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Our ‘In’s’ and ‘Out’s’ in the English language



by S. N. Arseculeratne

The English language has spread world-wide like the pandemic of Covid. In Sri Lanka the English language has become our lingua franca.

We vintage colonials, use English in conversations at home but when my friends cross-swords with me, they use Sinhala occasionally which is more expressive. We Lankan locals have expressive repartees, “Ado” for look here, “Bambuwa” for nonsense, yako”’ for you devil, and “tho”, “thopi” and “pissa” for inccorrigibles. And bravo, the Oxford English Dictionary has now included the Sinhala word ‘Aiyo’, so why not enrich the English language with these other words also? Though English is often our Lingua domestica, it continues to plague me. Here’s why.

At a recent party, the comperè invited “men and their spouses” for a game. Look, the plural of mouse is not mouses but mice, so why shouldn’t he have asked men and their spice to join? That’s more spicy and s-exciting. Many from Portugal are Portuguese but one chap should be a Portugoose, as with goose and geese, but not so, why? I like being outspoken, but I cannot be inspoken. The pragmatic Americans who invented the atomic bomb also made reparations to the English language. They dispensed with unnecessary prefixes that fix me, but we in school were taught English-English which had these prefixes. I was driving behind a petrol bowser which admitted being ‘Highly Inflammable’. Being a literal man, taking it as English-English, I lit my pipe but my passenger threw it out of the window. He was an American to whom petrol is flammable, and in America I wouldn’t have lost my pipe.

Cricket is thoroughly English, but we former British colonials won the Cricket World Cup in the 1990s. We spend five days in the hot sun (when is the sun not hot?) playing it, and when an American wanted to know what this game is all about, he was told by his English friend: “You see, you have two sides, one out in the field and one in. Each man who’s in the side that’s in, goes out and when he’s out, he comes in, and bats until he’s out. When they are all out, the side that’s been out comes in and the side that’s been in goes out and tries to get those coming in, out. Sometimes you get men still in and not out. When both sides have been in and out, including the not out’s, that’s the end of the game”. Having won a World Cup in cricket we Lankans are not bowled-out by that explanation but the pragmatic Americans called it a day as they found English cricket is confusing and settled for baseball instead; all’s well as it lasts only a few hours. But we intrepid Lankans still play cricket and not our traditional game of gudu.

There are other hiccups in the English language; these relate to the prefixes ‘ex’ and ‘in’; We have an exhaust but no inhaust. Amogst other former colonials, the Malaysians are reasonable people and so, despite their British colonialism, they have simplified English with exhaust and term it egzos; Ice cream, to them has become simply aiskrim. Other outlandish folk also use English as when a Thai lab-lady told me, on seeing me enjoying music “Buchy, you are so enjoyable”. I dared not relate that to my wife.


And we simple ex-colonials are sometimes just as blunt; a restaurant in Kandy has the name “Eat me“, and another advertises its ware as being of “Purity, quality and tasty”. But when a grocery store in Kandy advertised that it sells “Cow Pee” my wife asked me whether they also sell “Bull shit“. There are other quandaries. There are in-things but not out-things. I have met insufferable people but never a sufferable one. We then have in-laws and sometimes they are outlaws.

Kids find this in-out matter amusing, with the following story. Two skunks that are known to stink, In and Out went out for a walk. In got lost but Out located him. When asked how he did it, he replied “In stinked”; it could also have been because of Out’s instinct. Animals display instinct but seldom outstinct; species sometimes get biologically extinct. The only animal that displays out-stinks are skunks. The remedy for this in-out imbroglio is what we had in junior school, Practical English, but I think this has now disappeared from school curricula; it should be restored. I’ll stop wearing decrepit clothes and shoes and wear only crepit ones but shops do not sell crepit footwear. I prefer to doctrinate folk to be good, not merely indoctrinate them. So it’s no wonder that some wise guy said that the English language takes the cake for blatant inconsistency, and I’ll vote for him for the Pulitzer Prize for Archaeo-Linguistics. The late Professor S. R. Kottegoda, who was the Founding President of the Society for the restoration of the Lost Positives in the English language, would have been happy to read this, but the old bard at Stratford-upon-Avon might not have been amused.

