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Clean energy without foreign exchange

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[This article is dedicated to the late Dr. Janaka Ratnasiri who tirelessly worked hard to make the country move away from fossil fuels.]

According to a news report published in The Island (17 July 2021), the CEB Engineers Union had stated that the government’s target for increasing to 70% the electricity from renewable energy to the national grid is not practical. Apparently, even if it were practical, the CEB does not have computerised infrastructure for managing the variable switching-in and switching-out, needed for integrating “non-firm” energy sources like wind and solar into the grid.

The CEB can say, if we only had that “excess capacity” then blackouts wouldn’t happen! But this is irrelevant, given Dr. Siyambalapitiya’s admission (The Island 19-08-20) that “the system” cannot even handle a 0.5% power fluctuation from “unmonitored” sources like “solar and wind”.

Engineer S. Kumarawadu, the President of the CEB Engineers Union, claims that transmission lines have to be upgraded to meet targets. That should have been a part of the long-term plan anyway. One hopes that the CEB union is more reliable than the GMOA, where Dr. Padeniya has been making statements from cloud cuckooland itself (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rGe6ld2q1vs).

The views of the CEB Engineers Union are very relevant to the country’s energy planning. However, it also has gross vested interests. What the power sector in Sri Lanka does NOT have, is an independent Research and Development (R&D) arm, similar to the Tea Research Institute, Coconut Research Institute, etc., available for agriculture. It is the vital research done by the rice research institutes in developing high-yielding seeds that kept up with the population explosion and fed the country. They faced political bulls running amok in the agricultural china shop, advocating a return to traditional seeds, traditional manure, and the use of occult practices like “kem”, while advocating getting rid of “all chemicals”.

As they are not guided by an R&D arm, the engineer managers choose conventional turn-key solutions that they know of. The CEB is an “unthinking beast” that does not run research projects or pilot plants and patent new ideas. Its “Long Term Generation Planning” (LTGP) Branch makes a no-brainer expansion plan every year.

The CEB’s LTGP 2015-2034 is still excessively tied to fossil fuels. This is not surprising, as it does not have the capacity to integrate new technologies, or even run a proper simulation of its own system, its power failures and blackouts. It has gone to Canadian, European or Japanese organisations to do simulations that should have been “in house” jobs. Its “research” is at best a tender board tango done with wheeler-dealing politicians. The CEB ends up blaming politicians who canceled “well-laid” LTG plans, while the politicians blame an uncooperative “CEB mafia”!

Consider the claim (see The Island, 17th July) that supplying 70% of the needed power using renewable sources is not practical. This is contradicted by other information sourced to the CEB itself. A news report (23-12-2019, The Island) claimed that when there were heavy rains, 70% of the power needed came from hydroelectricity. Similarly, on 10th August 2020 the CEB reported that over 50% of the power came from hydro as there had been adequate rains.

Some 40 GWh is needed at present. Hydroelectricity provides about 20 GWh of this, while coal provides some 18 GWh. As mentioned above when there is sufficient rain, 70% of the needed electricity comes from hydro! That is, some 28 GWh can be harvested if the water levels are preserved over the two monsoons. So, this increased the the hydro-electric output by some 40%. This figure is consistent with high hydro-electric outputs in the rainy seasons.

When the reservoirs are full, the evaporation is also extreme. King Parakramabahu wanted to use every drop of water reaching the ocean but did not consider evaporation. In my writings during the past two decades, I have pointed out the need to stop the over 30-40% evaporation losses happening day and night, due to the wind and the prevailing heat. These worsen with global warming. During heavy rains the water spills over and gets wasted. Additional storage to save spill water by restructuring reservoir dams, and using locally made floats to cover parts of the surface to cut evaporation can boost the hydro-electricity output over 30-40%.

