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Leptospirosis – no longer the rural farmer’s disease

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Making a breakthrough in the study of leptospirosis, a bacterial infection transmitted from animals, a team of Sri Lankan researchers in a collaborative endeavour has discovered six new genotypes of this largely undermined tropical disease. In an exclusive interview with the Sunday Island, they throw light on the findings of their research which are now in international literature enabling new knowledge on the world’s commonest zoonotic disease.

by Randima Attygalle

No longer considered the ‘rural farmer’s disease’, leptospirosis, commonly called rat fever or mee una in Sinhala, is changing its dynamics, urging clinicians, health policy-makers and the public to revisit this common tropical disease of both humans and animals. The bacterium that causes leptospirosis is spread through the urine of infected animals, which can get into water or soil and can survive there for weeks or months. Many different kinds of wild and domestic animals carry the bacterium including cattle, pigs, rodents, dogs, horses and wild animals.

Humans can become infected with the bacterium either through contact with urine of an infected animal or with water or soil contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin, eyes, nose or mouth. Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. It is a serious occupational hazard for those working outdoors such as farmers, miners etc. and professionals such as veterinarians in close contact with animals. According to global research findings, around one million cases of leptospirosis and 58,900 deaths are estimated to occur worldwide each year. More than 70% of the deaths are reported from the tropical, poorest regions of the world.

A re-merging disease here at home, leptospirosis has gained much attention since the large outbreak in 2008. “The annual incidence of leptospirosis that had required hospitalization from 2008 to 2015 was 52.1 per 100,000 people, with an estimated case fatality rate of 7.0% according to National Health Bulletin data. In 2018 there was another resurgence in numbers. The disease is no more a ‘seasonal’ one as it was conventionally known to be, resulting in multiple outbreaks per year, notably during rainy seasons. Manifestations of the disease have also changed, with a wide array of new clinical entities such as pulmonary haemorrhage (bleeding into the lungs), pancreatitis, and myocarditis coupled with high case fatality. These shifts in the disease call for new strategies, new interventions and the need to reorganize ourselves as the health care sector,” says Dr. Panduka Karunanayake, Senior Lecturer from the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Colombo.

The purpose of this research project between researchers from several local institutions (Medical Research Institute and Base Hospital Elpitiya under the Ministry of Health, and University of Peradeniya and University of Colombo) and Japan (National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Tokyo, and Graduate School of Infectious Diseases and Institute of Genetic Medicine of Hokkaido University) had been to identify the serogroups and genetic groups of Leptospira organisms that are found here at home. “This knowledge is important to better understand the new clinical manifestations for their early diagnosis and treatment, and to know the carrier animal for specific control measures, as this disease is carried by animals,” explains Dr. Karunanayake.

A laborious process, first, the organisms need to be ‘isolated’ (grown) in artificial culture, and thereafter artificially ‘maintained’ (kept alive) in culture media. This needs specialized laboratories with biosafety measures. The National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Leptospirosis at the MRI offers this service to hospitals routinely. “Organisms were isolated from blood of patients affected by the 2015-2017 leptospirosis outbreak from the Base Hospital in Elpitiya and animal kidney tissue from Kandy. Once they were successfully grown and maintained in culture, they were sent to Japan for the genetic characterization which was done for us by the Japanese collaborator (Dr. Nobuo Koizumi, National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Japan),” says Dr Karunanayake.

The genetic characterization and serogroup analyses were done in NIID, Japan which demonstrated that these strains belonged to three genetically-defined species. “When their genotypic strains were analyzed, it was found that the isolates belong to 15 different strains, of which six were not described before in the world literature, hence treated as ‘novel genotypes’. Of these, three were from patients treated at the Base Hospital in Elpitiya. They were causing multiple complications such as kidney, liver, heart and lung involvement and septic shock. However, all of these patients survived,” says Dr. Karunanayake.

Although leptospirosis had been prevalent in our country since the 1950s, it has been changing its nature in the last decade. “While the number of cases are increasing alarmingly, the clinical picture too is changing, with the identification of new and troublesome complications including pulmonary haemorrhage, pancreatic involvement, heart involvement, community-acquired sepsis, etc.” he said. The disease is also affecting a wider group of people, such as those living in urban areas and people exposed only briefly to stagnant waters or floods.

