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The first P & O Voyage to the East



(Leaving Southampton on September 24, 1842)

By Hugh Karunanayake

(We are indebted to Sir William Twynam (a passenger on this historic voyage) who was known as the Rajah of the North having worked as Government Agent. of Jaffna for 50 years, for his memoir which is the basis for the story of the voyage. The memoir was published in 1916 at the request of Miss Barbara Layard, one of his co- passengers on that historic voyage which took place in 1842. Sir William Twynam born in Ceylon was the son of Thomas Holloway Twynam Master Attendant of the Galle Harbour. He settled down in Jaffna after his retirement from the Ceylon Civil Service after a period of 50 years. More on Sir William Twynam could be found below)


Until the opening of the Suez Canal in 1865, the P & O Company (established in 1837)plied two large steamships “the Great Liverpool” and “Oriental” between Southampton and Alexandria. Passengers and mails were transported thereafter from Alexandria to Cairo in canal boats on the Mahmoudieh Canal. From Cairo to Suez passengers were carried in cars or vans over a stretch of desert. Thus the route was called the “overland route” .

Since there was no service between the Suez and Bombay, the Government of India used the Indian Navy to transport passengers between Suez and Bombay, liaising with two P&O vessels “Great Liverpool” and Oriental which plied between Southampton and the Suez. The mail to Ceylon were conveyed monthly to and from Bombay by the steamer “Seaforth” operated by the Ceylon Government. The arrangement continued till the inauguration of the service to the East by the P & O Company. Two vessels the “Hindostan” and “Bentinck” each of 1,800 tons and 500 hp wooden paddle ships were built by the firm Wilson of Liverpool. Bentinck was sent out in 1842.

Ms Barbara Layard at whose request Sir William wrote this memoir, was a fellow passenger in the “Hindostan. She was one of the 26 children of C.E. Layard of the Ceylon Civil Service, and a long time resident of Nuwara Eliya.

SS Hindostan (1842)

was the first ever steam auxiliary ship to run between the Suez Canal and Calcutta; During the early colonial period, when the East India Company became well-established after having taken over the whole of Bengal and adjacent lands, regular navigational shipping services between India and England became a dire necessity.  This was to bring in workforce, cargo and mail from England.

The East India Company entered into a contract with the P & O Co. for carrying mail. The “Hindostan” had three masts for sails, and paddles run by 520 horsepower engines, and was carrying 2,017 tons; 249 feet in length, it was made in a  Liverpool dockyard under the direction of  Charles Wye Williams, marine engineer,  It began its long voyage on  September 24, 1842 from Southampton to Calcutta. It took 91 days to sail to Calcutta harbor;  it was a 4,787- mile journey from Calcutta to Suez in 25 days three hours, made despite SW monsoon winds and rains. It proved to be a boon for the mercantile traders. In July 1849 Queen Victoria requested to visit Hindostan at anchor in Southampton water close to Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Indeed, a great honour for the shipping Co., the P&O. The “Hindostan” plied via Suez and Calcutta with stopovers at Colombo and Madras. Its very first passage round the Cape of Good Hope to Calcutta was faster than the overland mail to Bombay via Mediterranean  and the Suez. There was provision for 102 First Class passengers, including their servants. It was a bimonthly service between Suez and Calcutta.

An interesting feature was giving due importance to the comforts of the passengers on a long journey; the ”passenger cabins” were in the middle of the ship  where the effect of pitching and rolling will be much less.


Sir William Twynam describes the departure of the Hindostan from Southampton on the first voyage by the P & O Co. as follows: ” Amid much cheering, display of bunting, firing of salutes, and manning of yards and rigging and the hearty good wishes of sympathizers and friends (a fitting send off to the pioneer of a great enterprise) the good steamship “Hindostan” of the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, under the command of Captain Robert Moresby, late of the Indian Navy, steamed out of Southampton and down the Solent, on the afternoon of September 24, 1842, on her way to Calcutta to start the great steam mail service to the East.

At the time of the launch of the ‘Hindostan’ steam powered navigation was in its infancy, and there were no coal depots at the ports between Southampton and Calcutta. Ports of call had to be arranged, and colliers sent in advance to await the arrival of the steamer. Six ports of call had been arranged for the “Hindostan”, viz Gibratar, St Vincent, Ascension, The Cape, Mauritius and Galle in Ceylon.


