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So What is Christmas ?



Remembered Yesterdays

by J. Godwin Perera

This year it was a quiet, subdued, Christmas. The restrictions imposed to control the Covid 19 pandemic made sure of that. We were confined, constrained and constricted. Such controls were absolutely necessary and no one but the pitifully ignorant or stubbornly indifferent would have protested. Even the Church endorsed such steps and rigidly enforced the Covid -19 Safety Protocols. But there was a time not so long ago when Christmas was more than just a date on the calendar. It was a season. It was one long season of celebrations, revelries, festivities. The season was ushered in during the very first week of December as the airwaves replayed the Golden Oldies of Christmas. ‘White Christmas’, ‘Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer,’ ‘ I saw Mummy kissing Santa Clause,’ ‘Jingle Bells.,’ ‘Little Drummer Boy’ etc…etc…. Then came the shops announcing a ‘Pre- Christmas Sale’ By mid – December the sign boards were changed to ‘Christmas Sale.’ Same merchandise. Bigger discounts. Worked out on higher basic prices. The shop keepers sure knew what works. Cotton wool would be liberally pasted all around the show case windows to signify snow. There would also be rigifoam cut- outs of Christmas trees, bells, and sleighs drawn by reindeer. A nondescript person from the neighborhood would be conscripted, given a Santa Clause cloak and cap and instructed to stand outside ringing a bell. Not to be outdone the Super- Market checkout girls would be given Santa Clause caps to wear. Some even had a shapely girl wearing a mini-skirted version of the Santa Clause cloak and a cap jauntily placed on her head to assist customers. It was a Christmassy version of Customer Care. Even the pavement hawkers raucously joined in the excitement of the season selling artificial Christmas trees and decorations at prices which the established shops could not match. TV added millions of rupees worth of creative commercials to the seasonal revelries, many depicted tubby Santa Clauses distributing the advertised brands to happy children. There then followed a frenzied shopping spree for Christmas cards (to be sent only to those from whom cards were received last year!) and gifts (to be given only to those from whom gifts were received last year!) Then came the Hotel advertisements. ‘Gala Christmas Lunch.’ ‘Gala Christmas Dinner Buffet.’ The more innovative offered ‘Christmas Brunch.’ This was something between Breakfast and Lunch. Yet more innovative was ‘Christmas High Tea.’ This was something between lunch and tea. In between these festivities there was held the Police Christmas Carols which was one of the highlights of the season. If truth be told, the singing and accompanying Police Band was better than the best of Church choirs. A memorable performance. It certainly evoked the spirit of Christmas. Next on the agenda were the newsletters from Clubs, which exclaimed, ‘Carols Night’ (strictly for members and guests only),with a Grand Dinner Buffet and a live band to keep the tempo going. The response was terrific. On ‘Carols Night’ the singing was loud and lusty. This increased in direct proportion to the quantity of 100 percent proof stimulants imbibed. It was the time to be jolly. And jolly they were. No matter what. The Christmas season also had in its enchanting, enticing embrace around many homes. Cypress trees in N’Eliya


were cut, chopped , packed and sent down by train to Colombo. Here they were further cut and sold on the pavements near Viharamaha Devi Park and near the Henry Pedris Park. Sales were brisk. In homes these Cypress branches were stuffed into large flower pots filled with sand and decorated. The Cypress branch was transformed into a Christmas tree. Right on top was a tinsel star, flowing down were multi colored fairy lights. And among the branches daintily tied with ribbons were Bon-bons.