“After 40 years since Dr. K. Nityananda’s work in the 1960s and 1970s at the NRL, we have been able to introduce new strains for the first time to the world literature on leptospirosis, again from the NRL,” observes Dr. Lilani Karunanayake, Consultant Clinical Microbiologist and Head/National Reference Laboratory for Leptospirosis at the Medical Research Institute. The emergence of new genotypes, as she points out, imply the importance of strict quarantine of imported cattle as well as other imported domestic animals that are potential reservoirs of leptospirosis. “Unintentional introduction of rodent reservoirs through improper garbage disposal and the existence of unidentified reservoir animals in the country also call for attention,” says the senior microbiologist who further says that new knowledge from this study will be valuable in future research for patient management and specifically-targeted control approaches for reservoir hosts in the prevention and control of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. She extended her thanks to the clinicians from various hospitals who sent in samples, which enabled these discoveries in the best interest of people.

The National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for Leptospirosis at the MRI which serves as the central referral laboratory in the country performs certain specific leptospirosis tests, samples for which are sent from hospitals island-wide. “Although certain tests could be performed at peripheral levels, some of the advanced cases need to be referred to the central lab,” notes Dr. Karunanayake, adding that the Teaching Hospitals at regional level should be strengthened with testing facilities for early detection.

Non-specific features of the patients such as fever, headaches, body aches, diarrhea which could mimic other conditions such as dengue has rendered early detection of leptospirosis very challenging, says Dr. Sajiv De Silva, Consultant Physician, Base Hospital, Balapitiya. “Hence kidney complications and the lung involvement are two specific features we give attention to in our investigations which often require intensive care. We also take serious account of the patient’s exposure to paddy fields and muddy water. In the Elpitiya patient cluster which we took as our research sample, the kidney complications and pulmonary haemorrhage were very severe which enabled us to add the new genotypes from this cluster to the world literature on leptospirosis.” He further remarks that these genotypes are more virulent than those found in the Western Province. Similar to the cluster in Elpitiya, more recent samples from patients in Galle, Balapitiya and Udugama in the Southern Province have reflected more severe complications, particularly lung and kidney complications which trigger rapid deterioration of the patient.

Patient demographic changes are also significant as the research reveals, points out Dr. De Silva. “Apart from farmers and miners who were traditionally identified as the most vulnerable to the disease, today we find a considerable percentage of young patients who had contacted it by merely visiting a paddy field or bathing in a river.” Diagnosing leptospirosis has become a “dilemma” for the physicians at the peripheral level, observes the Consultant who adds that, blurring lines between dengue and leptospirosis makes it more challenging. “In both situations platelets will drop. However in the treatment of dengue, while fluids need to be administered proportionate to the urine output, in the case of leptospirosis, fluids cannot be administered to mitigate pulmonary hemorrhage.”

Reiterating on the urgency of seeking early hospital care, the physician notes, “the earlier they come, faster the laboratory diagnosis would be.” Although clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis was not possible in the first few days of symptoms, today the availability of the PCR test (free in the state health sector) makes this possible, he adds. The toll the disease takes on families and the national health budget cannot be undermined. In a bid to create awareness on prevention of it by promoting safety footwear and early detection among the communities at rural level, a programme is now in place facilitated by the MOHs and PHIs says Dr. De Silva.

The breakthrough research is also a reflection of the validity of the ‘One Health’ concept where collaborative health efforts of multiple disciplines working nationally and globally can attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment, observes Dr. Chandika Gamage, Veterinarian and Senior Lecturer from the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya. “Pathogens isolated from rats and humans in a molecular study during the research had revealed same genetic strain types which have enabled us to enlarge our knowledge on leptospirosis,” explains Dr. Gamage.

Although traditionally leptospirosis had been considered a disease spread by rats (‘natural reservoirs’), it is now becoming clear that there are other animals, such as cattle, that harbour the bacteria and spread it, points out Dr. Gamage. The research had further thrown light on dairy cattle as a potent reservoir of the disease. They are often grazed on grassland infected with rat urine and can can set off a vicious cycle, says the Veterinarian. “One excretion of cattle urine can be an amplifier pathogen of leptospirosis.”

Concurrent studies in humans, animals and environmental sampling can determine how these interact to bring about disease in humans which validates the One Health approach, says the Veterinarian. Furthermore, diverse sero groups were found in this study to cause both human disease and that present in animals like cattle and buffalo, pointing towards the need for new preventive strategies to control human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka, he says. Research will also be extended to the study of domestic animals such as dogs and cats as potential carriers of the disease.