Humour is what keeps me going. As a youth I enjoyed reading Stephen Leacock, James Thurber, Damon Runyon, Bill Bryson, PG Wodehouse, Lord Chesterfield’s Letters to his son, and our own Tarzie Vitachchi of yesteryear, and last Sunday, I read an ad for the fare in a guest house “up-country” (note-we have no down country but only low country). “Newly Tourist Hotel, Working distance from the city, beautiful cold, mist windy, Buffet and Ala Cart“.

However insufferable English-English is, and despite these hiccups in I will not use a sufferable lingo such as Urdu or Esperanto, I’ll continue to hiccup in Singlish, the local dialect of the Queen’s English. However we Lankans are claimed to be high on English literacy scale, and our debt to papa Shakespeare must be acknowledged. And now that our word “Aiyo is in the Oxford English Dictionary, I might be permitted to greet the old Bard Bill Shakespeare with another common Sinhala word “Ado” and say to Bill patting him on his back, “Ado Bill, Sinhala is now in the world’s English”.

Despite our massacre of the English language, we owe a huge debt to old Bill Shakespeare the father of the language. He is so great, several compatriots claim him to be of their own kind. Many articles have appeared on him, but I want to know who Shakespeare really was. He is so famous that diverse people claim him as their own. The Sinhalese think he was Shakes Perra of Bambalapitiya, the Burghers think he was Shakes Pereira a Burgher from Kotahena, those of Portuguese origin think he was Shakes Fereira from Lisbon, the Tamils think he was Shekar Periar from Killinochchi, the Muslims swear that he was Sheik Shapir from Kattankudy, The hiccups in our use of English could have originated from the diverse ancestry of the olde Bard. But Ann Hathaway had the last word and hath her way; she knew that he was really an Englshman from Stratford Upon Avon, and she married him as women always have the last word. But dear reader, you can have it As you like it, as Bill himself wrote as the title of as his play.

Bill was a great writer and philosopher who wrote All the world’s a stage and the men and women merely players. And as we age we get sans eyes, sans ears, sans hair and sans everything. So naturally I was scared about my being sans hair but my barber reassured me that being a thinker I am bald in front; sexy people are bald behind and people who think they are sexy are totally bald which I am not. My optimist doctor reassured me that my eyes are OK, as I can see through people, and with both eyes through one keyhole.



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Sinharaja world heritage



Conservation Outlook Assessment: Significant Concern

By Professor Emeritus Nimal Gunatilleke

Continued from Yesterday


Water diverted from Ampanagala reservoir to Muruthawela will be used to meet the irrigation deficit of Muruthawela and Kirama Oya systems and the balance will be transferred to Chandrika Wewa, through existing LB canal of Muruthawela scheme up to 13.8 km and a new canal of 17.0 km. After that, the water requirement of Hambantota harbour is to be transferred to Ridiyagama tank through the Walawe river and Liyangasthota anicuit. However, due to the extreme length of the diversion through the three-river basins of Nilwala, Kirama Ara and Urubokka Oya, it will lead to a massive conveyance losses of the diverted water while on the way to the Walawe basin. Furthermore, enormous costs associated with its construction, a failure to fully realise the intended outcomes due to a shortage of water budget will simply be a burden that Sri Lanka cannot afford with her current economic condition, according to Eng. Prema Hettiarachchi. It may be worth recording that the water ingress into the grouted tunnel of the Uma Oya near Ella has still not been fully repaired, even though the Uma Oya project is nearing completion. An expensive lesson to be learnt on the nature of the weathered geological structure, lineaments and implementing its unexpected and costly mitigatory measures which will eventually to be paid back by this and future generations of tax payers of this country.