So far, just by protecting the water from evaporation and spillage, we gain perhaps a 30% boost in hydro-power without using any solar panels. Floats can be added WITHOUT foreign exchange. If solar panels and wind turbines are added around these reservoirs, even more energy is harvested. Do your own calculations to see what you get! For answers, see my earlier articles, e.g., The Island of 15.07.2020, or 31-08-20: https://island.lk/sri-lankas-power-supply-blackouts-and-how-to-prevent-them/). Hence you don’t need any fossil fuel in the end.

Evaporation control will become extremely acute with increased global warming. Otherwise, even the 20GWh currently supplied by Hydro will dwindle down due to extended droughts. However, once the systems are set up to prevent evaporation, the gained 30-40% increase in hydroelectricity is produced by a gain in head water in the reservoir. NO STORAGE BATTERIES ARE NEEDED. This is “firm energy” and remains compatible with the utterly outdated grid stabilization schemes still used by the CEB.

So, preventing evaporation will rapidly increase the island’s power capacity by, say, 30% . Given some 22 major hydroelectric reservoirs with a surface area of about 1000 ha each, if 50% of the surface be covered using floats, 11,000 ha (110 sq km) are protected. It can be shown that the environmental impact is positive. The water quality is improved due to reduced algae growth. The annual hydro-power of about 6000 GWh will rise to 8000 GWh when evaporation is cut. This is the cheapest and cleanest possible electricity!

Typically, sunlight can annually produce about 100-200 GWh per sq. km (100 ha) under Sri Lanka’s conditions. If solar panels are also placed on the floaters deployed to cut evaporation, then 1000-2000 GWh per annum of solar energy can be harvested, with no hassle or delays in acquiring land rights. Any excess daytime energy can be saved by retaining the corresponding amount of hydro-head in the reservoirs, without sending the reservoir water down into the turbines. That is, solar electricity has been stored without batteries and converted to firm power!

Furthermore, evaporation shields, equipped with solar panels are a one-time capital investment, and there is no need for continued importation of LNG, coal or oil as envisaged in the conventional expansion plan of the CEB that takes no account of global warming. The type of costly infrastructure development needed for LNG is not needed for the simple approach of cutting down evaporation, as the first conservation step that will boost Sri Lanka’s clean power capacity. And yet, in the LTGP 2020-2039, the CEB has only paid lip service to government policy on fuel diversification by adding LNG-based generating capacity, whereas LNG is an expensive fossil fuel that should have been avoided! Why is LNG energy being falsely referred to as “clean energy” in CEB documents?

However, unconventional solutions should NOT be implemented without running pilot projects. Such projects must be run by a yet to be established Power Research Institute, which should have been established at least in the days of the accelerated Mahaweli project. A first floating solar project has been proposed near the Parliament, on the Diyawanna Lake. But this is largely a no-brainer as the Diyawanna lake is not connected to a turbine, and no gain in evaporation is achieved. No natural mechanism of energy storage, as saved water is available and one has to resort to batteries.

Some unconventional solutions that have been proposed (without any trials or pilot projects) include the use of urban garbage as an energy source, while ignoring the now well established biomass approaches that use fast-growing Giricidia or Castor to produce dendro energy. Several 10MW dendro plants already exist, and establishing 20 more within the next 2-3 years, to add 200MWs of capacity is straightforward.

Attempts to use urban garbage in settings similar to Sri Lanka, e.g., India, has led to failure in actual operations. Only a total of 138 MW has been installed in India by 2019 although its garbage output is massive. The extreme wetness of the garbage, inadequate separation of wet garbage from dry garbage, and the difficulties of plant operation for methane production, incineration and pyrolysis, and disposal of toxic ash have become serious problems. This is, in my view, an unsuitable approach for Sri Lanka, although suitable for a research and development (R&D) pilot project, since Colombo alone produces 2-5 thousand tons of urban garbage per day. Sri Lanka should develop dendro power while leaving “garbage to energy” conversion as an R&D project.

CHANDRE DHARMAWARDANA

Canada



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Opinion

‘Nitro Raja’: Magic Fertiliser arrives!