“It is imperative that we contribute to the control of leptospirosis through One Health perspective through preventive measures such as safe garbage disposal which would otherwise become breeding grounds for rats, vaccination of cats and dogs, use of preventive footwear in agrarian and other outdoor pursuits. While a patient infected with the disease may be treated, unless we adopt a holistic approach towards prevention, the environment around us could still be a catalyst of the disease hindering the control or even elimination of the disease.”

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ROYAL COLLEGE CADET PLATOON 1980

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An extract from the book

“G R A T I T U D E”

By Admiral Ravindra C Wijegunaratne

(Retired from Sri Lanka Navy) Former Chief of Defence Staff

The School Cadet Organization of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon) was established in 1881 by Mr. John B Cull, the Principal of Royal College, Colombo 7. The idea of introducing Cadetting to Royal was to train the students on drill to make them disciplined and responsible. Mr. Cull believed that well trained and disciplined youth at school will later become more responsible citizens with leadership skills and eventually will be better prepared for success in life.

History says that about 320 Ceylon school cadets at the ages of 16 to 20 years had volunteered to fight alongside the Allied Forces in the Great War from 1914 to 1918. Royal, St Thomes, Trinity and Kingswood sent their cadets to war. The contingent was consist of Royalists – 88, Thomians – 86, Trinitians – 74 and Kingswoodians – 72.

Even though very limited records on Royal College Cadets available on participation in Great War, first Ceylonese Cadet to paid supreme sacrifice was young Royalist W E Speldewinde who was drowned when troop ship “Villa Dela Ciotat” was torpedoed by Germans and sank in Mediterranean Sea.

First Ceylonese cadet to win a military decoration for bravery and valour was Captain O J Robertson, who was awarded with Military Cross. Other Royalist recipients of Military Cross in World War I were Second Lt H E Speldewinde de Boer, Lt C W Nicholas and Second Lt J Robertson.

Almost 30 per cent of them had paid the supreme sacrifice for the British Crown and many had been severely wounded in action. In 1917, a District Judge in Badulla, Mr. Herman Loos had presented a Challenge trophy to be awarded to the best school cadet platoon in the Island. This was the beginning of the Herman Loos trophy competition for Cadetting in Sri Lanka, and it was first won by the Kingswood College, Kandy.

When we joined the Royal College Cadetting in the late 1970s, the Cadetting legacy of Royal College was reaching its 100th anniversary. I was a member of the 1980 Royal College Cadet platoon. Our Sergeant was Naeem Mahamoor. Lance Sergeant of our Platoon was Arosha Jayawickrama who was an outstanding cadet and the best Commander of junior Cadetting. Supun Hennayaka, C K Rajapaksa and I were the three senior Corporals. Later in our lives, Naeem went on to Airline Management and held high positions in Saudi Arabia and Dubai. Arosha migrated to the USA soon after leaving the College. Supun became a well-known specialist medical Doctor in the country. CK and I joined the Armed Forces.

We were very fortunate that Lieutenant (NCC) H M Dharmaratne, came to Royal College in 1979 on a transfer from the Ananda Shastralaya, Kotte. He was a young and energetic Cadet Master who had brought several cadetting achievements to Ananda Shastralaya. Royal College finally had a very good Cadet Master. We began planning for our “Operation Herman Loos” at our Cadet room known as the ‘Armoury.’ Our ultimate goal was to win the prestigious Herman Loos trophy for the Best Cadet Platoon in Sri Lanka. We had our plan carefully reviewed and crafted by our Sergeant and Master in Charge. We knew that both the Commandant’s Test (which tested the First Aid knowledge and the Field craft & Map-reading test) offered 300 marks. All the other competitions namely ‘Hut Inspections’, ‘Squad Drill’, ‘Physical Training (PT)’, ‘Athletics’, and ‘Drama’ offered either 100 or 50 marks each. We also knew with past experiences that most of the other schools concentrate and spend much time in practicing and training of the Squad Drill and PT.

Instead of focusing a lot on training for the squad drill and PT, we spent more time in learning first aid, fieldcraft theories, and map reading. I, being a President’s Scout at the time was tasked with teaching first aid to the platoon.