The “Hindostan” on its first voyage brought out a full complement of passengers for the Cape, Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta, chiefly military officers and civilians returning from furlough – cadets and writers of the East India Company’s service for Madras and Calcutta. In the words of Sir William Twynam “Passengers for Ceylon included Mr Charles Layard of the Ceylon Civil Service, father of Sir Charles Peter Layard, retired Chief Justice, Miss Tammy Layard who died in Colombo. Miss Layard who married Mr David Sabonadiere of Delta Estate. Miss Babara Layard. Another young Miss Layard whose name is forgotten.

Other passengers included Nurse Miss Llewellyn who came out to marry Mr Ritchie of the firm of Wilson, Ritchie, and Co. Mrs Hudson wife of Mr Frank Hudson, a well known character in Ceylon, and soon after head of the firm of Hudson, Chandler and Co. She became Mrs Holsworthy, wife of Captain Holsworthy of the Rifles Regiment: he exchanged into West India and was drowned in Port Royal owing to the capsizing of a boat carrying a pleasure party. She, I was informed, married again, but I do not know to whom. Mr Shaw and Mrs Shaw, I do not know on what account they came to Ceylon. She was more or less an invalid during the voyage, apparently from sea-sickness.

They were joined at the Cape by a brother of Mrs Shaw. Mr William Shand came out to go in for coffee planting. Lieut Werge came out to join the Ceylon Rifles. Captain Scott of the mercantile marine who had just given up command of the Indian “Robert Small” to go in for coffee planting. A gentleman and lady whose name I do not recollect, with a relative somewhat off his head. Another gentleman who came for sugar planting near Galle from the West Indies.On board from Southampton to Calcutta were Cadets Emerson, nephew of Sir James Emerson Tennent. Thompson Fowle and his brother a writer who married in India Miss Caroline Garstin sister of Rev Norman Garstin sometime chaplain of Galle and sister Mrs Lindsay of Rajawella.


With the exception of a few squalls of rain in the channel and Bay of Biscay, the weather was fine on the run from the Solent to Gibraltar, the Bay of Biscay was on its best behaviour and gave no trouble.

On the morning of the September 28 the coast of Portugal was sighted. On Thursday September 29 we sighted Gibraltar and anchored at 6 pm near the company’s coal hulk. On the 30th coaling was carried on, and most of the passengers went on shore and amused themselves sight seeing, shopping, and going up the rock to see the fortifications and excavations. Fine weather was experienced during the run to the Cape Verde Islands. Passed the Canaries on the forenoon of October 5, had a beautiful view of the Peak of Tencriffe, sighted San Antonio of the Cape Verde Islands on the morning of Saturday the 8th and St Vincents in the evening. The steamer was taken into the harbour between 7 and 8 pm.The firing of signal guns and the discharge of rockets and blue lights giving notice of the arrival of the steamer off the port.

There was not much to be seen in the town, the population of which consisted of Portuguese, Negroes, and Portuguese and Negro half castes. The passengers amused themselves with occasional runs on shore, fishing (fish being plentiful round the ship) attempts at shooting by few in the neighbourhood, these were not however successful. Coaling having been completed by the afternoon of the 13th the steamer left the Cape Verde Islands for Ascension at 6 p.m. Ascension was a great place for turtle which were plentiful. In those days the advent of a steamer like the “Hindostan” full of passengers, many of whom were ladies, was a great event.

On the morning of November 8th the vessel crept into St Helena Bay about 120 miles north of the cape. A Dutch farmer and his family, of about a dozen, a Dane and two or three others seemed to be the only inhabitants at St Helena Bay. The “Hindostan” cleared out of St Helena Bay and anchored next morning November 15th at Table Bay. During the stay at Table Bay the ship was open to visitors who were charged a small sum, the amount collected to be paid over to a charity. It was astonishing to see the number of people who visited to see the “wonderful steamer”: !

On the afternoon of the November 18, ‘the table cloth’ was spread on that extraordinary rock the Table Mountain. The white cloud signifies the ushering in of a gale. On Monday November 21 two days after leaving Table Bay the steamer began to pass through the centre of a cyclone or hurricane. Whilst at dinner the ship tumbled around causing some alarm although after about two hours the Hindostan steamed out of it.

At the Cape there were new passengers joining the ship. Among them the Pattles bound for Calcutta. The family has had long an enduring connections with Ceylon. Mr Pattle of the Bengal Civil Service, Mrs Pattle, two Misses Pattle, Mr Pattle(Junior) comprised the family. One of two Miss Pattles could well be the famous photographer Julia Margaret Cameron who married Charles Hay Cameron of the historic Colebrooke/Cameron reforms which recommended the foundation for an administrative and legal framework within which Ceylon could be administered.