According to the Irrigation Department web site postings, Mahaweli Consultancy Bureau has initiated the Environment Impact Assessment (EIA), but due to the unavailability of concurrence of the Forest Department, revised TOR has not been issued by the CEA. Therefore, due to the unavailability of updated TOR, the EIA study has been delayed.

Environmentally, the most contentious issue highlighted in the news media is the proposed construction of a RCC dam at Madugeta to build a reservoir for which around 79 ha of forested (and some agricultural) lands in Sinharaja and a portion of prisine riverine forest in Dellawa would be inundated. On the Sinharaja side of the proposed Madugeta reservoir (right abutment) at present there are home gardens and small-scale tea plantations in addition to good riverine forests. In contrast however, proportionately a larger area of luxuriant forest of Dellawa, which is a part of the new ‘Sinharaja Rain Forest Complex’ would go under the chain saw for this reservoir construction (left abutment). The Geo-engineering report of May 2019 on GNDP has revised the siting of the dam to a more favourable location with supposedly reduced impacts but they forewarn that the three core-drilling along the proposed dam axis that had to be temporarily abandoned due to protests made by the villagers, need to be completed to confirm the geological suitability for the dam site.


Are there any Environment-Friendly Alternative Options?

As an alternative site for a dam on Gin Ganga, Eng. Nandasoma Atukorale (Specialist Engineer [Hydropower]) has proposed a location at the confluence of Mahadola with Gin Ganga at the village of Mederipitiya, way back in 2006. According to him, the riverbed at this site is 261 masl and have a catchment area of 132 km2. He proposes the construction of a 35 m high concrete gravity type dam that would form a reservoir with a storage capacity of 65 million cu.m and a potential discharge of 320 million cu.m of water annually which could divert 293 million cu. m of water to the SE Dry Zone. Most importantly, this region passes through a relatively narrow section of the river which is ideally suited for a dam according to him. However, geological suitability and socio-economic impacts of local communities need to be investigated, beforehand.

Quite interestingly, Eng. Athukorale claims that ‘although it is not economically very attractive, another 200 million cu.m of water could be diverted to the Nilwala basin by constructing a dam across Gin Ganga at the downstream of the confluence with Dellawa Dola at the village of Madugeta, with an 8000 m long tunnel which could be considered at a later stage provided further water shortages are experienced in the area’.


Now that the proposed Madugeta reservoir is receiving heavy criticisms from the environmental front, wonder whether Mederipitiya option proposed by Eng. Athukorale could be revisited for the diversion of Gin-Nilwala river water to the SE Dry Zone.

In a research paper titled ‘Comparison of Alternative Proposals for Domestic and Industrial Water Supply for Hambantota Industrial Development Zone’ Eng. Prema Hettiarachchi makes a comparison among three irrigation projects Kukule Ganga, Gin-Nilwala and Wey Ganga to convey water from the SW wet zone to SE dry zone.

She proposes yet another option that is probably still on the drawing boards to be considered which is the Wey Ganga diversion in Ratnapura District. According to her, this could meet the industrial and drinking water requirement (154 MCM + drinking water) of Hambantota metropolitan area at a significantly lower cost and with less damage to the environment. Further, there is a possibility of augmenting this scheme by diverting a part of Kalu Ganga catchment at a later stage.

Eng. Hettiarachchi further states that ‘by comparing the workload, it could be estimated to be nearly one third that of the Gin-Nilwala diversion. The Wey Ganga diversion can be carried out at a significantly lower cost by local agencies. That can also address the water scarcity of Hambantota metropolitan area including the requirements of international harbour and proposed industrial development zone with the relatively less environmental damage which is a major issue with respect to large scale projects. Construction period will also be less since the workload is less and can be carried out by the local agencies’.

What I have strived to show with this detailed irrigation engineering information available on public domain in the form of research publications, is that the Madugeta reservoir option is not the only one available for taking water from the wet zone rivers to the SE Dry Zone which is indeed a legitimate requirement for agricultural and industrial development of that region.

