By Dr. N. Senanayake
Retired Rice Scientist
Rice cultivation in lowlands of Sri Lanka also resulted in a kind of revolution locally along with the global Green Revolution. Following the invention of new varieties IR 8, IR 62, with fertiliser response and high yields at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the Philippines and their spread globally, the Department of Agriculture (DOA) also produced rice hybrids such as H4, H8 series in early 1970s by using our traditional varieties as parents. However, in a bid to defend the sudden imposition of organic agriculture in Sri Lanka, inorganic fertilizer use has been imposed suddenly on our farmers.
(See Figure 1)
It is only those who were in the DOA who know how difficult it was for our farmers to use locally bred hybrid rice varieties and the corresponding use of inorganic fertiliser. In fact, in spite of tireless efforts by the extension officers of DOA, it took nearly two to three decades for us to cultivate 70 percent (in 1980, IRRI report) of the arable area with high yielding varieties.
These achievements in lowland agriculture were not sudden but a result of long-term hard work by DOA officers. Our farmers have an attitude problem, possibly due to lack of education, and are not an innovative group of people who accept innovations as they appear.
However, today, farmers are much more educated and their attitudes may be different, but some of them are still backward in thinking.
Use of Nitrogen fixing flora
In 1980s or 1990s, the DOA scientists and their international counterparts worked on nitrogen fixing plants like Azolla pinnata and Sesbania rostrata in rice fields as a Nitrogen supplement for rice growth. A considerable amount of money was spent on research and development of this technology but popularising its use faced several constraints and farmers did not adopt it unless they were forced to do so or provided with some sort of compensation. One of the main constraints was that the contribution from these plants could not sustain rice yields without addition of inorganic fertiliser. Today, these practices are haphazardly adopted by global rice farmers and none of the countries depend solely on them.
The constraints with regard to using the Azolla fern are several. It can be grown in wet soil and then ploughed under, generating a good amount of nitrogen-rich fertiliser (N 2-5%, P 0.1-1.6%, K 0.3-6% and many micro elements). Therefore, inoculation is necessary every season. In order to maintain the fern throughout the year, special multiplication nurseries are necessary to produce sufficient quantities of planting material as inoculant for further propagation. These nurseries require shade, an ample supply of water, plant nutrients, disease and pest control and some measures to protect the fern from extreme weather conditions. Super phosphate should be applied to the field for the fern nursery thrice—four days apart.
Azolla pinnata in Rice Field
Research work done globally also showed that in an open field under tropical conditions, a full cover of Azolla as monoculture could yield about 20 t/ha fresh weight. When intercropped with rice the growth rate decreases with the development of the rice canopy, but repeated inoculation and harvest of the fern can give an annual yield of up to 40-50 t/ha fresh weight. However, rice yields may increase only by 0.4-1.5 t/ ha when thus fertilised. Therefore, Azolla can only supplement N requirement of rice in the next cultivation season.
EM (Effective Microorganisms)
In another attempt, some tried to use the global EM technology in our country and requested the support of DOA. But the scientists of the calibre of Vidyajothi C. R. Panabokke, who was the Director of Agriculture of DOA, refused to use it on our soils, but some other institutes supported the move. Finally, EM technology was introduced here and private sector organisation, with its extension staff took up the challenge. It was used in some parts of the country. The problem with EM technology, anticipated by the scientists at that time, was that it would upset the microbial balance in our soils, which were in equilibrium through natural selection over many years, and if some alien microbe got into the local soil system, which could suppress our favourable microbes, there was no way to stop it from spreading or to control it and land could turn barren.
This writer once attended an international biofertiliser conference, where scientists discussed such adverse effects of microbial fertiliser use in some other countries.
The writer personally believes that CKDu in our country could have been caused by such an unfavourable microbe inadvertently entering our soils with EM solutions. The basis for this hypothesis is that CKDu was first reported from areas where EM technology became popular in rice cultivation. Moreover, heavy metal problems in many countries are due to solubilisation of these minerals, present in the soil, by microbial degradation. For example, high arsenic level in the paddy soils of Bangladesh due to variations indigenous soil properties as well as the microbially mediated biogeochemical interactions that control the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in soil, has been reported by many scientists.
Therefore, as scientists we foresee problems that crop up when alien microbes are introduced into our soils because of the size of microbes and huge populations per unit weight of soil, and in such instances human error cannot be ruled out. Moreover, this technology was not practised by southern farmers and there are few or no CKDU patients in the area and if at all it may be due to migration of people.