According to John Penry Lewis in “List of inscriptions on Tombstones and Monuments in Ceylon” Colombo 1913″Mrs Cameron(ie Julia Margaret) was “one of the beautiful Misses Pattles who took the City of Palace by storm 60 or 70 years ago”.The eldest, Virginia, married General Colin McKenzie; the second,Henry Thoby Prinsep; the third was Mrs Cameron; the fourth married Dr John Jackson, Professor of Medicine at Calcutta; the fifth,Henry Vincent Bayley, a Puisne Judge of the Calcutta High Court; the sixth, Earl Somers; and the sebenth John Warrender Dalrymple, B.C.S. They were the daughters of “old Blazer Pattle the Nestor of the East India Company’s Covenanted Service. The Caemron;s eldest son Ewen lived and died on Rahatungoda Estate. The Third son, Harding Hay was in the Ceylon Civil Service 1870-1904, retiring as Treasurer of the colony, and died September 16, 1911.”

Mauritius was reached at about 8.30 am on December 2. At noon on December 4, the “Hindostan” steamed out of Port Louis on her way to Galle. The “Hindostan” must have left Galle for Calcutta on December 16 or 17, where she arrived on Christmas Eve December 24, 1842 having left Southampton September 24 1842. The collier dispatched from Calcutta to meet her at Galle, the “Mary Bannatyne” had not turned up, but fortunately a supply of coal to take her to Calcutta had already been secured.


Unlike modern cruise ships and ocean liners, the shipping vessels of the nineteenth century faced many a maritime hazard during long journeys. The “Hindostan” was no exception, and had its share of events and tragedies that are not heard in modern deep sea voyaging. Fortunately Sir William Twynam has recalled some of the prominent incidents that the vessel endured and we are able to present them here.

Attempted stowaway – On the evening of October 9, the six gun brig “Heroine” commanded by Lieut Stuart with Mr Mark Spain as Master came in. Some of the crew were told to help on board the “Hindostan”, and left the steamer in a boat in charge of Mr Mark Spain. There was some trouble and abuse from a petty officer who tried to stowaway in the “Hindostan” but was caught and forced into the boat just as the steamer left.

Man overboard! On the afternoon of 28 October one of the oldest and best seamen in the ship, Tulloch by name was washed overboard and lost. He, with another seaman Miller were securing the port bower anchor amidst a long rolling swell which made the ship plunge heavily. One wave went over both men and nearly took them off, another followed and took Tulloch off. He was clear of the paddle wheel and was seen struggling in the water as he passed under the stern, being unable to swim. He then disappeared.

Another serious accident

The collier “Cleopatra” helped in coaling the ship after it reached Mauritius. On the evening of December 3, before leaving for Galle an unfortunate accident occurred. One of the guns with an unfired charge in it was set off accidently, carrying away the tompion from the mouth of the gun and breaking it to pieces. A nurse standing near was struck on the leg smashing it and rendering amputation necessary. The ship’s doctor was on shore, but fortunately the surgeon of the “Cleopatra” was on board. He sent at once for his instruments and with the able assistance of Mr Mountjoy, a cadet, who had studied surgery earlier, amputated the leg above the knee, a tent having been run up for the procedure. She survived the operation and was provided for in Calcutta by the P & O Company.


Our thanks and unreserved appreciation go to Sir William Twynam to whose sense of history we are indebted for the insights into this historic voyage recounted by him over 50 years after the voyage was completed. Born into a nautical background in Ceylon, his father was Master Attendant in the Southern Port of Galle, then the main harbour in Ceylon of that era. He belonged to a family which traced its descent from the first Saxon invaders of

Britain, and who settled in Hampshire about the year 1560. He made his first acquaintance with the Northern Prince in 1848 when he was appointed Assistant Government Agent of Jaffna. It has been said that ” to his ability as an administrator he joined rare sympathy with the needs an aspirations of the people. His sympathy was felt not only by the educated classes, but by the poorest and most ignorant section of the people. JR Toussaint in his book “Annnals of the Ceylon Civil Service(1935) quoting JP Lewis who had observed Sir William’s handwriting and described it as ‘execrable’ .He stated that Sir William wrote in three different styles of handwriting—one that could be read only by himself and his office assistant; another that could be read by himself alone, and a third which neither himself or his office assistant could read !! A man who loved Jaffna and its people immensely, he retired on January 1, 1896 after being knighted. His roots were so firmly fixed in Jaffna that he chose to make it his home and took the same interest in the people of Jaffna and their welfare as he had done before. He had amassed a large collection of curios, and antiquities of the North which he presented to St John’s College which set up a Twynam memorial Museum for enjoyment by the people. Sir William lived out his retirement in Alfred Villa, Beach Road, Jaffna where he died in March 1922 in his 95th year. His remains lie interred in a grave at the Jaffna YMCA of which he was the founding President.

