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By Dr. Chandana (Chandi) Jayawardena DPhil

President – Chandi J. Associates Inc. Consulting, Canada

Founder & Administrator – Global Hospitality Forum

Classical Shows

As a young child I virtually grew up on stage. My father was an award-winning playwright, stage producer, director and actor. His other artistic talents such as set and costume designing enhanced the overall quality of his productions. In 1956, his play ‘Janma Bhumi’ was chosen by the government to celebrate 2,500 years of recorded history of Sri Lanka, as a part of Buddha Jayanthi celebrations. With the opening of that play, he became the first-ever to use now famous Lumbini Theatre in Colombo. Growing up in a culturally rich environment meant frequent visits by our family to art galleries, theatres, cinemas and traditional cultural events. My parents also sent my elder sister and I to learn Kandyan dancing. I was lousy at it and gave it up after a few sessions.

During my Ceylon Hotel School (CHS) student years, my favourite show was the first ever solo concert by a Sri Lankan singer – Victor Ratnayake. His concert known as ‘Sa’ (the root or tonic note in the Indian music scale) was first performed in 1973. I saw ‘Sa’ four times over four decades. I had mixed feelings when Victor finally ended ‘Sa’ in the year 2012, with the 1,450th concert. For the final show he chose Lumbini Theater where the first ‘Sa’ was held 39 years before that.

I never had the privilege of talking with Victor, but had the opportunity to work with the other two greatest classical musicians in Sri Lanka – Amaradeva and Nanda Malini. They occasionally entertained the guests at the Hotel Ceysands, during the oriental food events which I organized. I was the Executive Chef and the Food & Beverage Manager of that hotel in late 1970s. Arranging such high caliber classical musicians to entertain tourists was not common in hotels in Sri Lanka.

Western Concerts

I also equally enjoyed western music shows. Those days, we called these ‘Beat Shows’. In addition, my neighbourhood friends used to organize large scale road dances in Bambalapitiya Flats, which had a refreshingly diverse population. A few days ago, I tracked down a pioneer in western music shows in Sri Lanka, now living in USA – Kumar Navaratnam. Kumar used to organize popular beat shows in Colombo in late 1960s and early 1970s. When Kumar saw the iconic performances by Jimmy Hendrix, Carlos Santana, the Who etc. in a documentary film about Woodstock, Kumar was inspired to do something different in Colombo.

Previously having introduced rock and hard rock to Sri Lankan audiences, Kumar planned to organize something big. His ambition was to organize the first-ever Rock Festival from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am at the Havelock Park in Colombo, in the style of Woodstock. Once his friend, then turned rival, Gabo Peiris had the same idea. Eventually one week apart, there were two competing Rock Festivals organized by Gabo and Kumar held at the same venue. Most of my CHS batchmates went with me to both events. I wore a tie and dye tee shirt, a chain with a large peace sign and a pair of old torn jeans with the largest possible bell bottoms (36 inches!).

There were heavy rains during Gabo’s Rock Festival and that enhanced the ‘Woodstock’ type atmosphere and mood of the attendees. While the rock music continued nonstop, we danced in the rain and jumped into small puddles of mud, until dawn. When I asked Kumar last week if he has any photographs from his Rock Festival, he told me, “Machang, I was too drugged to remember or arrange any photos of that festival!” Kumar’s departure to USA at the height of his popularity in the 1970s created a void in the western music scene in Sri Lanka that lasted for some time. Those two festivals are yet to be matched by contemporary rock groups on the island. Kumar remains regarded as a pioneer of Sri Lankan Western music.

Meeting Mark Bostock

In 1973, as the Tournament Secretary, once again I led the organizing committee of the Nationalised Services Rugby Football Club’s annual tournament. I also played for the CHS seven-a-side team, which was one of the fourteen teams that competed for the prestigious trophy. CHS lost to the Bank of Ceylon, in the quarter finals. The chief guest for the tournament was an Englishman well-known in Sri Lanka as a sportsman and a business leader, Mr. Mark Bostock. He was the President of the Ceylon Rugby Football Union and the Chairman of the John Keells, the largest group of companies in Sri Lanka. We shook hands and spoke briefly. I felt that he was impressed with the organization of the tournament.

