By Prof. O.A.Ileperuma
Recently, there has been much hype about drug manufacturing in Sri Lanka with State Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Corporation (SPMC) claiming to commence the production of flucloxacillin, in Sri Lanka. This adds to the list of drugs which the SPMC claims to “manufacture” locally along with common drugs like paracetamol and antibiotics like ampicillin. The use of the term manufacturing is a misnomer since what is actually done is getting the drug powders from abroad including the hard gelatin capsule and packing them here. Hence a more appropriate classification is “Packed in Sri Lanka”.
While I am not trying to belittle what SPMC is doing, the real achievement would be to actually manufacture these drugs from raw materials instead of importing the already prepared drug. Chemical synthesis is the key to this and very often these can be carried out on a small to medium scale if proper equipment can be imported. We can tap the unemployed graduates with a chemistry background and employ them for a useful purpose. Carrying out the synthesis even on a small scale many times is possible with the availability of abundant manpower.
We spend nearly Rs. 20-30 billion annually on importing pharmaceuticals and if surgical items are included, this increases to around Rs. 50 billion. It is pertinent to ask why simple formulations like creams, ointments and syrups cannot be made in Sri Lanka by importing their raw materials. The authorities should ban or restrict the importation of the finished products such as these and also instruct the private pharmaceutical companies to produce them locally.
Sri Lanka lags behind India, Pakistan and even Bangladesh in the pharmaceutical industry. We simply import the raw materials in the form of chemicals and do the mixing and pressing to produce tablets or capsules here. No attempts are made to at least to partially carry out some manufacturing involving chemical synthesis. Paracetamol tablets where the active component is chemically acetaminophen can be easily made from simple compounds like aminophenol and acetic anhydride which can be carried out even in a school laboratory. The other ingredients in a paracetamol tablet are inert ingredients such as starch, potassium sorbate, talc and stearic acid. Out of these, some like starch and stearic acid can be locally made. What the SPMC is doing is to actually import all these chemicals and press them into tablets here. If at least part synthesis of some of these chemicals can be done here, it will help to create employment for unemployed youth and also reduce the price of drugs.
Nearly 30 years ago, I wrote to the then Chairman of the State Pharmaceutical Corporation about the possibility to make the anticancer drug, cisplatin, starting from basic raw materials. I have prepared this compound many times in the past for my research both here and abroad but as expected I did not even receive a reply. Had they accepted my proposal, this drug could have been produced for one-fourth the price of the imported drug.
What is even more hilarious is that saline which is a solution of common salt in water is still been imported although there is some information that this will soon be locally produced. We heard about a proposal to build a saline factory at Padukka in 2015 which promised to make the product available from 2017. I can remember that on August 19th of this year, State minister for Pharmaceutical production telling the media that local saline production will start before the end of the year. Even at the end of the year there is no sign of local saline Now another company is planning to manufacture saline in 2021 at Koggala and I hope the same fate will not happen to this venture as in 2015. Even a 1% sodium chloride (common salt) solution used as a nasal spray is imported from Bangladesh! Are our people in charge of manufacturing drugs incapable of dissolving common salt in water? Or else, maybe they are scared of the powerful lobby of pharmaceutical importers who are financially benefited by importing these simple products like saline and nasal drops.
Most of the antibiotic injections supposedly “manufactured” in Sri Lanka are imported products and only filling them into vials is done in Sri Lanka. The process for the manufacture of antibiotics involves fermentation where specific microorganisms are grown in large containers in a liquid growth medium. Surely, there are enough microbiologists in Sri Lanka capable of carrying out these processes which will enable us to produce the antibiotics we need.
We need to explore the types of raw materials we import and study their substitution with local products. For instance, calcium carbonate which is used to treat osteoporosis and also as an inert additive in many tablets can be easily manufactured in Sri Lanka. We have a good quality calcite deposit at Balangoda and this can be used to prepare precipitated calcium carbonate required for the drug industry. Similarly, magnesium carbonate deposit found in Wellawaya or even dolomite can be used to prepare magnesium carbonate which is used in various antacids and also can be used to produce magnesium hydroxide popularly known as milk of magnesia and used as a laxative.
