Prof. J. B. Dissanayake
By K. A. I. Kalyanaratne
Senior Manager, Publications
Postgraduate Institute of Management
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Vice President, Hela Havula
‘Cumaratunga created a philosophy on Sinhala grammar’
Says Martin Wickramasinghe
Without blindly following the tradition of grammar, commenced with the Sidath Sangarawa Cumaratunga Munidasa’s Vyakarana Vivaranaya can be considered as the first broad attempt to analyse the Sinhala language, placing it on a new vision.”
(The 77th Death Anniversary of Cumaratunga Munidasa was commemorated on 02 March, 2021)
Cumaratung’a Concept of Grammar
In the introduction to his seminal work on Sinhala grammar, “Vyakarana Vivaranaya,” Cumaratunga says
“Similar to a society that has no rules and regulations, a language also becomes messier and messier…Many a grammarian considered the grammars of other languages in formulating a grammar for the Sinhala language. In fact, the rules they followed were those of Pali and Sanskrit…The Sidath Sangarawa and those that followed it (in this endeavour) clearly show this dependence…Herein we based our effort only on our language… The rules that were solely confined to Sinhala were seen by us as most noble…
‘Cumaratunga Created a Philosophy on Sinhala grammar’ –
The late Martin Wickramasinghe, journalist, writer and intellectual, who popularized the reading habit among our society with a rich variety of publications, including short stories and novels, as well as an array of critical compositions, was a contemporary of the late Cumaratunga Munidasa. Martin Wickramasinghe critiquing the works of Cumrataunga in his ‘Ape Viyath Parapura ha Bhasha Samaja Parinamaya’ (Our Erudite Generation and the Evolution of Language and Society) makes a unique assessment , especially of Cumaratunga’s expositions on Sinhala grammar. He says,
“The Sidath Sangarava is a prescriptive grammar and not a grammar based on principles of philosophy. Hence, Kumaratunga’s rejection of the Sidath Sangarava is justifiable; the reason being that he created new concepts based on his independent thinking. Turning out a philosophy into a prescriptive methodology is like an attempt to convert a philosophy into a religion….The usages like Ovun giya, minisun weda kala, daruwa gasin bimata panna, were created based on his philosophy of grammar, I think, because he intended to provide a grammar suitable for the colloquial language (as well). … Nelevili geeya (lullaby-verses) is a poetic composition effortlessly composed with words taken from the colloquial language.”
Professor J. B. Dissanayake, expressed views similar to those of Martin Wickramasinghe, on Cumaratunga’s approach to Sinhala grammar, in his ‘Bhashavaka Bhavithaya ha Vigrahaya’ (Usage and Analysis of a Language)
“Without following in the same manner the tradition of grammar commenced with the ‘Sidath Sangarawa’, Cumaratunga Munidasa’s ‘Vyakarana Vivaranaya’ could be considered as the first broad step to analyse the Sinhala Language basing on a new vision. Although this is not a comprehensive analysis of all the aspects, deviating from the tradition of language analysis that existed up to then, (Cumaratunga’s Vyakarana Vivaranaya) shows a more scientific analysis of the language. In the Vyakarana Vivaranaya there appears certain concepts that are being held in high esteem by modern linguist. “
Philosophy – Meaning and Usage
The word ‘philosophy’ takes in different shades of meanings, depending on the context it’s being used. However, all these definitions would lead to a common frame that it is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind and language. As a method philosophy is often distinguished from other ways of addressing (such) problems by its questioning, critical and generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.” Further, logicality and rationality are two of the important cornerstone of any philosophical approach to an issue.
Cumaratunga’s Endeavour to Instill a Philosophic Base to Sinhala Grammar
Based on this definition Cumaratunga endeavoured to instill a philosophic base to Sinhala grammar by (i) analysing the development of the language through the ages, (ii) assessing the usages vis a vis the current context, and (iii) making it realistic and lively, as far as the idiom of the language permits. It could also be said that going beyond the prescriptive approach commonly adopted by grammarians, including the author of the Sidath Sangara, Cumaratunga introduced rationality to Sinhala grammar. Herein he was compelled to tap the Sinhala classics, both prose and verse, belonging to the golden-era of Sinhala literature, in ascertaining the true nature of the Sinhala language as well as apprehending how articulately the language was used to express ideas, feelings and sentiments.