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S L – a cauldron of casualties and trouble



Cassandra has stopped watching news at night for the sake of her wellbeing and peace of mind. Watching English news at 9.00 p m on a local channel caused her to toss and turn or wake up at the ungodly hour of 2.00 am to again toss and turn, but this time mentally with suppressed anger, frustration, and fear for the future surfacing and consequently inundating the mind with unease. Why all this? Because Sri Lankan news is always of protests, ministerial pontificating with next to nothing done to lift the country from rock bottom it has been thrust to; and violence, murders and drug hauls. All worrying issues. The present worry is spending 200 m on a celebration that most Ordinaries, the public Cass means, DO NOT Want.

What are the issues of the week just past? Hamlet’s disturbed and disturbing ‘To be or not to be’ twisted to ‘Will happen or will not.’ That specifically relates to the LG elections scheduled for March 9. The government has tried every trick of delay just because they face sure defeat – the combined Elephant and Bud that rules us as of now. Everyone else shouts for elections and follows up with the threat to come out on the streets. That seems to be Sri Lankans most resorted to pastime. And we dread the melees; the water cannon, police brutality and the disgrace of saffron robed, bearded and hair grown men in the vanguard of slogan lofting shouters. All a useless and worthless expense of energy achieving nothing but tear gas and water shooting, and remand jail for some. Some of these protests call for the release of one such IUSF protester deemed to be a terrorist by a draconian law and confined in solitary imprisonment for far too long.

A shot or more of arrack or kasippu was resorted to by men and excused by other men as necessary mental trouble relievers. A woman would imbibe a bit of brandy if not a sleeping pill to ease her troubled mind and thus queasy gut. Not any longer if one takes advice that comes pouring in via social media.

Canada’s new move on Alcohol Guidance

As questioned by Holly Honderich in Washington BBC January 18: “What’s behind Canada’s drastic new Alcohol Guidance?” She says a report funded by Health Canada warns that “any amount of alcohol is not good for your health and if you drink, less is better.” This is contained in a 90 page report from the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and Addiction. Health issues result from the intake of more than standard drinks and these include breast and colon cancer. Honderich says it may be a rude awakening for the roughly 80% of Canadian adults who drink. The ratio is higher, Cass presumes, in this resplendent isle with its arrack, illicit brews and toddy both kitul and palmyrah. So the comforting statement that was earlier in vogue, that a daily tot of alcoholic drink is good for health, is sent overboard by the Canadian advice. Of course now with money so short except in the hands of the corrupt, the latter advice will have to be taken, voluntarily or otherwise, by most Lankans.

Prez Gotabaya and his advisors’ ruling

We have all seen at least on TV, farmers mourning their yellowing crops of paddy and heard their heart-rending cries of hopelessness at the loss of a third harvest due to the utter crime of overnight stoppage of chemical fertilisers and pest control. Cass wonders how the ex-Prez who decreed this and his advisors sleep at night having blighted long term the entire agriculture of this predominantly agricultural country. Farmers cry out they are in debt, have no money to feed nor school their children; added to which hospitals are bare of medicines.

A highly-educated and experienced agriculturist sent Cass an email the gist of which is that rice farmers all over the island report a ‘yellowing’ of paddy, stunted growth and dead plants in patches. They had all used ‘compost’ issued by the govt. There is a hint this could be due to a nematode infestation. If correct, this has grave implications. It has occurred in tea with no easy cure. Only costly fumigation was effective, eventually. Once rice paddies are infected it would be very difficult to control – almost impossible; already impoverished farmers can bear no further expense.

A three wheeler driver told Cass that river bed soil had been mixed with thrown away household garbage (both obtained free, obviously) and sold as organic fertiliser. I hasten to add this is hearsay, but the obvious truth staring all Sri Lankans in the face and sending shivers of apprehension down all spines is that this Maha season crop is kaput; gone down the drain with farmers cheated and someone or some persons having made money from the deal.