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By Dr PARAKRAMA WAIDYANATHA

The consignment of nano urea, much spoken about produced by Indian Farmer Fertiliser Corporation (IFFCO}, had just arrived! Locally it is named “Nitro Raja!” Can the imported Raja settle our fertiliser woes, where the ‘local Raja’ has hitherto failed?

What is nano urea, many people ask! For the layman it may best be described as something akin to “Seeni- polkohu” or “Bombai-motai”, where sugar particles are attached to a fibrous material. Similarly, in nano urea, the urea molecules are attached to oligosaccharide (examples, starch and sugar) molecules. This greatly enhances the efficacy of the applied urea to crops.

The advantage is that, whereas urea when applied to the soil, often much of it is wasted through leaching, run-off in rain water and vaporisation, losses are very small with the nano formulation. Even normal urea if applied to plants as a leaf spray in good weather, the losses are far less than application to the soil. Up to a maximum of 5% of chemical nutrients can be applied as foliar spray, and in fact urea is, for example, routinely applied in tea plantations usually mixed with zinc sulphate, which research has reported, to boost crop yields substantially.

Regrettably the imported consignment apparently is exclusively for rice cultivation. Is it because the tea growers were not as vociferous and violent as the rice farmers in their demonstrations and ministerial effigy-burning? Ideally, for the tea growers, too, urea is critically important. As most would have applied all nutrients over the years, the soil reserves of nutrients should suffice to tide over an year or more except for nitrogen, the most yield determining nutrient; and the current huge tea crop losses could have been saved, if at least urea in whichever form were supplied to the tea industry.

The critical issue is, however, whether at the recommended rate, the imported nano urea could effectively meet the crop nitrogen demand. It is imported in 500 ml bottles and each bottle content, the advertisement says, is equivalent to a 50 kilo bag of normal fertiliser urea. Nevertheless, it is further stated in the advertisement that the contents has a nitrogen(N) concentration of only 4%, whereas normal urea has 46%.

Meeting Demand?

Let us see whether the supplied nano urea can meet the crop nitrogen demand at the prescribed application rate. The national average yield of rice is now 5 tons /hectare. Therefore, an average rice crop by way of grain and straw removes about 80 kg/ha, and the normal rate of application of nitrogen for a good rice crop is 100kg/ha . So, in whatever way the crop is fertilised (with nano urea or normal urea) a 5 ton rice crop/ha should remove a minimum of 80 kg of nitrogen. Theoretically, however, the recommended nano-urea formulation imported can only provide 20 grams of nitrogen per 500 ml bottle, and to provide the requisite nitrogen of 80kg/ha to the crop, therefore, 4000 such bottles should be applied! The cost of a 500 ml bottle is reported to be Indian Rs 240, which is about local Rs 500. Theoretically then, the nano fertiliser per crop to provide the entire crop nitrogen requirement should cost two million rupees! Can this nano urea then practically meet the total crop nitrogen demand ?

The crux of the matter is that, in India, where nano urea is used, usually a basal application of conventional urea is made to the crop, and nano urea is only sprayed at mid- maturity as a foliar spray for boosting the crop.

The other serious concern is that when nano urea is spayed as the crop is growing, the emerging weed growth in the absence, now, of the two standard herbicides used in rice, one before crop emergence (usually Propanil) and the other ( MCPA )when the crop is in early growth(post emergent), could be substantial. Nearly 95% of the rice growers broadcast seed, and hand weeding is difficult in such crops. Row seeding is highly labour demanding and row seeders are costly. Much of these weeds are highly competitive C4 grasses and sedges, which too will benefit from the foliar nano urea spray and increase the competitiveness, reducing the crop yield!

One of the growing concerns today, globally, in the fertiliser scenario is, not whether it is organic or chemical, but with the grain production anticipated to increase by at least 40% in the next decade and 60% of the nitrogenous fertiliser used for it, the devastating environmental AND pollution issue . Many argue the answer is in cutting down meat consumption as bulk of the grain in the developed world is used as animal feed!