When in English it is expressed that “a woman got a child by her husband /because of her husband” the Sinhala idiom as used in Sinhala classics is,
Baranes nuware Brhamdatta nam bamuna pinisa Dhanapathi nam beminiya kuse pilisinda gena…’ (Amavatura-Chapter on Paribrajaka Damanaya).
This instance alone shows the philosophies behind the two languages, Sinhala and English. However, it appears that ‘pinisa’ has lately been replaced by ‘bamunata dava’.
Cumaratunga’s Two Seminal Works – Vyakarana Vivaranaya and Kriya Vivaranaya
Cumaratunga in his unparalleled task of writing the two expositions the ‘Vyakarana Vivaranaya’ and the ‘Kriya Vivaranaya’ deviated completely from the dogmatic and prescriptive approach followed by the Sidath Sangarawa (as rightly pointed out by Martin Wickramasinghe) relying on the colloquial idiom in composing lively pieces of prose and verse. This is a trend not followed by any other linguist of the current times. Relying on the colloquial idiom is not a feature new to the Sinhala language. The colloquial Sinhala parlance heavily makes use of gerunds (bhava kriya/ bhava nama kriya/ haw namu kiriya pada). They are created out of verbs, but function as nouns.
See how the Amavatura writer Gurulugomi uses gerunds creatively in the conversation prince Siddhartha had with the horse Kanthaka at the commencement of his journey to emancipation:
“Bosathano Raal Kumaruvan deke pahayin bese ashvaya kara elaba, “Me re tho ma tharava. Mam mulu lova tharavami.”. (
The Bodhisatva, having seen prince Rahula, and descending from the palace, went towards the horse, and said to him “This night you take me across the river, (thereafter) I will take the entire world across.”
The Glamour of Grammar
Roy Peter Clark writing on ‘The Glamour of Grammar” extols the virtues of grammar in making one’s writings fascinating and glamourous. In this book he aims to put the glamour back in grammar, and convince those who use the language that grammar, in fact, adds glamour to writing, and does not take glamour out of it. Moreover, grammar brings clarity to what one says. The basic element underpinning glamour is to understand without vagueness what exactly the writer wishes to convey. In this context grammar becomes more a tool than a rule. Grammar, as expressed by him, gives the readers all the tools they need to ‘live inside the language’.
Cumaratunga was an ardent believer that grammar is there to embellish your writings. In an editorial captioned ‘The Birth Anniversary of Jesus Christ, he provided to the Lakmini Pahana journal on December 25, 1934, a lively verbal portrayal of the story of the woman caught in adultery. This incident is a beautiful illustration of Jesus Christ silencing his critics while graciously addressing a sinner in need of mercy. According to a critique “The poignant scene delivers to anyone with a heart weighed down with . When Jesus forgave the woman, he did not . Rather, he expected a change of heart–. In turn, he presented the woman with an opportunity to begin a new life.”