Pointless it is to curse those who were in the racket; useless to commiserate farmers and their families; impossible to compensate them. Will those responsible for giving out dangerous fertiliser for distribution be traced and brought to justice? Never! However, that word ‘never’ is now pronounced with a mite of doubt after M Sirisena and others were dealt justly by judges of the Supreme Court. There are glimmers of hope that wrong doers, actually criminals who bankrupted the country and damaged its agriculture, will be dealt with suitably.

There will be no Aluth Avuruddha for the backbone of the country in April since celebrations centre around a good harvest and R&R after a Maha season of toil and filling bins and storehouses with bountiful paddy. This was pre-Gota days. Now it is all round misery since urban dwellers sorrow, and also suffer, with the farmers who supplied them with food.

Clear stats given to prove inefficiency of the state sector

A video clip came to Cassandra with Advocata CEO Dananath Fernando speaking on the inefficiency of the public service due to being too many in number. Dananath is much admired and spoke clearly and convincingly. He said more conversing with Faraz Shauketaly on Newsline presented by TVI channel on Tuesday 24 January at 8.30 p m.

Dananath said our bureaucracy is inefficient and ineffectual. Main reason being there are too many to do the work. His fact check went like this. In India for every 177 members of the general public there is one (01) government officer or as named earlier ‘government servant’. In Pakistan the figures are 117 to one. Bangladesh is almost the same. In Sri Lanka (hold your breath!) to every sixteen (16) citizens there sits one government officer, mainly twiddling his/her thumbs. It would be interesting to know the ratios in developed countries. But the very relevant to us countries have been named by the Advocata finding. Cass does not need to spell what the result is; she has already indicated it with the image of the thumb twiddler.

We knew the bureaucracy was over staffed, bloated and bulging big like the leaders we have: 225 in parliament, then local councils and pradeshiya sabhas. And in each of them, law makers, decision takers and those who carry them out are far too excessive in number and cost the government excessively in salaries, infrastructure, travel modes; etc. etc. So Advocata asks how development, or even mere running of the country can be achieved efficiently and effectively. A further shock, at least to Cass, was dealt by Dananath in proving the point by revealing statistics for the police service. 50% of the entire police force is deployed on security duty to 225 MPs, Ministers and state VIPs while the balance half is expected to provide safety and security to 22 million people! Lop sided and thus the country slants to sink or disintegrate. It has already slanted to bankruptcy and begging as never before and selling the meager money making ventures we possess.

How did the public service get so bloated? Again the guilty are, or were, those in power. They kept sending persons with chits and they had to be employed. Reason? Sympathy for the jobless? Not at all. Pure unadulterated self-interest so votes are assured them.

Rise up and show thy face, thou olde pensioner

That’s a government order to be observed by the old; most finding walking difficult and many finding the necessity to gather some money for three wheeler hire denting their January budget. But present yourself to the Grama Sevaka of your area is a must if you want to continue receiving your pension, now totally inadequate; but still very grateful for. Hence the procession of the old and weak leaning on walking sticks, even crutches or on willing supporting arms offered them.

Some years ago, questioned by Cassandra, an obliging woman Grama Sevaka said that those unable to present themselves are visited in their homes by officers. We do hope this is done since there must be plenty thumb twiddlers in this government department too.

Bravo Hirunika!

Cass most definitely is an admirer of beautiful Hirunika. She’s garnered another kudos by her latest action, OK, gimmick if you like that word to express the way she has shown displeasure, censure, disagreement of the general public on holding an elaborate National Day event to celebrate 75 years of’ democratic self-rule’ at the exorbitant cost of Rs 200m.. That expression itself calls for comment. Termed National Day it is far from being thus with so many protesting various issues. Celebration is a blatant falsehood. Feb 4 should really be a day of mourning, since the Nation is in the dregs of corruption, misrule and bankruptcy. Self-rule here equates to selfish rule by the leaders for themselves and misrule for us the public. Democracy is dead, actually it was totally dead during previous regimes but has revived somewhat lately,

And how did Hirunika express censure? By having black bows knotted on the posts erected to prop covered spaces for the march past, etc. Black connotes death, mourning, displeasure, bad times. Of course at expense, the bows will be removed before the posse of horses and motor riders and security cars conducts the Prez to the s venue. Cass entertains a jaundiced wish that the entire DPL Corps will, non-diplomatically, ignore invitation and not be present at the celebratory event. Rows and rows of empty chairs might convey the message of non grata, rather disdain for the powers that be. Ranil may be respected still, but those backing him and even guiding his hands are NOT.