Captain (then) Parakrama Pannipitiya, a distinguished old Royalist (who later rose to the rank of Major General) from Sri Lanka Army’s Sinha Regiment agreed to teach us field craft and map-reading during evenings and weekends. He was working at the Army Headquarters at the time. With these arrangements, we knew our knowledge on first aid, and field craft & map reading subjects would be much superior to other cadet platoons.

We boarded the train from Colombo Fort Railway station to travel to the Army camp at Boosa for our annual cadet camp and Herman Loos competition. Under the able leadership of our Sergeant Naeem Mahamoor, we were determined and confident that we could change cadetting at Royal that year. In the 99-year history of Herman Loos trophy, Royal College had won it just twice. That was in 1963 under Sergeant Weerakumar, and later in 1970 under Sergeant MR Moosa.

As expected, we won the Commandant’s test with a very high margin. Sri Lanka Army examiners were surprised by our performance and were very happy with our excellent knowledge. We also won the Hut Inspection and became second in place in the PT test. Those accomplishments helped us win the coveted Herman Loos trophy for the best Cadet Platoon in the country. Royal College won it after ten years and for the third time in 99 years.

The rest was history. Royal won the Herman Loos trophy again in 1981 under Sergeant Pradeep Edirisinghe (that was the centenary year of Cadetting at Royal), and again in 1982 under Sergeant H D Jayasinghe. Present Navy Commander Vice Admiral Nishantha Ulugetenna was Member of College 1981 and 1982 Herman Loos Trophy winning platoons. Later he rose to the rank of regimental quartermaster Sergeant – (RQMS) of 3rd Battalion of NCC.

Mr. Dharmaratne was the Royal College Cadet Platoon Master in charge for all three years. Later he was promoted to the rank of Captain in the National Cadet Corps (NCC). Thank you, Sir, for your guidance and advice as the Master in Charge of Royal College Cadetting for a very long time.

When we look back and see what we achieved 40 years ago with a clear plan and well-executed strategy, and have a sense of pride and accomplishment. What Mr. Cull, the Principal of Royal College wanted to achieve by introducing Cadetting to Royal in 1881 has materialized.

“Long live Cadetting at Royal College!”

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Budget 2021 likely to worsen macroeconomic instability amidst COVID-19 pandemic

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By Prof. Sirimevan Colombage

The Budget Speech 2021 was presented at a time when the country is being severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. GDP growth is projected to be down to negative 2 percent this year. Despite this economic setback, the government envisages to maintain an inclusive GDP growth rate of 6 percent per annum over the medium-term while containing inflation to around 5 percent, according to its macroeconomic programme, ‘Vistas of Prosperity and Splendour’.

 

Less emphasis on COVID-19

Given such optimistic targets, it is somewhat puzzling that the Budget Speech does not pay much attention to Covid-19 pandemic which has paralyzed virtually all economic activities by now. Reflecting mixed-up priorities, the Budget has given undue resource allocations at this difficult juncture to some arbitrarily selected projects such as urban townships, sports, road construction and walking paths, which have no direct relevance to revive the pandemic-hit economy, though they may have their own merits during normal times.

A coherent economic recovery strategy, apart from the fiscal and monetary stimulus already granted, is the need of the hour to revive the economy from the fallout. The pandemic has severe consequences on the Sri Lankan economy, which had already encountered multiple economic setbacks including low economic growth, fiscal disarrays, balance of payments deficits and foreign debt burden even prior to the health crisis. The pandemic has adversely affected the export sector, domestic production, inward remittances and distribution network. Poor households who are mostly working in the informal sector with irregular income sources have become extremely vulnerable in the present crisis situation.

 

Escalating fiscal imbalance

The budget deficit is projected to rise by 24 percent from Rs. 1,266 bn. (7.9 percent of GDP) in 2020 to Rs. 1,565 bn. (8.9 percent of GDP) in 2021, reflecting a severe deterioration of the fiscal position (Figure 1). It is expected that the total revenue would rise by 28 percent in 2021 as against 26 percent increase in total expenditure. Such exorbitant revenue growth cannot be expected for a single year even during normal times. The projected increase in revenue is said to be based on the assumption of 5 percent growth in GDP in 2021. This assumption seems to be over-optimistic considering the negative impact of COVID-19 in years to come, and the country’s limited growth potential experienced even before the outbreak of the pandemic. Slower GDP growth in 2021 means low level of government revenue, and consequent expansion of the budget deficit much higher than what is expected. Thus, the budget deficit is likely to be 10 percent of GDP or more in 2021.