Baubles of varied colors and tinsel frills were fixed on doorways. And yes, there were artificial holly and ivy and mistletoe hung up at the entrance to the home. Little children were tenderly advised to keep a stocking (given by Ammi) by the bedside on Christmas Eve – 24th night, so that Father Christmas aka Santa Clause, will come secretly and put toys into the stocking. There was a midnight Church service at which quite often the sermon would be interrupted by the sound of crackers announcing the dawn of Christmas. Here at the service, yawns would be discreetly stifled and there would be a pretense of rapt attention while the Bible readings and sermon were delivered. The Christmas morning service would be packed with lounge-suited gents and expensive, saree clad ladies. No – it was not the ladies that were expensive. It was the sarees. The main thing was ‘wear your very best.’ The main thing was ‘to be seen’. The Church itself had a large, Christmas tree draped with twinkling fairy lights. After service a spree of Merry Christmas’s sprouted, sprayed and spread, together with plenty of hugging and kissing and wishing. And of course the ‘Oohs!’ and ‘Myee Child!’ of admiration, as ladies’ eyes swept up and down each other’s sarees. That over it was back home for the festive Christmas breakfast – Breudher, Christmas cake with almond icing, and Kiribath. A late lunch together with vintage wine (to help digestion) consisting of yellow rice, chicken curry, pork curry – the lot. Dinner would be more lavish. Friends and relatives (of course of the same social class) would be invited. Served liberally was Scotch, preferably single malt, or catering to those whose Sri Lankan preference demanded it, there would be Pure Coconut Arrack. Roast turkey was part of delectable menu. After dinner it was time for the children and young adults to enjoy. There would be fireworks. Real fireworks – sky rockets, catherine wheels, squibs which when lit, zig-zagged on the ground, amidst the shrieks and squeals of young ladies, sparklers, Roman candles and the bursting of Chinese crackers. But hold on, here is something to think about. Amidst all the wining, dining and wishing. Amidst the festivities and feasting. Where was the main star (no pun intended) of Christmas ? In fact the very word Christmas is derived from Him because its His birth that is being celebrated. Then where or what is the relevance of Christmas trees and Santa Clauses and reindeer? Has not the Christmas of Christ been hijacked by the Christmas of commercialism? Maybe this is a very good time to reflect, reconsider, rectify, our entire attitude towards Christmas. Isn’t it time that we heeded the words of the Man from Galilee instead of just paying lip-service to His words? In the reality of the spreading squalor of poverty doesn’t selfish ostentatious life styles go quite contrary to His words. Isn’t it our duty to remember the victims of the Easter Sunday massacre. Some are incapacitated. Some have been orphaned. Some are still receiving medical care. There are others. Lonely. Destitute. Critically Ill – who may never see another Christmas. If we are unable to trace them and offer financial assistance or material goods most needed, there are groups and institutions doing just that. Well then, let us help them to help these others. One practical suggestion is to divert the money spent on unnecessary décor and decorations and ostentatious dining and wining, towards the worthy causes just stated. Isn’t that what Christmas is all about ? Caring and Giving ? This does not mean that Christmas must not be celebrated. It is certainly a time for joy. Those who have been blessed with the good things in life should be thankful for such blessings. Do have that special lunch and dinner with friends and relatives. But remember, we who are the followers of the Man from Galilee who was God Emmanuel, Christmas and every day thereafter must be dedicated to – Sowing love where there is hatred. Sowing hope where there is despair. Sowing light where there is darkness. Sowing joy where there is sadness.

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Sinharaja world heritage



Conservation Outlook Assessment: Significant Concern

By Professor Emeritus Nimal Gunatilleke

Continued from Yesterday


Water diverted from Ampanagala reservoir to Muruthawela will be used to meet the irrigation deficit of Muruthawela and Kirama Oya systems and the balance will be transferred to Chandrika Wewa, through existing LB canal of Muruthawela scheme up to 13.8 km and a new canal of 17.0 km. After that, the water requirement of Hambantota harbour is to be transferred to Ridiyagama tank through the Walawe river and Liyangasthota anicuit. However, due to the extreme length of the diversion through the three-river basins of Nilwala, Kirama Ara and Urubokka Oya, it will lead to a massive conveyance losses of the diverted water while on the way to the Walawe basin. Furthermore, enormous costs associated with its construction, a failure to fully realise the intended outcomes due to a shortage of water budget will simply be a burden that Sri Lanka cannot afford with her current economic condition, according to Eng. Prema Hettiarachchi. It may be worth recording that the water ingress into the grouted tunnel of the Uma Oya near Ella has still not been fully repaired, even though the Uma Oya project is nearing completion. An expensive lesson to be learnt on the nature of the weathered geological structure, lineaments and implementing its unexpected and costly mitigatory measures which will eventually to be paid back by this and future generations of tax payers of this country.