Pre-feasibility studies have been conducted on these options since 1968 and a considerable wealth of technical information is already available with the Irrigation Department. Apparently, according to knowledgeable irrigation engineers, there are more environmentally friendly, and cost-effective options with greater assurance of water conveyance to the SE Dry Zone available for consideration. It is often the case that during pre-feasibility studies of these large engineering projects, environmental concerns are given the least priority. Steady supply of water during extreme drought events which are becoming more frequent depends very much on the nature of the vegetation cover of the watershed area. These environmental aspects need to be critically evaluated before such costly projects are designed. As an example, although, the major engineering work of the Uma Oya project has been almost completed, its cost-effectiveness is yet to be seen with a denuded watershed, a potential of heavy soil erosion on top of the unexpected heavy expenditure on tunnel boring and other engineering works.

Biologically speaking, the Dellawa Forest Reserve is an integral part of Sinharaja Rain Forest Complex representing the pristine climax forest vegetation of SE wet lowlands and provide a vital connectivity link to adjoining Diyadawa forest of equal significance via the remains of Dombagoda forest. Therefore, clearing a riverine strip of this forest for the construction of Madugeta Reservoir would lead to an irreparable and irreplaceable damage to its characteristic riverine/flood plain forest vegetation.

On the other hand, pledging a reforestation initiative of a much larger area with Hevea rubber as a compensatory measure proposed by the political administration is totally unacceptable. Preserving intact forests in protected areas has no substitutes or replacements. Furthermore, the Natural Heritage Wilderness Area act and the binding articles of the UNESCO Convention on Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage to which Sri Lanka is a signatory, clearly state that causing direct or indirect damage to a natural heritage is legally not permissible.

In summary, the Sinharaja World Heritage Site is already in a state whose biological values are threatened and/or are showing signs of deterioration and significant additional conservation measures have been recommended to restore these values over the medium and long term. Adding more threats like the construction of reservoirs inside protected areas at this stage would inevitably downgrade the values further to a ‘critical conservation outlook’ which is not what the citizenry of Sri Lanka and the world at large would acknowledge as ‘sustainable development’.

The author of this article is a member of the National Sustainable Development Council of Sri Lanka and he thanks Dr Jagath Gunathilaka of Peradeniya University for providing the geotechnical information described herein. The author can be contacted at .)


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US seeking way out of Afghan killing field



As the Biden administration makes its initial moves to extricate the US’ remaining security forces personnel from Afghanistan, it would do well to ponder on former US President John F. Kennedy’s insightful comment on foreign policy: ‘Domestic policy can only defeat us; foreign policy can kill us.’ This is a rare nugget on the nature of foreign policy.

Considering the high costs, human and economic, a country could incur as a result of blundering on its foreign policy front, Kennedy could be said to have spoken for all countries. However, there is no denying that the comment is particularly applicable to expansionist powers or ‘hegemonic’ states.

Sensible opinion is likely to be of the view that the US decision on quitting Afghanistan should have come very much earlier; may be a couple of years after its bloody misadventure in the conflict and war-ridden country. Considering the terribly high human costs in particular the US’ 20 long years in Afghanistan have incurred, the US could be said to have committed one of its worst foreign policy blunders, overshadowing in severity the blood-letting incurred by the super power in Vietnam. However, in both theatres, the consequences for the US have been of unbearable magnitude.

The US death toll speaks for itself. At the time of writing more than 2,300 US security forces personnel have been killed and over 20,000 injured in Afghanistan. Reports indicate that over 450 Britons have died in the same quagmire along with hundreds of similar personnel from numerous other nationalities. Apparently, it took an exceptionally long period of time for the US to realize that Afghanistan for it was a lost cause.