That brief introduction to Mr. Bostock led me to find employment with John Keells on two occasions during my mid-career in the hotel industry. At the age twenty-five I managed one of John Keells hotels, and befriended Mr. Bostock. He arranged for me to be trained in London with the largest British hotel company – Trust House Forte in the late 1970s. He was the attesting witness when I got married. In the mid-1980s, my family was invited to visit the Bostock family in their home in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England and stay overnight with them. We had a great time there. In later years his daughter Clare, who studied hospitality management in the UK, worked at Le Galadari Meridien Hotel, where I worked in mid-1980s.

In 1986, I arranged a small farewell to Mr. and Mrs. Mark Bostock, just before his retirement, in Habarana. At that time as the General Manager, I managed the two largest hotels built by John Keells, the Lodge and the Village, Habarana, as well as their farm and Keells food distribution in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

Dance Organizing

Towards the end of our second year at CHS, we were very busy organizing the second CHS Graduation Ball. With the experience gained in 1972, my batch had become more efficient at event planning and organizing. We raised more funds through souvenir advertisements and were able to secure the most prestigious and expensive venue in the country – the ballroom of the Hotel Ceylon Inter.Continential. The dance tickets were sold out quickly and the dance was an overall success in terms of attendance, profits as well as finding partners.

Scraping Coconuts at

Lever Brothers

Five of my batchmates and I were able to arrange well-sought after summer internships at one of the best-known multinational corporations operating in Sri Lanka. It was at Lever Brothers, fondly known to many generations of Sri Lankans as ‘The Sunlight Company’, since 1938. At this Anglo-Dutch corporation, Lever Brothers (now Uni-Lever), we were exposed to new employee orientations, training and development as well as, employee benefits. These standards were far superior to what the hotel industry was providing those days.

My main task was scraping coconuts and peeling sweet potatoes for meals of their 1,000 employees. As four meals a day (breakfast, lunch, dinner and mid-night meal) all included curries, they needed a large quantity of grated coconut and coconut milk. Having done the same function throughout the summer of 1973, I became an expert at coconut scraping using the motorized scraper at the Lever Brothers staff kitchen. That machine was my friend, whom I called, ‘NUTS’. We also had to do shift work. Morning and afternoon shifts were good. However, we disliked doing the night shift and delivering midnight snacks to different factories.

Although we worked as trainee staff cooks; we were given some extra benefits. We had our meals at the junior executive meal room. We were also given some excellent supervisory technique training with handouts developed in Europe. I also learnt for the first-time sales concepts, public relations and union relations. At one of our training sessions, the Personnel Manager, asked us, “What is the best for management – negotiating with one union or several unions?”. I quickly raised my hand and answered, “Several!” when the manager asked my rationale for the answer, I said, “Because with several unions, the management can divide and rule”. He disagreed and explained how the management could have better and mutually beneficial industrial relations by dealing with one union. We learnt a lot at Lever Brothers, in addition to scraping coconuts.

Meeting Stanley Jayawardena

During this seventh part-time job, I was fortunate to get an opportunity to briefly meet Mr. Stanley Jayawardena, who later became Unilever Sri Lanka’s first Sri Lankan Chairman. He told interesting and inspiring stories about his remarkable career. He had joined Lever Brothers as a Sales Manager in 1955 with little knowledge in sales. However, over the decades that he worked at Unilever, he became a highly respected Marketing Guru.

He played a dominant role in shaping the destiny of Unilever Sri Lanka. Nine years after this brief meeting, I learnt Marketing from this expert. In 1982 and 1983 I did an Executive Diploma in Business Administration at the University of Colombo and Mr. Stanley Jayawardena taught its Marketing course. He arranged the ex-Marketing people from Unilever Sri Lanka, such as Upali Mahanama, Sri Sangabo Corea to give us guest lectures. That inspired me to study Marketing further with the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) in UK and eventually become a graduate of the CIM.