This is how Cumaratunga colourfully portrays and breathes life into the incident, resting the description on the highest norms of grammar:
එ දා ගැහැනු කම කෙලෙසන වරදක් කොටැ අසු වැ, මර බියෙන් තැති ගෙනැ වෙවුලවෙවුලා බිමැ හොත් අසරණ ගැහැනිය දැන් පෙනෙයි. ර්ණමෙ තරම් නීච කමක් කළ මැය ගල් ගසා මරම්හ” යි මහත් මහත් ගල් අතින් ගෙනැ ඇය වටා රවමින් ගොරවමින් සිටි සාහසිකයෝ පෙනෙති. ඒ කලකලය අසා ශාන්ත වැ දාන්ත වැ එ තැනට පය න`ගන ඔබ ද පෙනෙන සේකැ. එ තන්හි තතු විමසනු වස් ඔබ මුවින් නික්මෙන රජත කිංකිණි නාදයෙන් කන පිනායෙයි. රළු පරළු හ`ඩින් අර අසරණ ගැහැනිය ගේ දොස හුවා කියන සාහසිකයන් ගේ අමිහිරි වචන ද නෑසෙන්නේ නො වේ. ඔබ කුමක් කී සේක් ද? ර්ණතොප අතුරින් එක ද වරදක් නො කළ තැනැත්තේ මේ ගැහැනියට පළමු මැ ගල් පහර ගසා වාෟ” කවර ආශ්චර්යයෙක් ද, කි්රස්තු තුමනි? එක අතෙකුත් නො
නැෙ`ගයි. එක ගලෙකුත් අතින් නො ගිලිහෙයි. මනුෂ්යයා ගේ සත්ය වූ තත්ත්වය ඔබ කෙසේ හැඳිනැගත් සේක් ද?
A reader of this passage would, for sure, will come to see how effective glamorous grammar and elite writing can be. In fact, in this particular composition Cumaratunga has followed the style and verbiage adopted by Vidyachacravarthi, the author of the Buthsarana, to describe the confrontation between the Omniscient One and Elephant Nalagiri. Similar to the occasion quoted above, the writer of the Buthsarana also exemplifies the different behaviours of the Omniscient One and the elephant.
’ඈතැ දුලීන් වැසී ගිය ඇත් රජ යැත මැතැ සවනක් ගන බුදු රැසින් සෑදී ගිය බුදු රජාණෝ යැ. ඇතැ කෝපයෙන් රත් වැ ගිය ය වටක් වැනි ඇස් ඇති ඇත් රජ යැත මෑතැ කරුණායෙන් තෙත් වැ ගිය නිල් මහනෙල් පෙති පරයන ඇස් ඇති බුදු රජාණෝ යැ. ඈතැ එබු-එබු පයින් මහ පොළෝ පළා පියන්නා සේ දිවෙන ඇත් රජ යැත මෑතැ එබු-එබු පයින් මිහි කත සනහ-සනහා වඩනා බුදු රජාණෝ යැ. ඈතැ බැලූ-බැලූ වන් අනේ අනේv යි කියවන ඇත් රජ යැත මෑතැ බැලූ-බැලූ වන් සාධු සාධු යි කියවන බුදු රජාණෝ යැ. එ වේලෙහි ඒ ඇතු ළං වත්, සැදැහැත්තෝ ළෙහි අත් ගසන්නට වන් හත බලා සිටියැ නො හෙම්හ යි මුහුණින් හෙන්නට වන් හ.
The technique adopted by the two writers, Cumaratunga and Vidyachakravarthi in composing the two passages appears almost identical, which establishes the fact that grammar and correct idiom would bring glamour and liveliness to one’s writing, and not vice versa.
Grammar is Language : A Teaching Philosophy and Grammar Gives Us Tools and Not Rules
The above exposition drives home the fact that language and its grammar should not/ cannot be taught purely by studying the grammatical rules of that language. In fact, the grammatical basis of a language cannot be/ should not be considered or treated as its rules but as tools. Herein what is necessary and more fruitful method would be to adopt a context-related approach, in realizing the basis of a language, so that when the context is remembered automatically the applicable tool would come to one’s mind. Hence, cramming or mind-teasing to remember different usages, considering them as rules would become irrelevant and superfluous. Cumaratunga says in his Vyakarana Vivaranaya that “The best approach to learn grammar is by studying how the language had been used by learned men.”