The lesson that the US and other expansionist powers ought to come to grips with is that it would not be an ‘easy ride’ for them in the complex conflict and war zones of the South. The ground realities in these theatres are of mind-boggling complexity and Afghanistan drives this point home with notable harshness. Power projection in South-west Asia and persistence with its ‘war on terror’ were among the apparent prime objectives of the US in Afghanistan as well as in Iraq but what the US did not evidently take into consideration before these military involvements were the internal political realities of these countries that are not at all amenable to simplistic analyses and policy prescriptions.

The Soviets ought to have come to grips with some features of the treacherous political terrain presented by Afghanistan in the late eighties but their principal preoccupations were related more to the compulsions of the Cold War. Simply put, the Soviets were bent on preserving the ‘satellite’ status of Afghanistan and their war effort was aimed at this in the main. Preparing Afghanistan for democracy was not even least among the Soviet Union’s concerns, of course.

However, the same does not apply to the US. The latter helped the Mujaheddin in the task of getting rid of the Soviet presence in Afghanistan but its aim was also to have a US-friendly regime in Kabul that would be a veritable bridgehead of US power and influence in the region on a continuous basis. In other words, the US expected the regime which replaced the Soviets to be pro-Western and essentially democracy-friendly. The US did not in any way bargain to have in Afghanistan Islamic fundamentalist regimes whose political philosophies were the anti-thesis of democracy as perceived in the US and practised by it.

However, the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban regime which eventually came to power in the mid-nineties in Afghanistan, once the Soviets withdrew, defied all Western expectations. As is known, the Taliban was not only repressive and undemocratic but was staunchly opposed to everything Western. There were no hopes of the Taliban working towards Western interests. Besides, the US did not expect to see in Afghanistan a country dangerously divided on ethnic, tribal and religious lines. The problems of Afghanistan have been compounded over the years by the coming together of the Taliban and the Al-Qaeda and these groups have world wide Islamic fundamentalist links.

It has been the aim of the US to have in Kabul religiously moderate, pro-democratic regimes but as developments have proved over the past few decades these administrations have not been in a position to hold out against the Taliban. In fact, it is the Taliban that is veritably at the helm of power in Afghanistan currently and years of futile attempts at trying to contain the Taliban have brought home to the US and its allies that they have no choice but to talk to the Taliban in order to secure some respite to effect ‘an honourable exit’ from the bloodied land. This is where matters stand at present.

However, as pointed out by commentators, it is the Afghan civilian population that has suffered most in the decades-long blood-letting in the country. Conservative estimates put the number of Afghan security forces personnel killed in Afghanistan at around 60,000 to date and the number of civilians killed at double that figure.

Accordingly, the Afghan people would be left to face an uncertain and highly risk-riddled future when the last of the US security forces personnel and their allies leave Afghanistan in September this year. The country would be left to its own devices and considering that the Taliban will likely be the dominant formation in the country and not its legitimate government, the lot of Afghan civilians is bound to be heart-rending.

There is plenty to ponder on for the US and other democratic countries in the agonies of Afghanistan. One lesson that offers itself is that not all countries of the South are ‘ready for democracy’. This applies to very many countries of the South that already claim to be democracies in the Western sense. Southern ‘democratic’ polities defy easy analysis and categorization in consideration of the multitude of identity markers they present along with the legitimacy that they have achieved in the eyes of their states and populations. What we have are dangerously volatile states riddled with contradictions. Relating to them will prove to be highly problematic for the rest of the world.

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The Soul



The Soul (also known as Ji hun) is based on the sci-fi novel ‘Soul Transfer’, written by Jiang Bo in 2012. The novel was widely popular and inspired director Cheng Wei-Hao to adapt the tale into a movie. The story is about a married couple who are determined to uncover the truth behind strange activities in their community. According to the official synopsis for the film from Netflix, while investigating the death of a businessman, a prosecutor and his wife uncover occult secrets as they face their own life-and-death dilemma. The film stars Chang Chen, Janine Chang and Christopher Lee among others.

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