Mastering the Concept of Marketing

The seeds of Marketing knowledge and practical tips in Marketing shared by Mr. Stanley Jayawardena, made a significant impact in my career. Most things I did in my mid-career in hospitality management – food festivals, stage productions, food and beverage operations, banqueting sales, were influenced by the basic principles of Marketing. Identifying the market segments and the customer needs and then satisfying those needs while making profits, is a simple, yet a powerful concept.

Having seen the benefit of Marketing knowledge in most things I did, I further studied and practiced Marketing. In the year 1990, I embarked in an MPhil/PhD in Hospitality Marketing at the University of Surrey, UK. Over the next 17 years as a full-time and part-time Visiting Professor/Senior Lecturer/Professor, I taught Marketing in 13 post-secondary educational institutions in eight countries (Schiller International University in UK, International Hotel School in Sri Lanka, Ceylon Hotel School, International Hotel Management Institute in Switzerland, Pegasus Hotel School in Guyana, University of Guyana, The University of the West Indies in Jamaica, Private Hotel School of Aruba, Mona School of Business in Jamaica, Ryerson University in Canada, Canadian School of Management, Ravens University in USA and Niagara College in Canada).

Thirty years after my first meeting with my Marketing Guru, I worked for the Canadian School of Management as their Senior Vice President in Market Development. Thank you for the insight and the inspiration, Mr. Stanley Jayawardena!

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Have Humanities and Social Sciences muddied water enough?



By Maduranga Kalugampitiya

The domain of the humanities and social sciences is under attack more than ever before. The relevance, as well as usefulness of the degrees earned in those fields, is being questioned left, right, and centre. The question of whether it is meaningful at all to be spending, if not wasting, the limited financial resources available in the coffers to produce graduates in those fields is raised constantly, at multiple levels. Attempts are being made to introduce a little bit of soft skills into the curricula in order to add ‘value’ to the degree programmes in the field. The assumption here is that either such degree programmes do not impart any skills or the skills that they impart are of no value. We often see this widely-shared profoundly negative attitude towards the humanities and the social sciences (more towards the former than towards the latter) being projected on the practitioners (students, teachers, and researchers) in those areas. At a top-level meeting, which was held one to two years ago, with the participation of policy-makers in higher education and academics and educationists representing the humanities and social sciences departments, at state universities, a key figure in the higher education establishment claimed that the students who come to the humanities and social sciences faculties were ‘late-developers’. What better (or should I say worse?) indication of the official attitude towards those of us in the humanities and the social sciences!

While acknowledging that many of the key factors that have resulted in downgrading the humanities and social sciences disciplines are global by nature and are very much part of the neoliberal world order, which dominates the day, I wish to ask if we, the practitioners in the said fields, have done our part to counter the attack.

What the humanities and the social sciences engage with is essentially and self-consciously social. What these disciplines have to say has a direct bearing on the social dimension of human existence. It is near impossible to discuss phenomena in economics, political science, or sociology without having to reflect upon and use examples from what happens in our lives and around us. One cannot even begin to talk about teaching English as a second language without taking a look at her/his own experience learning English and the struggles that many people go through at different levels doing the same. One cannot talk about successful ways of teaching foreign languages without recognizing the need to incorporate an engagement with the cultural life of those languages at some level. No reading of an artwork—be it a novel, a movie, a painting, a sculpture, a poem, whatever—is possible without the reader at least subconsciously reflecting upon the broader context in which those artworks are set and also relating her own context or experience to what is being read. A legal scholar cannot read a legislation without paying attention to the social implications of the legislation and the dynamics of the community at whom that legislation is directed. The point is our own existence as social beings is right in the middle of what we engage with in such disciplines. To steal (and do so self-consciously) a term from the hard/natural sciences, society is essentially the ‘laboratory’ in which those in the humanities and social sciences conduct their work. There may be some areas of study within the humanities and social sciences which do not require an explicit engagement with our social existence, but I would say that such areas, if any, are limited in number.

Needless to say that every social intervention is political in nature. It involves unsettling what appears to be normal about our social existence in some way. One cannot make interventions that have a lasting impact without muddying the water which we have been made to believe is clear. How much of muddying do we as practitioners in the field of humanities and social sciences do is a question that needs to be asked.