A Novel Art of Teaching Grammar as Extoled by Cumaratunga
The teaching of language (through grammar) is one that must be very well thought out by all educators, as it is not just your typical lesson plan. In fact, grammar and its many facets are engulfed in every aspect of writing, speaking, and just language in general. While many may see grammar as a tedious task both to teach and to learn, it is an important and necessary component to language that it can actually be fun and easy to teach and to catch on to. Through the instruction of reading and writing activities, grammar can be taught successfully in the classroom. However, this approach may be time consuming, as well as it demands preparation by the teacher to hunt for and collect instances as examples of different usages. Although it’s committed work for the teacher, ultimately both the teachers and the students stand to gain, as both become learners and teachers at the same time. This approach ultimately transforms the students to become inquirers, researchers and investigators in finding the correct answers on their own. This is, in short ‘experiential learning’, where students become investigators and their own teachers.
Grammar plays a significant role in professionalism and credibility, and there are many easy ways to emphasize this to students. Grammar is about professionalism. Many people will put down or discredit an article that has blatant grammar errors. If teachers can show students the importance of good grammar in the real world, they may be more apt to learn and retain it for everyday use—not just for use in the classroom. Show them examples of newspapers, brochures, and websites that use poor grammar, and have them evaluate the credibility of those pieces of text. It needs to be emphasized that grammar is not about rules but it is about tools, to make once language glamourous and lucid. We have, thus far caught grammar from the wrong end to memorize and byheart. Grammar is a practical subject. It. Therefore, demands a practical approach.
Teach students animal rights for a better world
Five years ago, I requested the Head of the Bar Council of India to get animal welfare introduced as a subject in the law colleges. He did it immediately. The result has been much more sensitive and informed lawyers, an annual moot court that is hosted by NLU Bangalore, PhDs in animal welfare (the first one was in NLU Cuttack), more people aware of animal welfare activism and far more sensitive judges. A big thank you to Shri Manan Kumar Mishra!
22 years ago, at the instance of Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee, who supported all new ideas, we built the National Institute for Animal Welfare in Ballabgarh. Unfortunately, the government fell when it was ready. The Congress shut it down, and now the BJP is in its seventh year without restarting it. The Minister for Environment gave it to JNU. They fooled around for 2 years and then returned it to the Ministry, who slept on it for two years and then handed it to Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, who have ignored it for three years and only now have appointed a retired vet to make a course. I have lost all hope. In 2002, I wrote out all the courses, made some textbooks, contacted Oxford, Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh, for teachers, got a grant from UNEP for the library. But nothing has happened and nothing ever will. The magnificent seven-acre centre now houses ten people of the Animal Welfare Board of India and runs “awareness” courses of three days each for the student vets of The Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS).
But there are huge job opportunities for trained animal welfare people: shelter managers, gaushala managers, laboratory managers, forest and wildlife officers, city management of animals, elephant rescue centres, city snake rescuers, poultries, slaughterhouses, to begin with and hundreds of others. I simply cannot understand why it has taken so long for even one course to begin.
A huge thank you to the Vice Chancellor of IGNOU, Prof. Nageshwar Rao, and to Professor P. V. K. Sasidhar, for starting the first-degree related course in India for animal welfare. Prof. Sasidhar has been labouring at the modules for over three years now. The first session itself has over 800 students!
It is a PG Diploma in Animal Welfare (PGDAW) and the admissions are open for the January 2021 Session. The Online Admissions ink: www.ignouadmission.samarth.edu.in/.
The PGDAW programme is meant for animal welfare volunteers and professionals across India, and for graduates / post-graduates interested in studying animal welfare. I have seen the learning module and I like it. I wish I had been able to compile the 3000+ articles I have written on every aspect of animal welfare. They could have been part of the course. But my editor has been fooling around with the 7 volume compilations for 5 years now, and I have no idea when she will be done. National Book Trust had offered to print them all, but not even the first volume is ready.
The IGNOU course has four core components: Animal welfare science and ethics, Animal welfare issues, Animal welfare laws and policies, and Animal welfare practices and standards.