Indian drug industry imports around 70 per cent of their total bulk drugs from China. Last year, country’s pharmaceutical industries imported 2.4 billion US dollars’ worth of Chinese drugs and intermediate raw material chemicals. Recently the Indian Government has requested the drug industry to start manufacturing 38 essential chemicals required for the drug industry in India. What is imported to Sri Lanka are the finished products from the Indian drug companies. The same is true of the drugs we import from Pakistan and Bangladesh. The question arises as to why we cannot manufacture all drugs locally from raw materials imported from China since what Indian companies do is to import the raw materials from China, make the drugs and sell the finished products to Sri Lanka.
State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC) was established in 1971 and Prof. Senaka Bibile was its first chairman. It had the mandate to import drugs for use in hospitals. In 1987, State Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Corporation was established for the manufacture of drugs and it has succeeded in manufacturing about 50 drugs. This is far less compared to about 350 varieties of drugs currently imported to Sri Lanka. Why you need two corporations to deal with pharmaceuticals is another question. Perhaps the Government wanted to create two Chairman posts just to satisfy the need to please political supporters. I believe that it is beneficial to merge these two corporations and work towards the common goal of providing all drugs needed for Sri Lanka.
What we need is an expert panel of scientists who have no vested personal interests or political ambitions, and Sri Lankan expatriates who have experience in drug manufacturing to formulate a national action plan to manufacture drugs required for Sri Lanka. Concurrently, the production of chemicals required for drug formulations is an urgent necessity where chemists play a major role.
Credibility in governance through elections and not security forces
By Jehan Perera
President Ranil Wickremesinghe’s warning that he is prepared to declare a state of national emergency and use the military to suppress any public protests for change of government would reflect the pressures he is under. The manner in which he has used the security forces to deal with the protest movement has been unexpected. His words and deeds are contradictory to what he has previously stood for as a five-time former prime minister. This is especially true in the case of the ethnic and religious minorities who have consistently voted for him and his party at elections. They have felt safer and more secure under his governments which always sought to reduce the heavy hand of state oppression in which national security is given pride of place. He has always promised them much though he has been unable to deliver on much of what he promised.
Notwithstanding the unfortunate rhetoric and actions of the present time the belief still persists that President Wickremesinghe is the best of the available options. Recent pronouncements of the president have reignited hope that he will address the problems of the religious and ethnic minorities. He has stated that he does not want to leave this problem to the next generation. He has said that he wants to resolve this intractable national problem by the country’s 75th independence anniversary on February 4 next year. The hope that the president will make a fresh effort to resolve their problems has led the main Tamil party, the TNA, to desist from voting against the budget which passed with a relatively small majority. Their spokesperson, M A Sumanthiran said in Parliament that due to the president reaching out to them, stretching out his hand, they did not vote against the budget although they disagreed with it.
It is not only in words that the president has reached out to the ethnic and religious minorities. Reports from the north and east indicate that the Maveer (Heroes) Day commemorations this year took place without incident. During the past two years scores of people were arrested and a massive presence of security forces blocked the people from participating in public events. On this occasion the security forces did not get involved in any attempt to stop the commemorations. University students distributed sweets and even cut a birthday cake to celebrate slain LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran’s birthday. The analogy that the president drew to himself being seen as a Hitler who exterminated ethnic and religious minorities is misplaced. The release of those held under the Prevention of Terrorism Act for engaging in similar acts in the past would further contribute to the reconciliation process.
In this context, the president’s use of militaristic rhetoric can only be understood in relation to the growing economic crisis that shows no sign of abating. The anticipated IMF bailout package is at risk of getting indefinitely delayed. It was initially anticipated to come in September then in November but now January is being targeted. Japan’s top brokerage and investment bank, Nomura Holdings Inc, has warned that seven countries – Egypt, Romania, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Czech Republic, Pakistan and Hungary – are now at a high risk of currency crises. Sri Lanka is in third place on the table of risk. The next devaluation of the rupee could see another spike in inflation that will make the cost of living even more unbearable to the masses of people.
The president is on record as having said that the economic crisis will get worse before it improves. Both anecdotal and statistical evidence indicates that it is indeed worsening. University teachers at the University of Sabaragamuwa reported that attendance in their classes was down by at least a quarter. Students who come from other parts of the country are unable to afford the cost of meals and so they stay at home. A study by the Institute of Policy Studies has shown that about four percent of primary, 20 percent of secondary and 26 percent of collegiate students had dropped out of school in the estate sector, which is the worst affected. The future costs to the country of a less well educated population is incalculable and inhumane.