Unfortunately, we do not see much work in the humanities and social sciences which unsettles the dominant order. What we often see is work that reinforces and reaffirms the dominant structures, systems, and lines of thought. Lack of rigorous academic training and exposure to critical theory is clearly one of the factors which prevents some scholars in the field from being able to make interventions that are capable of muddying the water, but the fact that we sometimes do not see much muddying even on the part of the more adept scholars shows that lack of rigorous training is not the sole reason.

Muddying the water is no simple matter. To use a problematic, yet in my view useful, analogy, a scholar in the said field trying to make an intervention that results in unsettling the order is like a hydrogen atom in H2O, ‘water’ in layperson’s language, trying to make an intervention which results in a re-evaluation of the oxygen atom. Such an intervention invariably entails a re-evaluation of the hydrogen atom as well, for the reason that the two atoms are part of an organic whole. One cannot be purely objective in its reading of the other. Such an intervention is bound to be as unsettling for the hydrogen atom as it is for the oxygen atom. Similarly, in a majority of contexts, a scholar in the area of the humanities and social sciences cannot make an intervention, the kind that pushes the boundaries of knowledge, without unsettling the dominant structures and value systems, which they themselves are part of, live by, and also benefit from. For instance, the norms, values, and practices which define the idea of marriage in contexts like ours are things that a male scholar would have to deal with as a member of our society, and any intervention on his part which raises questions about gender-based inequalities embodied in such norms, values, and practices would be to question his own privilege. Needless to say that such an intervention could result in an existential crisis for the scholar, at least temporarily. Such interventions also entail the possibility of backlash from society. One needs thorough training to withstand that pressure.

In place of interventions that unsettle the existing order, what we often see is work, which re-presents commonsensical knowledge garbed in jargon. To give an example from an area that I am a bit familiar with, much of the work that takes place in the field of English as a Second Language (ESL) identifies lack of motivation on the part of the students and also teachers and also lack of proper training for teachers as the primary reasons for the plight of English education in the country. This reading is not very different from a layperson’s understanding of the problem, and what we often see as research findings in the field of ESL is the same understanding, albeit dressed up in technical-sounding language. Such readings do not unsettle the existing order. They put the blame on the powerless. Very limited is the work that sees the present plight of English education as a systemic or structural problem. Reading that plight as a systemic problem requires us to re-evaluate the fundamental structures which govern our society, and such re-evaluation is unsettling is many ways. I argue that that is what is expected of scholarship in the ESL field, but unfortunately that is not what we see as coming out of the field.

If what gets produced as knowledge in the humanities and social sciences is jargonized commonsense, then the claim that such fields have nothing important to say is valid. If what a scholar in those fields has to say is not different to a layperson’s understanding of a given reality, the question whether there is any point in producing such scholars becomes valid.

In my view, the humanities and social sciences are in need of fundamental restructuring. This restructuring is not the kind which calls for the incorporation of a bit of soft skills here and a bit of soft skills there so that those who come out of those fields easily fit into predefined slots in society but the kind that results in the enhancement of the critical thinking capacity of the scholars. It is the kind of restructuring that would produce scholars who are capable of engaging in a political reading of the realities that define our existence in society and raise difficult questions about such existence, in other words, scholars who are capable of muddying the water.

(Maduranga Kalugampitiya is attached to Department of English, University of Peradeniya)

Kuppi is a politics and pedagogy happening on the margins of the lecture hall thatparodies, subverts, and simultaneously reaffirms social hierarchies.

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Selective targeting not law’s purpose



By Jehan Perera

The re-emergence of Donald Trump in the United States is a reminder that change is not permanent. Former President Trump is currently utilising the grievances of the white population in the United States with regard to the economic difficulties that many of them face to make the case that they need to be united to maintain their position in society. He is coming forward as their champion. The saying “Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty” is often attributed to the founders of the United States, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Abraham Lincoln, among many others, though Lord Denning in The Road to Justice (1988) stated that the phrase originated in a statement of Irish orator John Philpot Curran in 1790. The phrase is often used to emphasise the importance of being vigilant in protecting one’s rights and freedoms.