Animal welfare is concerned about the welfare of all animals that are managed in some way by humans. Farm animal welfare means the care of animals grown for milk and meat, and that is where animals suffer the most. Welfare issues, pertaining to working, performing, companion, zoo, lab and street animals, need a great deal of attention as well. The PGDAW programme, in 85 modules, has covered welfare, science, ethics, issues, laws and standards, of all farm and draught animals – cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, working animals like donkeys and horses, performing animals, pets, zoo and lab animals. These modules have been developed in collaboration with The Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education, University of Edinburgh, UK.
It’s a one-year course, and graduates from any discipline can take it. It has two objectives: To impart science-based animal welfare education through open and distance learning. To build the capacities of stakeholders to take socially responsible decisions concerning animal welfare. The total fee of the course is Rs. 5400/-.
Who should take this course : Obviously all young people interested in animals, Employees Working in Animal Welfare Organizations/NGOs/Gaushalas, Faculty, Researchers, Technical Staff & PG/PhD Students in Universities, Research Organizations and Veterinary Colleges, Veterinarians / Para-veterinarians in State Central Government/RVC & Para-Military Forces, Members of State Animal Welfare Boards/SPCAs, Members of CPCSEA/ Institutional Animal Ethics Committees /Animal House Facilities, Civil Servants, Officials and Researchers Working in Forest Departments, Zoos and Wild Life Institutes, Faculty and Research Scholars under Zoological Survey of India and Zoology Departments, Law Professionals and Police Personnel dealing with Animal Welfare Laws and their Enforcement, Graduates Seeking Career as Animal Welfare Professionals.
Ideally, I would make it compulsory for all schools – if we want a better India.
The Programme Coordinator, Prof. P.V.K. Sasidhar, School of Extension and Development Studies, IGNOU, New Delhi (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), has great credentials himself. He has been in the Agricultural Research Service of ICAR (2003-09), a Norman Borlaug Fellow of USDA, Tuskegee University, USA (2008), USAID Fellow, Michigan State University, USA (2015), and an OIE Performance of Veterinary Services Evaluator, OIE (2018).
If you want to join this, now is the time. Also, if you have suggestions to make it better, write to the Professor. I would recommend it for activists in Sri Lanka and Nepal as well, as the issues are the same.
( To join the animal welfare movement contact email@example.com, www.peopleforanimalsindia.org)
SUPUN JAYASINGHE’S RITES OF PASSAGE
A tale of a boy’s courage
By Uditha Devapriya
Situated at Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Planetarium continues to captivate and fascinate, yet unless you strain your eyes, you can easily miss it. It’s one of those places you go to, through a prior appointment, and emerge from wishing you could go back in again. I must have been in Grade Five when I visited it on a class trip in 2004. Supun Jayasinghe was in Grade Five, too, when he went there with the rest of his class seven years later. The only exception, apart from the year of the visit, was where he came from: a 100 miles away, in Dambulla. It was the first time he had been to the city.
Intriguing and exhilarating as such a trip may have been, he had other things in his head. A few months later, he wouldbe sitting the Grade Five Scholarship Exam. How would he study for it? What marks would he score? Where would he go, if those marks turned out to be high? These questions nagged him, yet for the moment he let them off.
In any case, the ride had been exhausting: having started at four in the morning, it was about nine when the bus entered the city. It made its way to Independence Avenue, and from there towards the University of Colombo.
Between Independence Avenue and Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Race Course faces Royal College. Intrigued by the Arcade, then the College, Supun and his classmates turned to their teacher. Standing up, he looked at them and described what they were, laying emphasis on the school more than the complex. Having described it in detail – the oldest public school, the most popular such institution, and so on – he brought the discussion back to his audience. “You have your scholarship exams this year,” he reminded them. “Try scoring as high as you can, because if you do, you’ll get a chance to come and study there.”
The memory of those words remained in Supun for a long time. The moment he heard them, he vowed to get as high a mark as he could, to get that chance, to come here.