As it is the situation is a dire one for large swathes of the population. Research from the University of Peradeniya has revealed that close to half of Sri Lanka’s population, 42 percent (up from 14 percent in 2019) are living under the poverty line. Professor of Economics Wasantha Athukorala has said there is a dramatic increase in the poverty level of over three-hold across the past three years. In 2019, nearly 3 million people lived below the poverty line, but that number has increased to 9.6 million in October 2022. In these adverse circumstances stability in a polity can be ensured either through legitimacy or through force. It would be tragic if the latter is the choice that is made.
President Wickremesinghe has been stressing the importance of political stability to achieve economic development. His recent statement that the security forces will be used to negate any unauthorised protest is a sign that the government expects the conditions of economic hardship to escalate. The general public who are experiencing extreme economic hardship are appalled at the manner in which those who committed acts of corruption and violence in the past are being overlooked because they belong to the ruling party and its cliques. The IMF has made anti-corruption a prerequisite to qualify for a bailout, calling for “Reducing corruption vulnerabilities through improving fiscal transparency and public financial management, introducing a stronger anti-corruption legal framework, and conducting an in-depth governance diagnostic, supported by IMF technical assistance.”
It is morally unacceptable even if politically pragmatic that the president is failing to take action against the wrongdoers because he needs their votes in parliament. As a start, the president needs to appoint a credible and independent national procurement committee to ensure that major economic contracts are undertaken without corruption. Second, the president needs to bite the bullet on elections. The country’s burning issues would be better accepted by the country and world at large if they are being dealt with by a statesman than by a dictator. Government that is based on the people’s consent constitutes the sum and substance of democracy. This consent is manifested through free and fair elections that are regularly held. Local government elections have been postponed for a year and are reaching their legal maximum in terms of postponement. These elections need to be held before March next year.
Elections will enable the people to express their views in a democratic manner to elect their representatives for the present. This would provide the government with guidance in terms of the decisions it is being called to take to revive the economy and place the burden in a manner that will be acceptable to the people. The provincial council elections have been postponed since 2018. Democratically elected provincial councils share in the burdens of governance. The devolution of power that took place under the 13th Amendment was meant to promote ethnic harmony in the country. The president who has taken the position that he is for a solution to the ethnic conflict should seriously consider conducting the provincial council elections together with the local government elections se their financial costs. By doing so he will also gain legitimacy as a democratic statesman and not a dictator.
WEDNESDAY – Movie Review
The Addams Family is back with a new tale to tell! Originally created by Charles Addams as a comic strip published in The New Yorker, it offered readers a sarcastic take on the ‘typical nuclear family’ by substituting it with a more macabre bunch of strange and eerie individuals. Since then the titular family has been adapted on to the big screen many times, from live action movies to animated versions, the Addams Family has gained many fans throughout the years. Created by Alfred Gough and Miles Millar, with Tim Burton working on four episodes of the eight-part series, Wednesday is a welcoming tale for young fans, but unfortunately fails to think outside the box and remains anchored to the floor with a messy storyline.
Dead-eyed Wednesday Addams (Jenna Ortega) is a stubborn, independent and intelligent teenager in this new series. Her penchant for attracting trouble wherever she goes alarms her parents, Morticia (Catherine Zeta-Jones) and Gomez (Luis Guzmán). With an already strained relationship with her parents (specifically her mother), Wednesday is enrolled at Nevermore, an academy for outcasts like herself. Having attended the academy themselves, Morticia and Gomez are hopeful that their daughter will ‘fit right in’. Caught between trying to build her own identity and other teenage complexities, Wednesday soon finds herself in the middle of a twisted mystery.
This is the first time audiences are introduced to a teenage Wednesday, which allowed the creators to build a new world on their own terms, but while keeping true to the original nature of the character. The creators do a fair amount of world building by introducing other outcasts like the Fangs (vampires), Stoners (Gorgons), Scales (sirens) and Furs (werewolves), among others. Nevermore Academy itself is beautiful and comes with the classic package of creepy crypts, hidden rooms and secret societies. The series also offers a decent amount of gore, although they could have added more given Wednesday’s proclivity for gore-related activities. The series deals with classic young-adult tropes which includes teenage crushes, bullies, relationships and even prom, among other things. The series navigates through Wednesday’s journey of self-discovery, which is a new avenue for both the character and the fans. From understanding and displaying her emotions to discovering her identity and understanding her peers, the series takes a deep dive into heavy material.