However, there is already technology generated for improving N management practices at the farm level, and nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUE) increases of 36% and 32% have been achieved in the U.S and Japan respectively in the last few decades; one of them being nano fertilisers. With novel plant breeding and fertisier technologies many scientists envision reaching 90-100% NUE in the near future.

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Distorting Buddhism

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By Dr Upul Wijayawardhana

Two recent glaring distortions of the life of the Buddha, in Sinhala newspapers, has compelled me to pen these thoughts. Contrary to the high standards maintained by most of the English language newspapers, I have been appalled by the journalistic standards of some of their Sinhala counterparts. True, Sinhala is a difficult language but if it is to be simplified, it should be done with the consensus of experts than by gross disregard of typography at the whims and fancies of editors. In spite of this, we love to watch programmes surveying Sinhala newspapers for a multitude of reasons and it has become a daily routine in our lives though, unfortunately, some of these programmes have of late become crude political tools and means for the glorification of some presenters. Headlines in Sinhala newspapers are a better indicator of ‘how the wind is blowing’ and, more importantly, the sharpest ‘weapon’ attacking politicians, sarcasm, is at its best in the poems and cartoons. Indian Prime Minister Modi honoured Sri Lanka and recognised the importance of Sri Lanka in Buddhism, by inviting a delegation from Sri Lanka to be the first to land officially at the newly developed Kushinagar International airport. A delegation consisting of 100 high-ranking Buddhist monks and some Ministers, led by Minister Namal Rajapaksa, arrived there on the inaugural SriLankan Airlines flight for the opening ceremony on Wednesday 20th, the Vap full moon Poya day.

A headline in one of the Sinhala newspapers, on 20th, stated that an airport in Prince Siddhartha’s place of birth was to be opened that day! How could the reporter confuse the place of Buddha’s Parinibbana with the place of birth Lumbini, which is in Nepal? The following day, another Sinhala newspaper, reporting on the opening ceremony with a beautiful photograph of our Monks walking in procession, had a poem as the headline. Unfortunately, the poem stated that Sangha with “Nava Arahadi Guna” were in procession. Even a child knows that the correct term is “Nava Arahadi Budu Guna” which refers to the Nine Noble Qualities of the Buddha! Considering that on many an occasion our editor has saved me from embarrassment by correcting inadvertent mistakes I have made; I find it puzzling that these glaring mistakes were not picked up by the respective editors. In many recent ‘Quiz shows’, Muslim children have shown surprising depth of knowledge about Buddhism and the life of the Buddha. Considering this, is it not appalling that reporters and headline writers make such inexcusable mistakes? To add insult to injury, not even the newspaper reviewers picked up on these howlers. Perhaps, they do not understand what a review means! I am beginning to wonder whether there are deliberate attempts at distortion as, for quite some time, there have been spurious claims made on the life of the Buddha, often by the members of the Sangha itself.

Instead of following the path the Great Teacher showed, some of them want to bolster their argument that Sri Lanka is the birthplace of the Buddha, in spite of confirmed archaeological evidence to the contrary. Recently, a friend of mine forwarded what appeared to be a clip of a news item, titled “The lawsuit uncovering the world’s biggest colonial scandal – Rediscovery of Bhudha’s true home land”. It stated that a lawsuit had been filed in the UK courts, by a Buddhist monk living in Norway, requesting that Sri Lanka be declared the place of birth of the Buddha and compensation be paid for British archaeologists distorting facts. This took me completely by surprise as I had not heard of any such action and my suspicions were aroused because there was no indication what the news channel was. I sent the following message to my friend:

“Did you forward this because you believe in what is stated?” and I got a vague reply. Fortunately, another friend forwarded the same message with additional information in the form of an audio clip, addressed to a Nayaka Priest in Sri Lanka, by a Bhikkhu living in London wherein he states that there is no such action pending and the person referred to is a person connected to the LTTE, living in Norway, pretending to be a Buddhist priest! When I googled to get details of the organisation this Norwegian Bhikkhu represents, there was no information about the person concerned, but there was a page seeking contributions!Maybe, this is an imposter out to make a fast buck, but we have enough ‘robed-men’ demonstrating behaviour in total contrast to the teachings of the Buddha. During the teacher’s strike, one of these who leads a nurse’s trade union, though not having any nursing experience at all, took the leader of the teacher’s union, who has not done even a day’s teaching, to the Prime Minister for a settlement.