(To be continued)
Amusement ride brought to life on big screen Jungle Cruise
By Tharishi Hewavithanagamage
Directed by Jaume Collet-Serra from screenplay written by Glenn Ficarra, John Requa, and Michael Green, ‘Jungle Cruise’ is loosely based on Walt Disney’s theme park attraction of the same name. After success of the ‘Pirates of the Caribbean’ franchise, it comes as no surprise that Disney wanted to create another ride-based movie, this time featuring one of its first rides. The riverboat amusement ride was the only attraction to exist in the Adventureland themed section on Disneyland’s opening day in 1955. The live-action riverboat adventure stars Dwayne Johnson, Emily Blunt, Jack Whitehall, Jesse Plemons, and Paul Giamatti.
The film is set in 1916, and follows Dr. Lily Houghton (Emily Blunt) in a fervent search for a mystical tree whose petals known as Tears of the Moon, are said to have healing properties. Her strong belief that she could bring about medical breakthroughs and save numerous lives, prompts her to embark on the adventure of a lifetime, deep into the Amazon rainforest.
With a map in hand, Lily along with her brother McGregor (Jack Whitehall) enlist the help of skipper and swindler Frank Wolff (Dwayne Johnson) to help navigate the vast waters of the rainforest. Coveting the mystical petals for their own goals are Prince Joachim (Jesse Plemons) and a team of 400-year old cursed conquistadors led by Aguirre (Edgar Ramírez). In a race against time, the bad guys and the jungle, Lily must place her trust in Frank if she is to ever reach the tree, but it’s easier said than done.
The latest Disney movie is definitely fun to watch. It’s a classic, and far too predictable, adventure, where a small group of protagonists venture into the unknown. The movie obviously borrows heavily from big screen hits like ‘Indiana Jones’, ‘The Mummy’ franchise, ‘Anacondas: Hunt for the Blood Orchid’ and even the ‘Pirates of the Caribbean’ franchise. This film is a patch-work of tropes.
The two-hour movie also packs a lot, which is precisely why the plot gets murkier as the audiences and protagonists cruise through. The big picture is brimming with smaller side stories which include characters that aren’t essential to the plot and in the end remain forgettable, like Paul Giamatti’s crusty harbormaster Nilo, who unfortunately falls into the margins of the movie. And scenes such as Prince Joachim talking to bees, makes the film utterly nonsensical. However, the strongest points of the movie are seen in the strengthening relationships and character development, which receive just about enough screen time to hold the story together. And while there is no overarching theme for this tale, it handles themes like women empowerment and exoticism.
‘Jungle Cruise’ offers audiences an imaginative look at deeper areas of the Amazon. The titular jungle, Frank’s beloved boat and adorable pet Jaguar Proxima are CGI highlights, whereas most other effects, notably the ragtag supernatural conquistadors, who look like they hung out with Davy Jones for too long, fall flat.
The film also delivers meticulously choreographed action sequences that showcase each individual character’s physical prowess. Everyone gets a chance to throw a punch with good form, not just The Rock. The film also draws in ideas and references from the actual ride. The humor, a courtesy of Frank’s pun-laden jokes is an actual reference to the theme-park attraction. The ride is known for its corny jokes, all delivered by skippers who narrate the adventure to visitors. Everything comes together to make the film a fun-filled experience. It falls short of a strong plot but is driven forward by the performance of the two leads.
An unlikely pair, both Dwayne Johnson and Emily Blunt showcase their stellar acting skills. Blunt brings a strong charisma as an intrepid scholar and adventurer, breaking barriers in ‘a man’s world’ through her role as Dr. Lily Houghton. Blunt expertly navigates the character’s inner nerd and heroine in doing amazing stunts and even takes on Johnson’s muscular self. Johnson pours his heart and soul into his character Frank. At first glance Frank comes across as a rogue character with no depth and mainly supplies humor to the tale, but as the story unfolds Johnson taps into deeper aspects of the character. The Blunt-Johnson pairing oddly makes their banter fun, but the sense of awkwardness can be overwhelmingly uncomfortable in some scenes.
Jack Whitehall’s role as Lily’s not-so-adventurous brother McGregor, is Disney’s latest attempt to introduce a gay character, but fails to leave a deep impression. It also seems like it’s never a good adventure without the nefarious Germans trying to kill everyone, but Jesse Plemons brings more comedic relief than menace to his role as Prince Joachim. The conquistador villain Aguirre played by Edgar Ramírez, remains sidelined and underused.
At the end of the day, ‘Jungle Cruise’ is a fun summer adventure that everyone can enjoy. Although the film doesn’t meet the standards set by their cooler counterpart ‘Pirates of the Caribbean’, ‘Jungle Cruise’ brings its own unique quirkiness that saves it from drowning completely.
Astrologers suggested he be ordained
Ven. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera
Ven. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera was an eminent scholar monk in the nineteenth century. He was the founder of the Vidyodaya Pirivena.
He was born in the village of Hettigoda in Hikkaduwa on 20-01-1827.