Cheers till we meet next Friday!

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Gandhianv Ethics




The word ethics is derived from the Greek word ‘ethos’, which means ‘way of living’. The judgement of right and wrong, what to do and what not to do, and how one ought to act, form ethics. It is a branch of philosophy that involves systematising, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour.

Morality is the body of standards or principles derived from a code of conduct from a particular philosophy, religion, or culture. It can also derive from a standard that a person believes in. The word morals is derived from the Latin word ‘mos’, which means custom.

Many people use the words Ethics and Morality interchangeably. However, there is a difference between Ethics and Morals. To put it in simple terms, Ethics = Moral + reasoning.For example, one might feel that it is morally wrong to steal, but if he/ she has an ethical viewpoint on it, it should be based on some sets of arguments and analysis about why it would be wrong to steal. Mahatma Gandhi is considered as one of the greatest moral philosophers of India. The highest form of morality in Gandhi’s ethical system is the practice of altruism/self-sacrifice.

For Gandhi, it was never enough that an individual merely avoided causing evil; they had to actively promote good and actively prevent evils. The ideas and ideals of Gandhi emanated mainly from: (1) his inner religious convictions including ethical principles embedded in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Christianity; (2) the exigencies of his struggle against apartheid in South Africa and the mass political movements during India’s freedom struggle; and (3) the influence of Tolstoy, Carlyle and Thoreau etc. He was a moralist through and through and yet it is difficult to write philosophically about his ethics.

This is because Gandhi is fundamentally concerned with practice rather than with theory or abstract thought, and such philosophy as he used was meant to reveal its ‘truth’ in the crucible of experience. Hence, the subtitle of his Autobiography ~ ‘the story of my experiments in truth.’ The experiments refer to the fact that the truth of concept, values, and ideals is fulfilled only in practice.

Gandhi’s ethics are inextricably tied up with religion, which itself is unconventional. Though an avowed Hindu, he was a Hindu in philosophical rather than a sectarian sense; there was much Hindu ritual and practice that he subjected to critique.

In his Ethical Religion, published in 1912 based on lectures delivered by him, Gandhi had stated simply that he alone cannot be called truly religious or moral whose mind is not tainted with hatred and selfishness, and who leads a life of absolute purity and of disinterested services. Without mental purity or purification of motive, external action cannot be performed in selfless spirit. Goodness does not consist in abstention from wrong but from the wish to do wrong; evil is to be avoided not from fear but from the sense of obligation. Consistency was less important to Gandhi than moral earnestness, and rules were less useful than specific norms of human excellence and the appreciation of values. Politics is a comprehensive term which is associated with composition and operation of state structure as well as its interrelationship with other states. It is activity centred around power and very often deprived of morals. With its power-mongering, amoral Machiavellianism, and its valorisation of expediency over principle, and of successful outcomes over scrupulous means, politics is an uncompromising avenue for saintliness. Inclusion of ethics in politics seemed to be a contradiction to many contemporary political philosophers.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak among others warned Gandhi before he embarked on a political career in India, “Politics is a game of worldly people and not of sadhus.” Introducing spirituality into the political arena would seem to betoken ineffectiveness in an area driven by worldly passions and cunning. It is perhaps for these reasons that Christ himself appeared to be in favour of a dualism: “Give to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s.” In this interpretation, the standards and norms that apply to religion are different from those relevant to politics.

Gandhi by contrast, without denying the distinction between the domain of Caesar and that of God, repudiates any rigid separation between the two. As early as 1915, Gandhi declared his aim “to spiritualise” political life and political institutions.

Politics is as essential as religion, but if it is divorced from religion, it is like a corpse, fit only for burning. In the preface to his autobiography, Gandhi declared that his devotion of truth had drawn him into politics, that his power in the political field was derived from his spiritual experiments with himself, and those who say religion has nothing to do with politics do not know what religion means. Human life being an undivided whole, no line could be drawn between ethics and politics. It was impossible to separate the everyday life of man, he emphasised, from his spiritual being. He said, “I feel that political work must be looked upon in terms of social and moral progress.” Gandhi is often called a saint among politicians. In an epoch of ‘globalisation of selfcentredness’ there is a pressing necessity to comprehend and emulate the moralistic dimension of Gandhian thought and re-evaluate the concept of politics. The correlation between ends and means is the essence of Gandhi’s interpretation of society in terms of ethical value rather than empirical relations. For Gandhi, means and ends are intricately connected.