Then there is the dirty spectacle of two politicians in robes fighting for a parliamentary seat! One of the fundamental teachings of the Buddha is “Tanhaya Jayati Soko”—Greed begets sorrow—but their greed seems endless! Interestingly, one these distinguishes himself by being in all the major parties and is now prepared to go to courts to retain his seat.We have Sangha Nayakas, “Adhi Karana” Judicial Sangha Nayakas but nothing seems to be happening to these men in robes who are a disgrace, to say the least, to the Buddha. I am told that an ‘Adhi Karana’ Sangha Nayaka for the UK also has been appointed recently. I cannot understand why all these Bhikkhus are driven by greed for positions. Perhaps, it is excusable if they at least serve a purpose. Buddhist principles are distorted and destroyed whilst those in authority are in a slumber. I do tender my humble apologies to many Buddhist monks around the world who render a great service in the true spirit of the Dhamma, and do hope these comments, in no way, hurt them. In fact, we are very fortunate to have three Venerable Monks in our local Vihara whom we can worship without any hesitation. I often wonder, whether the future of Buddhism is in the West!

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Running against the Wind: Remembering Engineer Lalith Vidanapathirana

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Phidias, the great sculptor was immersed in work. It was 447 BC, and Phidias was given the mission to sculpt a massive statue of the goddess of wisdom and war –Athena by a statesman of Athens – Pericles. He was working high above ground, behind the head of Athena for a long time. A passerby, who knew little about sculptures wanted to ridicule Phidias and shouted at him… ‘’O great sculptor Phidias..! Who will ever want to know what kind of fine works you are creating up there..? No one is going to climb this massive statue and have a look”. Phidias had a simple answer. “I will…” Men of this nature, who will put everything… heart and soul to a task, given to them when no one is looking are rare. Yet, we at Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) are fortunate to have many such men among us, at every level of the organisation. Men who will silently work under trying conditions to keep the country lit up and active, without craving for attention and glory. Leaving the master sculptor Phidias in the distant past, let me tell the story of one such man from the not so distant past.

I first encountered him at the Deputy General Manager’s office of CEB in Galle in 1987. He was an energetic Construction Engineer and we were a group of trainees from University of Moratuwa, two years into the degree programme. We were comfortably seated around a table, solving various problems. Suddenly we heard a strong voice, which appeared to carry a lot of authority. What are you trainees doing here? It was a command that was so direct and clear. We had no business indoors; we should be outdoors. Thus begun a spell of constant engagement in various projects in and around Galle. We learnt much about electricity distribution and about what to expect in a career as electrical engineers.

Time passed and we met again in 1997 now both of us working for the same organisation, CEB, at a training workshop on Power System Protection. He caught my attention as the most active participant shooting so many practical questions. He instantly recognised me and exclaimed that it is so very nice to have me in CEB. Then our paths crossed again in 2006, this time at a training workshop on wind energy where I was the coordinator. I remember his enthusiastic participation, posing practical questions at the foreign resource persons. Among the trainees, he benefited more than all the younger participants I reckoned, even at that early stage of wind power development in Sri Lanka. CEB then had only 3 MW of capacity from wind power and now, 103 MW capable of providing the annual electricity requirements of more than 400,000 Sri Lankan homes.

This story is about the Engineer Lalith Vidanapathirana who made a massive contribution to make it happen on the ground.

