy. In the 1970s, the IMF and the World Bank were restructured to serve neoliberalism which the US and Europe embraced and forced on the rest of the world, letting loose the market forces which have really ravaged the economies of the poor countries. Therefore the IMF could be considered a tool of the US and Western powers. It would not dare lie regarding the economy of its biggest sponsor. The CIA is the central intelligence service of the USA and it is advising the US government about the seriousness of the problem due to Chinese ascendancy. CIA too , will not give wrong information to the US government.

One cannot be surprised by the Chinese phenomenon. It’s economy has been growing at the mind-boggling rate of 10% in the last 30 years. Only the Covid-19 succeeded in bringing it down and that too, by a small margin. China is expected to contribute 1/4 th of the global growth next year, mainly in the manufacturing sector.

Joseph Needham who had studied ancient Chinese science and technology, has commented on the capability of the Chinese and the uniqueness of their culture.. The methods adopted by the Chinese have bewildered Western social scientists and economists. Some believe that it is the habit of thrift of the people that had contributed to the economic growth as the rate of savings in China ranges around 25%. Others think it is due to the concept of Township and Village Enterprises that has been adopted recently. However, Needham and his associates think the close affinity between the Chinese people and the government to be the secret of their success.

The world has to come to terms with China. The Western countries cannot continue to treat China as an outcast and do its utmost to undermine its development and spread of influence. Australia for instance, supports all such efforts of the US though China is its biggest trade partner. It had agreed with the US policies regarding sanctions on China and implemented similar measures, but complains to the WTO when China retaliates.

One hopes, for the sake of world peace and prosperity that these big powers would stop their childish rivalry and work together. One hopes the new US President Joe Biden would change their policy towards China. He must realize that greater benefit would result to the US, as well as the world by adopting a lesser confrontational approach. If the US and China come to be lesser rivals and greater trade partners the rest of the world could be expected to be more peaceful and conciliatory. Middle East could be less of a cauldron, South Asian rivals may mend fences. China itself would be less belligerent in its neighborhood.

More money would be available everywhere for health and education, employment and culture as the defense budget could be cut as there is no need to spend on weapons as there is no threat of war.

But is this wishful thinking. Would weapons industry allow Biden, even if he wants to, to make peace when their economy, employment, growth and power depends on the perpetuation of a war situation cold or hot in the world.

N. A. de S. Amaratunga

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