Whatever the shortcomings of the Scholarship Exam may be, there’s no denying that it has opened up a world of opportunity for an aspiring lower middle-class. Supun’s father, a businessman, and mother, a teacher, hailed from this middle-class. Having attended a local Montessori and a Model School, he spent the whole of 2011 studying for the exam, forfeiting what little free time he had poring over books under a tree in his front yard. Yet, while he hit the books as hard and as much as he could, he did not push himself to compete with his peers. He’d told everyone he would ace the paper, but that owed less to a desire to be the best in the class than to a yearning to enter the best school he thought there was.
In any case, he got what he wanted. The marks came home somewhere in December 2011: having aimed at 180, he had scored 186. An even better piece of news came soon afterwards: the cut-off mark for Royal in 2012 happened to be 182. This meant only one thing: he would be boarded at the College Hostel, the following month, the following year.
The decision to go to Colombo did not come easy. Supun’s mother had opposed it at first, claiming it was too far. The marks were what convinced her. Even so, going to a city he’d only heard about and seen just once, and choosing to stay there for the better part of the next seven or so years, was a challenge. How would he fit in? What would he have to adjust to? Did people act there the way they did here? Did they differ in how they studied, read books, wrote answers? How they ate, drank, walked, and talked? He had much to think about, and as the weeks drew the year to a close, not much time to think them over.
Before everything, of course, there was the question of visiting the Hostel. On January 8 a letter arrived at his home, notifying them that the new term would commence a few weeks later, and that an orientation would be held before it did, on January 20.
Excited as he was, Supun nevertheless felt uneasy. On January 19, he and his father made their way to a rented house at Mount Lavinia, where a not-so distant relative lived. The next day came slowly, excruciatingly slowly. “I couldn’t sleep, I did not want to,” he remembers it today. Somehow, the night passed, and the following morning, having consulted and checked out at an auspicious time, the two of them made their way to Colombo.
Sri Lanka’s public schools, in particular those whose origins go back to the 19th century, are distinctly British in their architecture. The historian K. M. de Silva not unjustifiably calls it bland, unremarkable, and passé, when compared with Portuguese and Dutch architecture. For all their blandness, though, the British invested these buildings with an aura of expansiveness, with corridors giving way to gardens, quadrangles, and still other corridors.
Finding their way through an endless maze of entrances and exits, Supun and his father could not locate the Hostel. When they finally did, they were ushered into an orientation. Supun remembers two things from that day: his new class (6N), and the school song. The latter awed him: he hadn’t listened to many English songs, let alone school anthems, until then.
Having returned home after the orientation, father and son were told that the new term would begin five days later, on January 25. The second time around they came to Colombo in a car. Starting the journey of more than a hundred miles at four in the morning, they arrived at their destination at one or two in the afternoon.
At the Hostel the usual procedure was followed. The seniors directed him to his room. Each room had bunker beds. Not used to sleeping on them, he chose the first compartment, sharing the bunker with three others. When the last of the parents left, he predictably felt his nerves on the edge. The old fears returned: would he be able to fit in?
As with all public schools located in the city, the history of Royal College has woven itself into the history of its surroundings. Confusing at first, its topography extends from one end to another, covering a great many sites. To socialise into and familiarise himself with such an environment physically was not, however, tough for Supun. The real challenge lay elsewhere: the all too ubiquitous presence of English, and the melange of race and religion within the classroom. In other words, language proficiency plus cultural assimilation.
Glancing through his achievements from then, it struck me how his resolve stood out in them all. Back in Dambulla he had neither let the achievements of his peers ruffle him nor allowed himself to be overtaken by a desire to do better than them. He always, for instance, came first at his first school, but not because he wanted to beat everyone else to it; he just wanted to do something, and when he put his mind to it, he tried to do it somehow, on his own.
In Colombo this remained his philosophy. Whether it was winning creative composition and literary criticism prizes, becoming Junior Prefect (2015) and Junior Steward (2018), right before winding up as Steward (2019) and Chairman or Secretary of a great many clubs and societies (to list just some: Philatelic, Science, Library Readers), he let himself into whatever he took a fancy to. He did not, however, abandon his academics; studying for his O Levels, he ended up with nine As. Needless to say, on the field and in the class, at studies and sports, he confronted, and got over, those two challenges of proficiency and assimilation.