Then he went on overseas leave to assist the newly formed Iraqi Government to rebuild Iraq’s electricity infrastructure. This was a UNDP assignment which benefited Iraq, as he was able to fully develop teams capable of shouldering the massive reconstruction burden, after years of conflict. The battered Iraqi engineers and technicians had great respect and love to Lalith. He rebuilt their skills from ground zero to re-establish and operate the electricity network in those conflict affected regions in Iraq. Most of the tasks he undertook were way out of the narrow scope of the UNDP consultants’ brief. With Lalith’s leadership. Iraqi men were ready to do it themselves.

When Lalith returned to Sri Lanka, I worked with him in a boundary metering project, and we had a lot of time together. This is when we attempted to scale up the success of the first wind power project in Hambantota under the guidance of Mr. Samarasinghe and Mr. Ayiradasa, as a 30MW wind project in Kalpitiya. We did everything in our capacity to implement this, but it wasn’t a success.

During these days I learnt about his early career at Samuel & Sons, the famed engineering outfit of colonial heritage, where he practiced his heavy engineering. I was told that he was a formidable force in many construction projects implemented by Samuel & Sons. With this knowhow, he was a much sought after person in CEB. He caught the attention of his superiors as one of those ‘doers’ who fronted difficult assignments. Actually, it was all Lalith was about – leading. Be it the transmission lines destroyed by insurgents or distribution systems torn apart, he was willing to lead from the front.

Then on a beautiful day in 2016, Lalith called me and asked whether I would join him to build the wind power plant in Mannar. By that time my colleagues Kumara and Thusitha has done a sizable job in Mannar, initiating all-important bird survey and other pre-project development work. I told Lalith, I will join if you agreed to lead the project and train young engineers. Lalith, without a hint of hesitation, agreed.

Here we were, once again in the same boat, but not in the calm seas as during the boundary metering project. Had nothing to start with, but Lalith being the doer, managed to amass all the resources required to initiate this task within a few months. He was very active, and barged into offices of his superiors with impunity and sometimes even to the Board room, to get things done. Not for him, but for the project, for public good.

He stood by his team through struggles and fought for what he believed in with the sincere motive to get things done. He gave all of us absolute freedom to work; in the way we liked, but at his pace. So, we accomplished all pre-project development tasks within a short period of time and more importantly was able to build and develop capacity within the team. We saved a few million Dollars and a whole year of project gestation period because he trusted our ability. He was truly an engineer. He never minced his words or give way to the opponents, standing firm for a public cause, taking a resolute stand on issues. We learnt many things from Lalith, engineering and otherwise, all of which cannot be enumerated here.

The 103 MW, the largest-ever wind power plant in Sri Lanka, was about to enter the construction phase. Then came the devastating news about a serious illness he had developed. The illness reduced his mobility, but he made it a point to attend all important events. He had a dream, just to see one turbine erected “before I go” he would tell us. He did not wait that long, he only lived to see the selection of a leading turbine manufacturer as the main contractor. However, he fulfilled his dream to see his son’s graduation ceremony, albeit his failing health. He left us on 22nd October 2018.

Mannar wind power project is now a reality. I stood diminutive under the massive wind turbines standing tall on the Mannar shoreline and running against the wind, which reminded me of the struggles made by many unsung heroes who genuinely contributed to it. As the sun disappeared beyond the horizon, painting the Western skies in crimson, the beautiful song by Bob Seger started playing deep within me…

We were running against the Wind…

We were young and strong, we were running against the Wind…

Well, I am older now but still running against the Wind…

against the Wind… against the Wind… against the Wind…

This by all means is a feeble attempt to share my memories of a man of integrity, dedication and practical approach. It is also an attempt to appreciate and recognise the lives of many other Sri Lankans, who are still running against the Wind. It is also to remind the young, not to get swept away by Winds. For his impressive run of life was always against the Wind.

May he attain the supreme bliss of Nirvana.

Ajith Alwis

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