According to the Irrigation Department web site postings, Mahaweli Consultancy Bureau has initiated the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA), but due to the unavailability of concurrence of the Forest Department, revised TOR has not been issued by the CEA. Therefore, due to the unavailability of updated TOR, the EIA study has been delayed.

Environmentally, the most contentious issue highlighted in the news media is the proposed construction of a RCC dam at Madugeta to build a reservoir for which around 79 ha of forested (and some agricultural) lands in Sinharaja and a portion of prisine riverine forest in Dellawa would be inundated. On the Sinharaja side of the proposed Madugeta reservoir (right abutment) at present there are home gardens and small-scale tea plantations in addition to good riverine forests. In contrast however, proportionately a larger area of luxuriant forest of Dellawa, which is a part of the new ‘Sinharaja Rain Forest Complex’ would go under the chain saw for this reservoir construction (left abutment). The Geo-engineering report of May 2019 on GNDP has revised the siting of the dam to a more favourable location with supposedly reduced impacts but they forewarn that the three core-drilling along the proposed dam axis that had to be temporarily abandoned due to protests made by the villagers, need to be completed to confirm the geological suitability for the dam site.


Are there any Environment-Friendly Alternative Options?

As an alternative site for a dam on Gin Ganga, Eng. Nandasoma Atukorale (Specialist Engineer [Hydropower]) has proposed a location at the confluence of Mahadola with Gin Ganga at the village of Mederipitiya, way back in 2006. According to him, the riverbed at this site is 261 masl and have a catchment area of 132 km2. He proposes the construction of a 35 m high concrete gravity type dam that would form a reservoir with a storage capacity of 65 million cu.m and a potential discharge of 320 million cu.m of water annually which could divert 293 million cu. m of water to the SE Dry Zone. Most importantly, this region passes through a relatively narrow section of the river which is ideally suited for a dam according to him. However, geological suitability and socio-economic impacts of local communities need to be investigated, beforehand.

Quite interestingly, Eng. Athukorale claims that ‘although it is not economically very attractive, another 200 million cu.m of water could be diverted to the Nilwala basin by constructing a dam across Gin Ganga at the downstream of the confluence with Dellawa Dola at the village of Madugeta, with an 8000 m long tunnel which could be considered at a later stage provided further water shortages are experienced in the area’.


Now that the proposed Madugeta reservoir is receiving heavy criticisms from the environmental front, wonder whether Mederipitiya option proposed by Eng. Athukorale could be revisited for the diversion of Gin-Nilwala river water to the SE Dry Zone.

In a research paper titled ‘Comparison of Alternative Proposals for Domestic and Industrial Water Supply for Hambantota Industrial Development Zone’ Eng. Prema Hettiarachchi makes a comparison among three irrigation projects Kukule Ganga, Gin-Nilwala and Wey Ganga to convey water from the SW wet zone to SE dry zone.

She proposes yet another option that is probably still on the drawing boards to be considered which is the Wey Ganga diversion in Ratnapura District. According to her, this could meet the industrial and drinking water requirement (154 MCM + drinking water) of Hambantota metropolitan area at a significantly lower cost and with less damage to the environment. Further, there is a possibility of augmenting this scheme by diverting a part of Kalu Ganga catchment at a later stage.

Eng. Hettiarachchi further states that ‘by comparing the workload, it could be estimated to be nearly one third that of the Gin-Nilwala diversion. The Wey Ganga diversion can be carried out at a significantly lower cost by local agencies. That can also address the water scarcity of Hambantota metropolitan area including the requirements of international harbour and proposed industrial development zone with the relatively less environmental damage which is a major issue with respect to large scale projects. Construction period will also be less since the workload is less and can be carried out by the local agencies’.