Supun’s story, I realise when I read through it, at once reflects and deviates from the norm. Reflects, because it conforms to the general pattern (initial difficulties at getting used to life in the city being followed by assimilation into the cultural and social patterns of that city), and deviates from, because his willpower is hard to find among his peers, or at least most of them. There is a reason for that: born with congenital anomalies on his right hand and leg, he has refused to let them get in his way, having won medals at the Para Games (2018) as well as for volleyball, boxing, table tennis, hockey, baseball, scouting (with a President’s Badge in 2019 to boot). By all accounts, this is to be admired, as it should be even now.
Steven Kemper dedicates the last chapter of his book on advertising in Sri Lanka (Buying and Believing) to a Sinhala lower middle-class family, residing in the outskirts of Colombo, who manage to realise their aspirations through their second son gaining entry to Supun’s school. Kemper, ever sensitive to the vagaries of class, points out how two-pronged entering a better school can be: a “singular opportunity”, yet one that comes with the price of accommodation “in a hostel.” Boarding their son, the family later relocates to Colombo. They make that move because they have to: the son is their link to the city, and to all it represents.
This country is home to a great many families who aspire for a better life, and one way through which they seek that life is education: not merely what you study, but where you study. Supun’s case is therefore illustrative: it’s the story of every other middle-class child. What’s interesting is how their integration to the city has brought about a transformation in the country’s elite schools. In that sense Supun’s story, as with that of the family in Kemper’s book, is not only illustrative, but also instructive. A Senior Prefect today, waiting for his A Level results, he finishes the conversation with a simple personal credo: “I’ve always aimed high and big, and I think I’ve always got there.” I am inclined to agree.
The writer can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Cleaner production – an urgent need
By Dr. Debapriya Mukherjee
Former Senior Scientist
Central Pollution Control Board, India
If we look into the areas close to the industrial sector, production of pollutants particularly from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) has damaged the natural environment by excess emission of wastewater, gas or other solid waste. Environmental agencies are failing miserably in controlling pollution from most of the SMEs across the country. SME contributes asignificant fraction of total environmental burden in developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh. Despite enforcement of environmental acts and regulations, the consumption of huge quantities of resources and energy, within a remarkably short period through industrial production had a far-reaching influence on natural environment. Reducing this burden needs environmental improvement at the micro level, a goal which has been stubbornly elusive in India.
According to my observations, the major problems in SMEs, are old technologies, poor management practices, limited availability of funds, inadequately trained officials, lack of appropriate inspection and monitoring and overall sustainable gap between enforcement agencies, industries and communities because impassivity of top management in environmental sector and political will have impeded sustainable environment management. Regulatory pressure on the SMEs could not implicate positive effect on environment to maintain sound ecosystem as observed in many areas close to SMEs such as foundry, sponge iron, electroplating industry, food processing, tannery and others.
Environment Sustainability (ES) to maintain wholesomeness of the environment by controlling production of pollutants has been practically jeopardized. The possible reason is that several industrial complexes have been established without considering environmental and social impacts and thereby sustainability of industrial development is not gaining momentum. This dismal ES remains well hidden because social aspects (such as human rights, corruption, poverty, child mortality, land degradation, illiteracy and health problems) and their interrelation with economic and environment aspects are not considered with due emphasis by the regulatory agencies. The traditional approach of enforcing environmental acts and regulations is unable to explain and address the complex dynamic inter-relation among economics, environmental and social aspects with time. Though environmental impact assessment and environmental management system as per the Environment (Protection) Ac are mandatory to establish and to operate any project but, ES, and social benefits are always questionable. Industrial growth without ES under prevailing socio-economic condition is definitely neglected and delayed.