 

Monetary implications of fiscal imbalance

With the rise in the budget deficit, the government is compelled to rely increasingly on the banking system to finance the deficit. Net bank credit to the government rose by 46 percent from Rs. 2,732 bn. in September 2019 to Rs.3.980 bn. in September 2020. The Central Bank has accommodated government finance requirements by directly purchasing Treasury Bills at primary auctions. The Central Bank’s net credit to the government rose by 50.8 percent from Rs. 383.2 bn. in September 2019 to Rs. 577.7 bn. in September 2020.

The monetary easing policy adopted by the Central Bank to relieve the households and businesses adversely affected by Covid-19 too accelerated the annual money growth from 7.4 percent in September 2019 to 19.2 percent in September 2020 (Figure 2). The monetary easing measures included sequential reductions of the policy interest rates and Statutory Reserve Ratio (SRR), which led to inject substantial liquidity into the market, and to reduce borrowing costs significantly. Concessional credit schemes were also introduced to facilitate the activities of Small and Medium-scale Enterprises (SMEs), alongside debt moratoria granted for businesses and individuals distressed by the pandemic.

Nevertheless, the annual growth of commercial bank credit to the private sector has remained stagnant around 5 percent reflecting the slow pick up of economic activities. In contrast, net commercial bank credit to the government rose by 44.9 percent in the 12-month period ending September 2020. In this background, the excessive money supply growth is bound to create demand pressures augmenting inflation and imports in the coming months.

 

Inflation-targeting monetary policy missing

Surprisingly, the Budget Speech does not make any reference to monetary policy which is vital in achieving macroeconomic stability, and sustaining economic growth. The Central Bank made concerted efforts about two years ago to launch the inflation-targeting monetary policy framework with the expectation of close coordination with fiscal authorities while regaining its independence. I categorically warned in these columns that such efforts would be suicidal for the Central Bank, unless the fiscal sector is aligned with such process committing to low budget deficits.

It is evident by now that inflation-targeting monetary policy is a remote possibility, as such policy is completely neglected not only by the fiscal authorities in the latest Budget Speech, but also by its architect, the Central Bank. Inflation-targeting monetary policy framework is not focused in the Central Bank’s publication, ‘Recent Economic Developments – Highlights of 2020 and Prospects for 2021’.

Understandably, it is not feasible to implement such rule-based policy amidst the current economic crisis, but the Central Bank should have displayed its long-term commitment to run the inflation-targeting monetary policy framework, which was declared with much grandeur not so long ago. That would strengthen the Central Bank’s independence, which is vital to operate monetary policy without undue political interference.

Demand pressures mounting

The easy monetary policy implemented by the Central Bank under the Presidential directive following the pandemic is unlikely to boost production activities significantly as expected, given the inherent weaknesses of enterprises, uncertain macroeconomic environment and imperative health-related precautionary measures imposed by the government including curfews, lockdowns and travel restrictions.

The global economic downturn resulting from the pandemic has dampening effects on the export sector. Further, business decisions in the private sector are mostly based on comparisons of the expected rate of return on investment vis-à-vis opportunity cost of investment. Interest rates represent the opportunity cost while expectations are influenced by many factors including macroeconomic economic environment, technological changes, exchange rate volatility, capacity utilization, export competitiveness, aggregate demand, fiscal stability, inflation, political stability, business confidence, and cost of production.

The present low interest rate environment encourages consumption, as savings yield low returns. Thus, low interest rates have negative effects on domestic savings. This is reflected in the downfall of domestic savings rate from 24.8 percent of GDP in the first half of 2019 to 20.8 percent in the corresponding period of 2020. Meanwhile, private consumption rose from 66.7 percent of GDP in the first half on 2019 to 70.5 percent in the same period of 2020. Given the low returns on savings, the surplus-fund holders tend to move to alternative assets such as commodities, real estate and risky financial instruments. Such fund diversions lead to distort investment decisions, and to create asset bubbles harming financial stability.