What I have strived to show with this detailed irrigation engineering information available on public domain in the form of research publications, is that the Madugeta reservoir option is not the only one available for taking water from the wet zone rivers to the SE Dry Zone which is indeed a legitimate requirement for agricultural and industrial development of that region.

Pre-feasibility studies have been conducted on these options since 1968 and a considerable wealth of technical information is already available with the Irrigation Department. Apparently, according to knowledgeable irrigation engineers, there are more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective options with greater assurance of water conveyance to the SE Dry Zone available for consideration. It is often the case that during pre-feasibility studies of these large engineering projects, environmental concerns are given the least priority. Steady supply of water during extreme drought events which are becoming more frequent depends very much on the nature of the vegetation cover of the watershed area. These environmental aspects need to be critically evaluated before such costly projects are designed. As an example, although, the major engineering work of the Uma Oya project has been almost completed, its cost-effectiveness is yet to be seen with a denuded watershed, a potential of heavy soil erosion on top of the unexpected heavy expenditure on tunnel boring and other engineering works.

Biologically speaking, the Dellawa Forest Reserve is an integral part of Sinharaja Rain Forest Complex representing the pristine climax forest vegetation of SE wet lowlands and provide a vital connectivity link to adjoining Diyadawa forest of equal significance via the remains of Dombagoda forest. Therefore, clearing a riverine strip of this forest for the construction of Madugeta Reservoir would lead to an irreparable and irreplaceable damage to its characteristic riverine/flood plain forest vegetation.

On the other hand, pledging a reforestation initiative of a much larger area with Hevea rubber as a compensatory measure proposed by the political administration is totally unacceptable. Preserving intact forests in protected areas has no substitutes or replacements. Furthermore, the Natural Heritage Wilderness Area act and the binding articles of the UNESCO Convention on Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage to which Sri Lanka is a signatory, clearly state that causing direct or indirect damage to a natural heritage is legally not permissible.

In summary, the Sinharaja World Heritage Site is already in a state whose biological values are threatened and/or are showing signs of deterioration and significant additional conservation measures have been recommended to restore these values over the medium and long term. Adding more threats like the construction of reservoirs inside protected areas at this stage would inevitably downgrade the values further to a ‘critical conservation outlook’ which is not what the citizenry of Sri Lanka and the world at large would acknowledge as ‘sustainable development’.

The author of this article is a member of the National Sustainable Development Council of Sri Lanka and he thanks Dr Jagath Gunathilaka of Peradeniya University for providing the geotechnical information described herein. The author can be contacted at .)


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US seeking way out of Afghan killing field



As the Biden administration makes its initial moves to extricate the US’ remaining security forces personnel from Afghanistan, it would do well to ponder on former US President John F. Kennedy’s insightful comment on foreign policy: ‘Domestic policy can only defeat us; foreign policy can kill us.’ This is a rare nugget on the nature of foreign policy.

Considering the high costs, human and economic, a country could incur as a result of blundering on its foreign policy front, Kennedy could be said to have spoken for all countries. However, there is no denying that the comment is particularly applicable to expansionist powers or ‘hegemonic’ states.

Sensible opinion is likely to be of the view that the US decision on quitting Afghanistan should have come very much earlier; may be a couple of years after its bloody misadventure in the conflict and war-ridden country. Considering the terribly high human costs in particular the US’ 20 long years in Afghanistan have incurred, the US could be said to have committed one of its worst foreign policy blunders, overshadowing in severity the blood-letting incurred by the super power in Vietnam. However, in both theatres, the consequences for the US have been of unbearable magnitude.

The US death toll speaks for itself. At the time of writing more than 2,300 US security forces personnel have been killed and over 20,000 injured in Afghanistan. Reports indicate that over 450 Britons have died in the same quagmire along with hundreds of similar personnel from numerous other nationalities. Apparently, it took an exceptionally long period of time for the US to realize that Afghanistan for it was a lost cause.