Survey of these industries reveals that SMEs are mainly dependent on end-of pipe(EOP) technology and their functionality are not consistent. Regulatory pressure compelled these industries to install a pollution control system for compliance with standards. But non-compliance is a common feature due to non-availability/ non-operation/ failure of pollution control system. Though regulatory agencies inspect the industries once or twice a year they are unable to ensure consistent control of pollution. Also, the regulatory authority cannot evaluate the different compliance level and thereby violation of standard to any extent is subject to the same penalties as it is marginal violation. Environmental managers can easily control the pollution level within a permissible limit during inspection by manipulating raw materials feeding and/or by operating the pollution control devices. It is not always feasible with limited trained/experienced personnel to conduct in-depth study on material and water balance in order to justify the quantity of pollutants emitted to environment based on the monitoring data. Enforcement agencies put emphasis on performance evaluation of EOP technology as per the stipulated standard without considering ecological crisis and social problems in the area closed to the industries. As a result, owners of the industries are not serious to initiate CP despite economic benefits associated with its implementation. On the contrary, owners of the industries are well versed on how to tackle an adverse situation temporarily and make their units in operation. Regulatory agencies issue time to time closure notices or directives to improve the performance of pollution control system to the non-compliant industries. In response to these notices, owners of the industries with the help of outside experts, find out temporary solution with little financial investment just to fulfill the legal requirement and not “real” requirement. As a result, actual compliance status over time remains well hidden and thereby environmental and social problems remain unattended. One ofthe reasons may be vested interests of the concerned officers entrusted for verification of the report. Otherwise why water, air and soil are still so much polluted?
In this context it may be mentioned that the majority of residents are poor and do not have access to higher authorities for solving their problems as well as they are not well educated to explain their sufferings to the media/press highlighting ecological crisis created by these industries. Government has already launched various projects to remove poverty, to educate the people, to provide health facility and to create environmental awareness among the people to highlight the pollution problem, but implementation status of these projects is not always satisfactory. This has resulted environmental and social problems reaching alarming proportion in many industrial clusters in India and simply visual inspections supplement these findings. Limitations in government’s actions to solve the problems are not disseminated via media for public awareness for various reasons. Moreover accountability of government employees for implementing the projects in terms of success and failure is not properly evaluated because knowledge and hardship required for evaluating degree of success are practically lacking.
This problem in regulatory organization, may be attributed to top management persons because they often recruit either new scientists/engineers or retired government engineers/scientists on the basis of political connections or bribes or nepotism to look after activities related to environment management but their style of management clearly exhibit impassivity towards CP implementation because of their poor technical capability. Whereas huge potential offered by the country’s young population is far from being leveraged. Also many highly qualified young scientists/engineers refuse to take up the challenging works related to environment management in these organizations because of the lack of knowledgeable and skilled experts to guide the newly recruited personnel, hostile environment and bureaucracy.
This is really a disturbing situation. Thereby, India needs innovative minds to meet its formidable challenges. For this, both the state and central governments should take urgent action and must appoint highly qualified, broad-minded top most officers, who will recruit qualified competent engineers/scientists and give them state-of-the-art technology based on sound scientific evidence with no external interference. Fixing our organization system will require a complete overhaul of the recruitment system, changes in environment policy and implementation of CP concept in these SMEs. According to UN Environmental Progrmme (UNEP) CP is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy towards processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment. However this will be difficult with the present disconnect between science and policy in these organizations.
My experience clearly established the economic efficiency of CP through incremental innovation based on production process optimization and thereby the payback period of investment towards CP technology was short. Unfortunately, in India actual level of implementation of CP in industries in particular all SMEs as found in other countries to deliver environmental advantage is not determined. Therefore, evaluation of actual environmental and economic performance improvement is an emergent need to maintain sustainable industrial development, social welfare, social equity and sound ecosystem. In India, the manufacturing industries and the government can play a major role in this sustainable development. However, community pressure followed by enforcement of environmental acts and regulation has slowly changed the attitude of these industries but overall success towards consistent compliance is still a distant dream.
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