The rising consumption demand has spill-over effects on domestic production and imports exerting pressures on inflation and balance of payments deficits. Inflation, in addition to cheap credit, makes imports attractive and exports unprofitable, causing further deterioration of the trade balance. Unless the exchange rate is allowed to depreciate freely to achieve external equilibrium, import restrictions become imperative to avoid deterioration of the trade deficit. This type of inward-looking foreign trade policy seems to be the government’s policy choice at present, as can be evident from several import controls imposed in recent times. Although such measures are inevitable amidst the pandemic, it must be noted that they have adverse consequences on competitiveness, productivity and export-led growth in the long run. Hence, it is important to phase out import restrictions and to allow free trade.

Policy concerns

Given Sri Lanka’s long track record of low economic growth and macroeconomic imbalances, it is a major policy challenge to mitigate the economic fallout from COVID-19. Budget 2021 does not contain any coherent policy strategy to overcome the crisis. The budget deficit in 2021 is likely to be much higher than what is given in the official projections due to inevitable revenue shortfalls and expenditure overruns amidst the pandemic. In financing the widening budget deficit, increased reliance on bank borrowings results in liquidity injections, and consequent pressures on the money supply, inflation and balance of payments. The import restrictions imposed recently to arrest the balance of payments deficit might give wrong signals to the market depressing outward-oriented growth. Meanwhile, recourse to foreign borrowings escalates the already heavy external debt burden.

The response of the private sector to monetary easing seems rather weak due to structural factors while cheap credit has tended to encourage extravagant consumption, speculative asset holdings and risky financial dealings. The neglect of inflation-targeting monetary policy launched by the Central Bank about two years ago is a matter of concern from the viewpoint of optimal monetary-fiscal policy mix. A systematic growth strategy, backed by a realistic macroeconomic framework, is essential to recover the economy.

(The author is Emeritus Professor in Economics at the Open University of Sri Lanka)

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Good news about vaccine

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Cassandra, like so many others of her ilk, has locked herself down and voluntarily shut herself in the confines of her home. Being of mature age, she does not fret at self-imposed stay-at-home-ness and actually finds plenty to do to occupy the alone-hours. Such persons also know they are abiding faithfully by medical guidelines. Most sally forth on walks, masked and all, and keep in contact with friends and relatives via electronic wonders and that old faithful – the telephone. It needs effort to stave off fears and bouts of sinking spirits, and at night a further boost is needed. But being essentially optimistic, such persons give praise to the Task Force that is battling COVID-19 night and day. Also greatly appreciated are many helpers who are available to shop and run errands for them. Those who had no time to chant pirit or be prayerful do so now, with benefit, for it sure ensures a nightmare free night’s sleep.

We refrain from political talk as we have heard it is dangerous. Hence too Cass’s disinfected Friday articles. We spoke free and criticized where criticism was due during the yahapalanaya regime. The then Prime Minister, Ranil W, took criticism, even barbs and insults in his stride so we felt free to write about government and matters thereof. But no longer.

Return of the respected and trusted voice, though no longer heard

One radiant shaft of sunlight however, shone through recently. Newspapers announced Dr Anil Jasinha was back in the COVID-19 Presidential Task Force, at meetings at least, though sadly not visible on TV. We do miss him as when he spoke to the public we listened with full confidence in him, and were inspired. This is not meant to insult or demean others who took his place, and advise us on TV, all dedicated medical men, but personality and that earnest sincerity that came through when Dr J spoke was missing. It is not only what is said, but how it is said and received that make for effective communication. We were very suspicious of the ‘kick up’ he was given to move from the Health Ministry to Environment. Welcome back, respected Dr Jasinha and we hope we will see you again making announcements over TV. You called a spade a spade and that we appreciate. We are sick of being fed euphemistic news; good tidings all round and reams about the good our government is doing for the ordinary men and women of this fair isle. Spoons of salt are inbibed! Enough of treating us like fools! That really is how many politicians treat us, while in most cases, the boot is on the other foot.

We who have family overseas have resigned ourselves to leaving this life without seeing them. Terribly tragic but true and realistic. We are thus doubly interested in the manufacture of vaccines – for their sakes more than ours; those vaccines that have been tested and proved effective. Not those released before full testing is completed. Skyping a person in the US, I commented the Pfizer vaccine would cost much. He said the government over there has promised free distribution. Sure that’s a promise of Biden and not the barnacle clinging onto his residence in the White House and swinging more and more his golf club. He should swing himself out; that way of exit of orangutans seems suitable.