Ortega’s performance as the titular character plays a major role in keeping audiences glued to the screen. This is also the first time viewers are shown a teenage Wednesday Addams, which works to Ortega’s benefit as she depicts more dimensions to the ghoulish, morose character many are associated with based on previous renditions. Her facial expressions and ability to deliver on seriously emotional moments strengthens her role as the lead. The rest of the Addams Family, even with limited screen time, lack the eccentricities their characters should have. Hopeless romantics Morticia and Gomez seem incompatible in this version and Uncle Fester is far less crazy than he ought to be. The only member worth mentioning is the Thing—a severed hand— who brought more character and spirit to the series acting alongside Ortega. With barely any room to develop a majority of the characters are prosaic and tedious, even though they remain vital to the plot.
Apart from Ortega, Gwendoline Christie and Emma Myers deserve honorable mentions for their roles as Nevermore’s head teacher, Larissa Weems and the peppy Enid Sinclair respectively. Enid quickly became a fan favorite as the character was the polar opposite to Wednesday. Her character is vital to Wednesday’s character development and their journey to find common ground as mismatched individuals is amusing.
Christina Ricci who played Wednesday in the 90s returns as ‘normie’ teacher, Miss Thornhill and unfortunately barely stands out and this in large part due to the messy storyline. The series is bogged down with numerous subplots and overlapping tropes and the characters with potential for growth are completely overlooked. With love triangles, bullies and killer monsters on the loose, the series self-destructs and the climax sinks into disappointment.
At the end of the day, Wednesday plays to the beat of the new generation and touches on new themes, which is welcoming seeing as the character should grow up at some point. While not everyone may relate to Wednesday’s teenage perils, it is interesting to witness her growth and her journey as an ‘outcast’ or ‘weirdo’. And while Wednesday doesn’t exactly offer a distinctly unique story, it gives audiences a small taste of what Jenna Ortega’s Wednesday is capable of. Creating a story around a well-established franchise is a difficult task, and in this case the creators fail to add value to their visions. If the series continues, the creators will have the opportunity to think further outside the box and push the limits to Wednesday’s character and give audiences a bone-chilling experience. Wednesday is currently streaming on Netflix.
Stage set for… AWESOME FRIDAY
The past few weeks have been a very busy period for the new-look Mirage outfit…preparing themselves for their big night – Friday, December 2nd – when they would perform, on stage, for the very first time, as Donald Pieries (leader/vocals/drums), Benjy (bass), Niro Wattaladeniya (guitar), Viraj Cooray (guitar/vocals), Asangi Wickramasinghe (keyboard/vocals), along with their two frontline female vocalist, Sharon (Lulu) and Christine.
They have thoroughly immersed themselves in their practice sessions as they are very keen to surprise their fans, music lovers, and well-wishers, on opening night…at the Peacock, Berjaya Hotel, in Mount Lavinia.
Action starts at 8.00 pm and, thereafter, it will be five hours of great music, along with EFFEX DJs Widhara and Damien, interspersed with fun and excitement…for the whole family!
Yes, opening night is for the whole family, so you don’t need to keep some of your family members at home – kids, especially.
Working on their repertoire for Friday, bassist Benjy says “what we will dish out will be extra special, with lots of action on stage.”
It would be interesting to see Sharon (Lulu) doing her thing with Mirage, after her early days with the Gypsies, and, I’m told, a dynamic performance from Sharon is what is in store for all those who make it to the Peacock this Friday
While the band was at one of their practice sessions, last week, they had a surprise visitor – Edward (Eddy) Joseph, a former member of the group Steelers, who is now based in Germany.
Eddy is here on a short visit and is scheduled to return to Germany, tomorrow (30).
He spent an hour with Mirage, at their practice session, and says he is disappointed that he would not be around for the group’s opening night.
However, there is a possibility of several well-known personalities, in the showbiz scene, turning up, on Friday night, to experience the sounds of the new-look Mirage, including Sohan Weerasinghe and Joey Lewis (from London).
Rajiv Sebastian, too, says he is keen to be a part of the fun-filled evening.
You could contact Benjy, on 0777356356, if you need to double check…their plans for AWESOME FRIDAY!
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