His contention was, “For me it is enough to know the means. Means and ends are convertible terms in my philosophy.” Gandhi countered the assertion that ends vindicate means. If the means engaged are unjust there is no possibility of achieving satisfactory outcomes. He compared the means to a seed and the end to a tree. Gandhi stuck to this golden ideal through thick and thin, without worrying about the immediate results. He was convinced that our ultimate progress towards the goal would be in exact proportion to the purity of our means.

Gandhi believed that “Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.” His seven social sins refer to behaviours that go against ethical code and thereby weaken society. When values are not strongly held, people respond weakly to crisis and difficulty. The seven sins are: (1) Wealth without work; (2) Pleasure without conscience; (3) Knowledge without character; (4) Commerce without morality; (5) Science without humanity; (6) Religion without sacrifice; and (7) politics without principle. Gandhi’s Seven Sins are an integral part of Gandhian ethics.

The Satyagraha (Sanskrit and Hindi: ‘Holding into truth’) as enunciated by Gandhi seeks to integrate spiritual values, community organisation and selfreliance with a view to empower individuals, families, groups, villages, towns and cities. It became a major tool in the Indian struggle against British Imperialism and has since been adopted by protest groups in other countries.

According to the philosophy of Satyagraha, Satyagrahis (Practitioners of Satyagraha) achieve correct insight into the real nature of an evil situation by observing a non-violence of the mind, by seeking truth in a spirit of peace and love, and by undergoing a rigorous process of self-scrutiny. In so doing, the satyagrahi encounters truth in the absolute. By refusing to submit to the wrong or to cooperate with it, the satyagrahi must adhere to non-violence. They always warn their opponents of their intentions and forbid any tactic suggesting the use of secrecy to one’s advantage. Satyagraha seeks to conquer through conversion: in the end, there is neither defeat nor victory but rather a new harmony. Gandhi’s Satyagraha always highlighted moral principles. By giving the concept of Satyagraha, Gandhi showed mankind how to win over greed and fear by love.

There was no pretension or hypocrisy about Gandhi. His ethics do not stem from the intellectual deductive formula. ‘Do unto others as you would have them unto you.’ He never asked others to do anything which he did not do. It is history how he conducted his affairs. He never treated even his own children in any special manner from other children, sharing the same kind of food and other facilities and attending the same school. When a scholarship was offered for one of his sons to be sent to England for higher education, Gandhi gave it to some other boy. Of course, he invited strong resentment from two of his sons and there are many critics who believe that Gandhi neglected his own children, and he was not the ideal father. His profound conviction of equality of all men and women shows the essential Gandhi who grew into a Mahatma.

The question of why one should act in a moral way has occupied much time in the history of philosophical inquiry. Gandhi’s answer to this is that happiness, religion and wealth depend upon sincerity to the self, an absence of malice towards others, exploitation of others, and always acting ‘with a pure mind.’ The ethical and moral standard Gandhi set for himself reveals his commitment and devotion to eternal principles and only someone like him who regulated his life and action in conformity with the universal vision of human brotherhood could say “My Life is My Message.” (The Statesman/ANN)

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Vibrant ties with M-E, a foreign policy priority for SL



Head table dignitaries with copies of ‘Sri Lanka-Oman Relations: Past, Present and Future’.

Economics primarily drive politics and this principle applies to Sri Lanka’s relations with almost the entirety of the world’s regions. The fact that economic interdependence is compelling this country to break new ground in its ties with the Middle East bears this out fully.

Over the decades, Sri Lanka has prioritized the need to sustain vibrant ties with the Arab countries of the Middle East and this is quite in order when Sri Lanka’s overwhelming dependence on the region for its oil supplies and for increasing employment opportunities for its labour force are taken into consideration. However, the need is great, owing primarily to growing local economic compulsions, for Sri Lanka to adopt a more studied approach to strengthening its relations with the Middle East.

The latter exercise needs to be research-based if it is to bear ample fruit and it is for this reason that the re-launch of a study titled, ‘Sri Lanka-Oman Relations: Past, Present and Future’ by a Sri Lankan diplomat with considerable work experience in the Middle East in general and Oman in particular, O.L. Ameer Ajwad, should be welcomed. The book was re-launched on January 12 under the aegis of the The Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (LKI), Colombo, at the latter’s auditorium in the presence of an audience that consisted of, among others, ambassadors from a number of West Asian countries, including those of Qatar, Egypt, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Iran.