 

The Oxford vaccine

I had intended writing about half Sri Lankan, half Indian Dr. Maheshi Ramasamy who, having started her education in Sri Lanka, completed her medical degrees in the United Kingdom, and is now world-renowned as a member of the pioneering team of the most widely accepted vaccine against the global outbreak of Covid-19: the Oxford University vaccine. However, we have read about her great contribution in local newspapers this last Sunday, so I mean to quote from an article in the UK Guardian sent me, about the leaders of that team.

“At the heart of Oxford’s effort to produce a Covid vaccine are half a dozen scientists who between them brought decades of experience to the challenge of designing, developing, manufacturing and trialling a safe vaccine at breakneck speed.

“Prof Sarah Gilbert, the Kettering-born (in Northamptonshire, England) project leader, arrived at Oxford in 1994 to work with Prof Adrian Hill, a senior member of the team, on the malaria parasite, plasmodium. She soon fell into work on experimental vaccines, starting with one that roused white blood cells to fight malaria, followed by a ‘universal’ flu vaccine. As a researcher at Oxford, she gained a no-nonsense reputation, which some attribute in part to her raising triplets, though her husband gave up work to parent them.

“Hill, an Irish vaccinologist described by the Lancet as having ‘silent steeliness’, was first into clinical trials with an Ebola vaccine based on the chimp virus during the 2014 outbreak in West Africa. He and Gilbert patented the technology and in 2016 co-founded Vaccitech, an Oxford spin-off, to capitalise on the research.

“Oxford’s coronavirus work is built on research pioneered by Hill and Gilbert on vaccines based on a virus that causes common colds in chimpanzees. The adenovirus could be rendered harmless and then modified to smuggle genetic material into human cells. The trick was to make that material the gene for a protein on the surface of a nasty virus, one the immune system could lock on to.” The operative word here is ‘raced’ since these admirable pioneers have produced a vaccine and tested it to 70% effectiveness, to undergo one other test ensuring 90%, within a year, while the development of vaccines and full testing usually takes over at least two years. Work on the Oxford vaccine started as early as February this year. So even we oldies of Free Sri Lanka have hopes of being vaccinated as the Oxford vaccine is so much cheaper and can be transported easily. Praise be and grateful thanks to pioneers who sure would have worked against the clock.

Interesting to know about these pioneers. Adrian Vivian Sinton Hill, Irish vaccinologist, aged 62, studied in Trinity College Dublin and then at Oxford, He is director of the Jenner Institute, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, Consultant Physician and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. More interestingly: married to Dr Sunetra Gupta.

And thus, thanks to these selfless pioneers, even we Third Worlders may have a vaccine against Covid 19 fairly soon. WHO will assist of course, as Bill Gates is doing in African States.

 

Slowly giving way but as yet mulish

Yes, that is the defeated Prez of the US, still ensconced in the White House while whiling his time on golf links and sacking VIPs of his government and insulting his successor. Trump has directed that the hand-over of the presidency be facilitated but keeps reiterating that he has not been defeated and will not concede defeat. Absolutely unbelievably, masses are still behind him, flag waving and vociferous with a few Republicans on his side, while many have agreed it is time he goes. I suppose he depended on the ‘Bad Boys’ or whoever who banded themselves just prior to the 2016 presidential election. They seem to have had their fangs shortened,

We are far removed from the US but it was heartening to watch as Biden named his team, most having served under President Obama, with a number of women included. Quite a few are second generation immigrants with one having a step father killed during the Hotocuast. One contrast between his team and Trumps, the latter disintegrating, is that all Biden’s team are slim and trim while Trump had many fat cats behind him. Appearances are also very important.

Mum’s the word with sealed lips on matters Sri Lankan, if they are political! One comment, however, has to be made. We saw on TV Arjuna Ranatunge and some other UNPers wanting Ranil W as the sole nominated UNP member in Parliament. Well and good, since Ranil W is an experienced, highly knowledgeable, cleverly debating, able Parliamentarian. What Cass wishes to comment on is how ole John Amaratunge presented himself to the TV camera on Monday 23, claiming he should be the nominated MP. He is an octogenarian – just made it being born in 1940 – but seems advanced in his three score and ten plus plus. He must be having a vitamin he takes for eternal springy (imagined/induced) vitality and verve! Never say die seems to be his motto after being once accused of sitting on the fence – UNPer given gift trip to the Vatican by the then SLFP government, accompanying Prez Mahinda R, no less!

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