As was the Sinhala custom, his horoscope was cast by an eminent astrologer who predicted that the child was under the evil influence of the planets and that he will have a life of misfortune, with a suggestion that he be ordained. The parents then consulted several other eminent astrologers who too, made similar predictions.
(As later events proved, the predictions happened to be from those who had not properly mastered the science of astrology, or due to the inaccurate time of birth recorded).
As per the predictions, his parents then decided to ordain him. With that in view, he was given only a temple-oriented education, with no formal schooling.
When he was about 14 years old, preparations were made to ordain him at an auspicious time. But, as the auspicious time was fast approaching, he was found missing.
After he was found, he told his father not to ordain him and bring the Buddha Sasana into disrepute, as his astrological predictions were adverse.
However, he was ordained later as Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera, of his own volition.
Nobody ever thought, at the time, that he would one day be a scholar of great repute.
The following year, he sojourned at the Mapalagama Temple, in the Galle District during the Vas Season (rainy season) with his preceptor Mobotuwana Revatha Thera and several other monks.
This young Sumangala Samanera (novice) endeared himself to the devotees, with his disciplined demeanour and with his sermons, based on the Jathaka stories (stories of the former lives of the Buddha). One such devotee – John Cornelis Abeywardena, an English scholar (an ancestor of the present day Galle politician Vajira Abeywardena) volunteered to teach English to this young inspiring preacher.
It was a time when some bhikkhus were engaged in native medical treatment. And Sumangala Thera, then still a novice, was to answer this question as to whether the bhikkhus could engage in such a practice.
He construed that it was harmless to treat the hapless, destitute patients, friends or relations, provided it was not for any material gain and that it was not a serious violation of the Vinaya rules.
While travelling by train, one day, this Samanera met a group of pilgrims from Siam (now Thailand), coming down south, after a pilgrimage to Anuradhapura.
The pilgrims knew only their Siam language and the Pali language, resulting in they being cut off from the local populace.
One of them, half-heartedly spoke to this Samanera in the Pali lanugage. It was then that he realised that he was spaking to a Pali scholar. This resulted in exchange of views between the two of them.
Later he continued with his higher learning under several reputed venerable preceptors and also authored several valuable books.
During the Vas Season, in that year 1858, he sojourned at the Bogahawatta Temple, in Galle, and commenced publishing a newspaper for Buddhists named “Lanka Loka”.
He was a close friend of Col. Henry Steele Olcott, who arrived in Ceylon in the year 1880.
During those colonial days, the first class compartments in trains were more or less reserved for the white masters. Quite often, these compartments were seen going empty, except for one or two of them, while the second and third classes were crammed. Though some Sri Lankans had the means to travel first class, they didn’t have the courage to do so. There were others who did not care a damn for the white skins and unhestatingly travelled first class.
One day Sumangala Nayaka Thera was travelling to Kandy and entered a first class compartment, occupied by two high- spirited Englishmen.
With characteristic arrogance they subjected the Nayaka Thera to a barrage of vulger comments and rude insults.
“This old fellow has, by mistake, got into this compartment” one of them said.
“No, this is not a mistake. He is purposely, fraudulently, travelling first class with a third class ticket.”
“Shall we hand him over to the Railway Authorities?” asked the other.
The Thera gazed at them silently with a benign smile on his face.
At Polgahawela, the train was shunted into a siding, for the train carrying Sir Arthur Gordon, Governor of Ceylon, who was returning to Colombo, after a holiday, was due at any moment.
The train arrived and the Governor’s special compartment drew up right alongside the one occupied by the venerable monk. Glancing out of the window, the Governor saw Sumangala Thera and a smile of pure pleasure shone on the Governor’s face. For he and the learned monk were close friends. Scholars both, they visited each other quite often and spent many hours in erudite discussion.
“My dear High Priest! Fancy meeting you like this!” said Sir Gordon, opening the door of his compartment and walking into the one occupied by the Thera. They were engaged in a lively conversation, in English, and the train was 11 minutes late.
With the Governor’s departure, the two louts now crestfallen and repentant at their boorish behaviour, profusely apologised to the Thera.
With a smile on his face, the Thera, accepted their apologies with a brief exhortation. Thereafter they were engaged in a lovely conservation till the journey’s end.
Once there was a clash between some Buddhists who went in a procession and some Catholics at Maggona, resulting in the death of a Catholic.
As a sequel, a Buddhist named Seeman Fernando was sentenced to death. On representations made by the Nayaka Thera to the Governor, Seeman Fernando was released.
One day, a group of pilgrims that also included some members of the Cambodian Royal Family, went to Kandy with the Nayaka Thera for an exposition of the Tooth Relic.
It was a non-event as no prior intimation had been made to the Dalada Maligawa authorities in time.