The lesson that the US and other expansionist powers ought to come to grips with is that it would not be an ‘easy ride’ for them in the complex conflict and war zones of the South. The ground realities in these theatres are of mind-boggling complexity and Afghanistan drives this point home with notable harshness. Power projection in South-west Asia and persistence with its ‘war on terror’ were among the apparent prime objectives of the US in Afghanistan as well as in Iraq but what the US did not evidently take into consideration before these military involvements were the internal political realities of these countries that are not at all amenable to simplistic analyses and policy prescriptions.

The Soviets ought to have come to grips with some features of the treacherous political terrain presented by Afghanistan in the late eighties but their principal preoccupations were related more to the compulsions of the Cold War. Simply put, the Soviets were bent on preserving the ‘satellite’ status of Afghanistan and their war effort was aimed at this in the main. Preparing Afghanistan for democracy was not even least among the Soviet Union’s concerns, of course.

However, the same does not apply to the US. The latter helped the Mujaheddin in the task of getting rid of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan but its aim was also to have a US-friendly regime in Kabul that would be a veritable bridgehead of US power and influence in the region on a continuous basis. In other words, the US expected the regime which replaced the Soviets to be pro-Western and essentially democracy-friendly. The US did not in any way bargain to have in Afghanistan Islamic fundamentalist regimes whose political philosophies were the anti-thesis of democracy as perceived in the US and practised by it.

However, the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime which eventually came to power in the mid-nineties in Afghanistan, once the Soviets withdrew, defied all Western expectations. As is known, the Taliban was not only repressive and undemocratic but was staunchly opposed to everything Western. There were no hopes of the Taliban working towards Western interests. Besides, the US did not expect to see in Afghanistan a country dangerously divided on ethnic, tribal and religious lines. The problems of Afghanistan have been compounded over the years by the coming together of the Taliban and the Al-Qaeda and these groups have world wide Islamic fundamentalist links.

It has been the aim of the US to have in Kabul religiously moderate, pro-democratic regimes but as developments have proved over the past few decades these administrations have not been in a position to hold out against the Taliban. In fact, it is the Taliban that is veritably at the helm of power in Afghanistan currently and years of futile attempts at trying to contain the Taliban have brought home to the US and its allies that they have no choice but to talk to the Taliban in order to secure some respite to effect ‘an honourable exit’ from the bloodied land. This is where matters stand at present.

However, as pointed out by commentators, it is the Afghan civilian population that has suffered most in the decades-long blood-letting in the country. Conservative estimates put the number of Afghan security forces personnel killed in Afghanistan at around 60,000 to date and the number of civilians killed at double that figure.

Accordingly, the Afghan people would be left to face an uncertain and highly risk-riddled future when the last of the US security forces personnel and their allies leave Afghanistan in September this year. The country would be left to its own devices and considering that the Taliban will likely be the dominant formation in the country and not its legitimate government, the lot of Afghan civilians is bound to be heart-rending.

There is plenty to ponder on for the US and other democratic countries in the agonies of Afghanistan. One lesson that offers itself is that not all countries of the South are ‘ready for democracy’. This applies to very many countries of the South that already claim to be democracies in the Western sense. Southern ‘democratic’ polities defy easy analysis and categorization in consideration of the multitude of identity markers they present along with the legitimacy that they have achieved in the eyes of their states and populations. What we have are dangerously volatile states riddled with contradictions. Relating to them will prove to be highly problematic for the rest of the world.

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The Soul



The Soul (also known as Ji hun) is based on the sci-fi novel ‘Soul Transfer’, written by Jiang Bo in 2012. The novel was widely popular and inspired director Cheng Wei-Hao to adapt the tale into a movie. The story is about a married couple who are determined to uncover the truth behind strange activities in their community. According to the official synopsis for the film from Netflix, while investigating the death of a businessman, a prosecutor and his wife uncover occult secrets as they face their own life-and-death dilemma. The film stars Chang Chen, Janine Chang and Christopher Lee among others.

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