Ethnic and religious identity are two powerful concepts by which people may be mobilised the world over. This is a phenomenon that seemed to have subsided in Western Europe due to centuries of secular practices in which the state was made secular and neutral between ethnicities and religions. For a short while last year during the Aragalaya, it seemed that Sri Lanka was transcending its ethnic and religious cleavages in the face of the unexpected economic calamity that plunged large sections of the population back into poverty. There was unprecedented unity especially at the street level to demonstrate publicly that the government that had brought the country to this sorry pass had to go. The mighty force of people’s power succeeded in driving the leaders of that government out of power. Hopefully, there will be a government in the future that will bring the unity and mutual respect within the people, especially the younger generations, to the fore and the sooner the better as the price is growing higher by the day.

But like the irrepressible Donald Trump the old order is fighting to stage its comeback. The rhetoric of ethnicity and religion being in danger is surfacing once more. President Ranil Wickremesinghe who proclaimed late last year that the 13th Amendment to the constitution would be implemented in full, as it was meant to be, and enable the devolution of power to be enjoyed by the people of the provinces, including those dominated by Tamils and Muslims, has gone silent on this promise. The old order to which he is providing a new economic vision is clearly recalcitrant on ethno-religious matters. As a result, the government’s bold plan to set up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission as promised to the international community in 2015 to address the unresolved human rights issues of the war, is reportedly on the rocks. The main Tamil political parties have made statements that they will not legitimise or accept such a mechanism in the absence of a genuine devolution of power. Politics must not override policies.


The sense of threat to ethnicity and religion looms too large once again for forward movement in conflict resolution between the different communities that constitute the Sri Lankan nation which is diverse and plural. Two unlikely persons now find themselves at the centre of an emotion-heavy ethno-religious storm. One is a comedian, the other is a religious preacher. Both of them have offended the religious sensibilities of many in the ethno-religious Sinhala Buddhist majority community. Both of their statements were originally made to small audiences of their own persuasion, but were then projected through social media to reach much larger audiences. The question is whether they made these statements to rouse religious hatred and violence. There have been numerous statements from all sides of the divide, whether ethnic, religious or political, denouncing them for their utterances.

Both comedian Nathasha Edirisooriya and pastor Jerome Fernando have apologised for offending and hurting the religious sentiments of the Buddhist population. They made an attempt to remedy the situation when they realised the hurt, the anger and the opposition they had generated. This is not the first time that such hurtful and offensive comments have been made by members of one ethno-religious community against members of another ethnic-religious community. Taking advantage of this fact the government is arguing the case for the control of social media and also the mainstream media. It is preparing to bring forward legislation for a Broadcasting Regulatory Commission that would also pave the way to imprison journalists for their reporting, impose fines, and also revoke the licences issued to electronic media institutions if they impact negatively on national security, national economy, and public order or create any conflict among races and religions.

In a free society, opportunities are provided for people to be able to air their thoughts and dissents openly, be it at Hyde Park or through their representatives in Parliament. The threat to freedom of speech and to the media that can arise from this new law can be seen in the way that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) which is the world’s standard bearer on civil and political rights has been used and is being abused in Sri Lanka. It was incorporated into Sri Lankan law in a manner that has permitted successive governments to misuse it. It is very likely that the Broadcast Regulatory Commission bill will yield a similar result if passed into law. The arrest and detention of comedian Natasha Edirisooriya under the ICCPR Act has become yet another unfortunate example of the misuse of a law meant to protect human rights by the government. Pastor Jerome Fernando is out of prison as he is currently abroad having left the country a short while before a travel ban was delivered to him.


The state media reported that a “Police officer said that since there is information that she was a person who was in the Aragalaya protest, they are looking into the matter with special attention.” This gives rise to the inference that the reason for her arrest was politically motivated. Comedian Edirisooriya was accused of having violated the provisions in the ICCPR in Section 3(1) that forbids hate speech. Section 3(1) of the ICCPR Act prohibits advocacy of hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, violence or hostility. The international human rights watchdog, Amnesty International, has pointed out that in the case of Edirisooriya that for speech to be illegal on the grounds of being hate speech it requires “a clear showing of intent to incite others to discriminate, be hostile towards or commit violence against the group in question.” Amnesty International also notes that “When the expression fails to meet the test, even if it is shocking, offensive or disturbing, it should be protected by the state.”