The next morning, the Thera was walking leisurely along the Nuwara Wewa, when Governor Gordon, who was going in a horse drawn chariot saw the Nayaka Thera and after greeting him indulged in a lively conversation. When he told him about the non-event of the exposition of the tooth relic the previous day, the Governor took immediate steps for a special exposition, directing the Government Agent to make the necessary arrangements.
In the year 1873, he founded the Vidyodaya Pirivena – a seat of Buddhist higher learning. It was his greatest service to Buddhism.
When the permit to have a perahera was first introduced at the turn of this centry, the Nayaka Thera, as Head of Vidyodaya, sought permission to hold the annual perahera of the Pirivena. Permission was at first refused, but mysteriously granted a few days later.
Despite the refusal, the Nayaka Thera had gone ahead with the arrangements to hold the perahera, and when a senior police officer on horseback brought the permit personally to the High Priest, he contemptuously rejected it and sent the officer away.
This incident was reported to the I.G.P. who, in turn, reported it to the Governor of the colony of Ceylon.
The Governor, a close friend and admirer of Ven. Hikkaduwe Sri Sumangala Thera, sent his Maha Mudliyar, Sir Solomon Dias Bandaranaike, as his personal emissary, to respectfully request the learned scholar monk to come to Queen’s House to discuss the matter, as His Excellency feared that the act of the Nayaka Thera would be an undersirable precedent.
“I refused to accept the police permit for this reason,” the Nayaka Thera, told the Governor. “When I first asked for permission to hold the perahera, permission was refused. A few days later, permission was granted. This indicates that permits are given, not according to any law, but at the whims and fancies of police personnel, which is all wrong. That is why I refused the permit that was given on second thoughts. The freedom to practise the Buddhist religion and its rites have been guaranteed in the Kandyan Convention, and I shall be grateful if you and your minions will kindly remember that.”
The chastened Governor was profuse in his apologies to the outspoken scholar monk.
The Nayaka Thera was taken ill on the 21st April 1911 and passed away on the 29th (about 110 years ago).
Perhaps he would never have envisaged, that his much cherished Vidyodaya Pirivena would be no more on a tidal wave, in the years to come.
Talented and versatile
Shareefa Thahir is not only popular, as a radio personality, but she also has a big following on social media. Each time she uploads a new photo, or an event where she is in the spotlight, the ‘likes’ and ‘comments’ keep soaring. Shareefa does the scene at the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (Radio Sri Lanka – 97.4 and 97.6) as an English announcer, and news reader, and she is also a freelance TV presenter, and news anchor, on Rupavahini.
Had a chat with this talented, and versatile, young lady, and this is how it all went…
1. How would you describe yourself?
In just a few words, I would say a simple, easy-going person. And, my friends would certainly endorse that.
2. If you could change one thing about yourself, what would it be?
I love myself, and I accept whatever laws I may have. So, obviously, there’s nothing that I would want to change in myself.
3. If you could change one thing about your family, what would it be?
Absolutely nothing because they are amazing…just the way they are (and that hit by Bruno Mars ‘Just The way You Are’ came to mind when you asked me this question!)
Melbourne International, and Gateway College. I was the captain of my house and participated in athletics – track events, etc.
5. Happiest moment?
Oh, I will never forget the day I won the Raigam Award for my work on television.
6. What is your idea of perfect happiness?
Accept yourself and enjoy the tiny things in life.
7. Are you religious?
I believe in God, but I don’t think you should go about announcing it. I stay true to my heart.
8. Are you superstitious?
A little …..stitious! Hahaha! Just kidding – not at all!
9. Your ideal guy?
Someone who accepts me for who I am, and who is supportive in my journey…like I would be in his.
10. Which living person do you most admire?
I would say Jennifer Lopez, for the simple reason that she is still very energetic, and active, for her age (52), keeps herself in good shape, and still has a huge fan base.
11. Which is your most treasured possession?
Yes, I would say my talent.
12. If you were marooned on a desert island, who would you like as your companion?
My best friend as I would certainly need someone to chat with! Hahaha!
13. Your most embarrassing moment?
Saying ‘good morning’ to viewers on an evening live show!
14. Done anything daring?
Not yet. I wonder when I would get that opportunity to do something…real daring, like, let’s say, climbing Mount Everest!
15. Your ideal vacation?
A life without social media, in Greece, enjoying the beauty of nature.
16. What kind of music are you into?
Oh, I can go on and on about this; it depends on my mood. I love alternate rock, mostly, but I enjoy reggae, and pop, too.
17. Favourite radio station?
SLBC’s Radio Sri Lanka.
18. Favourite TV station?
Channel Eye (for obvious reasons).
19 What would you like to be born as in your next life?
20. Any major plans for the future?
I’m hoping to start a new venture. However, I’m keeping my fingers crossed, as right now the scene is pretty dicey, with this virus being so unpredictable.
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