The book was initially published on February 17, 2021, to mark the 40th anniversary of the establishment of Sri Lanka-Oman diplomatic relations and its re-launch served to emphasize the importance that Sri Lanka should attach to its wide-ranging ties with Oman. The author, a one-time ambassador of Sri Lanka to Oman, is currently the Director General of the Performance Review and Implementation Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The re-launch of the book was a collaboration among the LKI, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Sri Lanka and the embassy of the Sultanate of Oman in Sri Lanka.

The book was formally launched by Foreign Minister Ali Sabry, State Minister of Foreign Affairs Tharaka Balasuriya, Foreign Secretary Aruni Wijewardena, Ambassador of the Sultanate of Oman to Sri Lanka Ahmed Ali Saeed Al Rashdi and the author.

Foreign Minister Ali Sabry who addressed the audience as Chief Guest at the re-launch, following a welcome address by the LKI’s Actg. Executive Director Ms. E.A.S.W. Edirisinghe, said, among other things, that the book needed to be welcomed as a literary endeavor on the part of the author ‘to preserve the institutional memory of the Sri Lankan mission in Oman.’ It also needed to be valued in view of the fact that it ‘proposed a road map through an envoy’s personal experience, for future cooperation between Sri Lanka and the Sultanate of Oman.’ Minister Ali Sabry mentioned the elevating of relations with the countries of the Middle East as a policy priority for Sri Lanka.

State Minister Tharaka Balasuriya, while focusing on Sri Lanka’s centuries-long ties with the Arab world, highlighted the importance of connecting the ports of Colombo and Sohar of Oman by a direct feeder service. The aim should be to create a trans-shipment hub for the respective regions, as proposed by the author.

It was left to Ambassador Ameer Ajwad to present to the audience a comprehensive overview of the contents of the publication. He said chapter five was especially important because it outlined in considerable detail the future course economic relations in particular between the countries could take.

The author does right by focusing on economic diplomacy in his publication. This holds the key to cementing cordial bonds among countries in contemporary times, given that antagonistic relations among states have the effect of perpetuating economic stagnation within countries. The latter condition is a sure recipe for intra-country social discontent and violence, besides acting as a stimulant for continued inter-state friction.

One of the chief strengths of ‘Sri Lanka-Oman Relations: Past, Present and Future’, is the stress it lays on the need for the countries concerned to exploit economic complementarities that exist between them in a number of areas, for the furtherance of shared development. There is tremendous potential here that is going untapped, the author points out. If utilized judiciously these complementarities could prove a vital factor in the economic betterment of the countries.

Some of these areas offering ‘synergies of growth’ or the potential for mutual cooperation are: trade and investment, agriculture and fisheries, tourism, education and maritime cooperation, to name a few. In this connection the author stresses that: ‘It is the lack of awareness of each other’s potentials and opportunities available in many areas of mutual interest’, that is getting in the way of the countries dynamically cooperating further for shared material improvement.

It is hoped that in the days ahead the Sri Lankan authorities would not only act on the insights thrown-up by Ambassador Ameer Ajwad but take into consideration the need to cooperate with the countries of the Middle East over existing divides, one of which is described as the ‘Arab-Israeli’ conflict.

Fortunately, economic compulsions have been compelling Lankan governments to recognize Israel as an important state actor in the Middle East. Likewise, some Arab states have today ‘broken the ice’, so to speak, with Israel, and are interacting with it in the economic field. In the case of Sri Lanka, it is quite some time since Israel has been opening up employment opportunities for Sri Lankans in multiple areas, such as agriculture and care-giving.

Accordingly, economics dictate politics. Old, adversarial mindsets needs to change for the ushering of the common good. There is a need for the international community to enlist the support of the Arab world and all other sections that have been having strained ties with Israel, to work towards the realization of the ‘two state solution’ in the Middle East. This presents itself as an equitable mechanism.

Looking for economic complementarities among countries presents itself as a wise course to take in inter-state relations, considering these complementarities’ peace-building potential, and it is hoped that the international community would put this item high on its list of priorities in the days to come. From this viewpoint, ‘Sri Lanka-Oman Relations: Past, Present and Future’ needs to be seen as a model study in the field of international relations.

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