Ironically, in the past there have been many instances of ethnic and religious minorities being targeted in a hateful manner that even led to riots against them, but successive governments have been inactive in protecting them or arresting their persecutors. Such targeting has taken place, often for political purposes in the context of elections, in blatant bids to mobilise sections of the population through appeals to narrow nationalism and fear of the other. The country’s political and governmental leaders need to desist from utilising the ICCPR Act against those who make social and political critiques that are outside the domain of hate speech. The arrest of Bruno Divakara, the owner of SL-Vlogs, under the ICCPR Act is an indication of this larger and more concerning phenomenon which is being brought to the fore by the Broadcasting Regulatory Commission bill.

The crackdown on the space for free expression and critical comment is unacceptable in a democratic polity, especially one as troubled as Sri Lanka, in which the economy has collapsed and caused much suffering to the people and the call to hold elections has been growing. The intervention of the Human Rights Commission which has called on the Inspector General of Police to submit a report on the arrest and its rationale is a hopeful sign that the independence of institutions intended to provide a check and balance will finally prevail. The Sri Lankan state will hopefully evolve to be a neutral arbiter in the disputes between competing ethnic, religious and partisan political visions of what the state should be and what constitutes acceptable behaviour within it. Taking on undemocratic powers in a variety of ways and within a short space of time is unlikely to deliver economic resurgence and a stable and democratic governance the country longs for. Without freedom, justice and fair play within, there can be no hope of economic development that President Wickremesinghe would be wanting to see.

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Girl power… to light up our scene



Manthra: Pop, rock and Sinhala songs

We have never had any outstanding all-girl bands, in the local scene, except, perhaps…yes The Planets, and that was decades ago!

The Planets did make a name for themselves, and they did create quite a lot of excitement, when they went into action.

Of course, abroad, we had several top all-girl bands – outfits like the Spice Girls, Bangles, Destiny’s Child, and The Supremes.

It’s happening even now, in the K-pop scene.

Let’s hope we would have something to shout about…with the band Manthra – an all-girl outfit that came together last year (2022).

Manthra is made up of Hiruni Fernando (leader/bass guitar), Gayathma Liyanage (lead guitar), Amaya Jayarathne (drums), Imeshini Piyumika (keyboards), and Arundathi Hewawitharana (vocals).

Amaya Arundathi and Imeshini are studying at the University of Visual and Performing Arts, while Gayathma is studying Architecture at NIMB, and Hiruni is the Western Music teacher at St. Lawrence’s Convent, and the pianist at Galadari Hotel, having studied piano and classical guitar at West London University.

They have already displayed their talents at various venues, events, weddings, and on TV, as well (Vanithabimana Sirasa TV and Charna TV Art Beat).

Additionally, the band showcased their talent at the talent show held at the Esoft Metro Campus.

The plus factor, where this all-girl outfit is concerned, is that their repertoire is made up rock, pop, and Sinhala songs.

Explaining as to how they came up with the name Manthra, founder member Hiruni said that Manthra means a word, or sound, repeated to aid concentration in meditation, and that the name was suggested by one of the band members.

Hiruni Fernando: Founder and leader of Manthra

She also went on to say that putting together a female band is not an easy task, in the scene here.

“We faced many difficulties in finding members. Some joined and then left, after a short while. Unlike a male band, where there are many male musicians in Sri Lanka, there are only a few female musicians. And then, there are some parents who don’t like their daughters getting involved in music.”

With talented musicians in their line-up, the future certainly looks bright for Manthra who are now keen to project themselves, in an awesome way, in the scene here, and abroad, as well.

“We are keen to do stage shows and we are also planning to create our own songs,” said Hiruni.

Yes, we need an all-girl group to add variety to our scene that is now turning out to be a kind of ‘repeating groove,’ where we see, and hear, almost the same thing…over and over again!

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