A non-scientist studies Nature but with determinants of diverse sorts, personal prejudices, religious beliefs or even illiteracy. A scientist explores and quantifies natural phenomena; these contrast with other natural phenomena that are esoteric and non-quantifiable. Attempts have been made by those interested in paranormal phenomena to delve into this difficult area; I, though a medical academic, wrote a chapter in the book Yoga and Para[sychology (Ed. Prof. K. Ramakrishna Rao, India) titled Approaches to the study of re-incarnation. My aim here is to use a scientific approach to study a phenomenon, outside the pale of conventional science, which has been documented in writings for centuries.
I would appeal to readers in trying to understand what I will be saying, to decondition your mind if that is at all possible, from skeptical views and consider what I will say with an open mind. I must say that I have been working on scientific research for 50 years with an equally strong interest in paranormal phenomena. A scientist spends his life investigating Nature but it seemed necessary for me to go a step further and investigate the unknown features of Nature, i.e. paranormal phenomena. The paranormal is a great challenge to a scientist.
This essay has two apparently contrasting themes: modern science with its rigorous objective methods on the one hand versus a mysterious, qualitative set of phenomena that lie in the area of philosophy and the Humanities on the other. It is an example of C. P. Snow’s famous debate, The Two Cultures, with a gulf separating them at the present time.
Modern science with its methods for the systematic investigation of Nature is first discussed emphasizing its inherent characteristics of concepts and ideas – replicability, inter-subjective testability, objectivity, quantifiability, and falsifiability – to which one might add conformity with established scientific paradigms. These features give small incremental advances in scientific knowledge in what Thomas Kuhn called “Normal Science”, which was occasionally complemented by paradigmatic jumps that Kuhn called “Revolutionary Science”, as when Newtonian mechanics gave way to Quantum Mechanics. The absence of this feature of established paradigms has been regarded as a negative feature of paranormal phenomena that include the ancient Indian palm leaf horoscopes. With the difficulty of accommodating them within science’s established paradigms, they do not enter into the mainstream of modern science and thus suffers the indignity of being dismissed as mumbo-jumbo, even by scientists such as Richard Dawkins, without evidence of their personal experiences of obscure paranormal phenomena. This situation contrasts with my best example, Professor, Nobel Prize winner Brian Josephson the physicist with whom I corresponded. He was interviewed by BBC London on his turn from physics to studying the paranormal. Josephson said he witnessed Mathew Manning in Toronto, Canada at a conference on Psychokinesis, bending metal objects mentally; Josephson then realized that science has nothing to say about such phenomena in Nature. His interview is on the Internet, BBC.
The Indian palm leaf phenomenon is next illustrated with instances that however exemplify some features that conform with some characteristics of modern science such as replicability, amenability to quantitative treatment, and the idea of causality. It differs from the substance of modern science in the absence of nomothetic theories that could explain these phenomena, and in the difficulty of classifying them into the established areas of modern science. Nor can they be subjected to Karl Popper’s idea of falsification rather than of verification of the validity of a theory which is regarded as a useful criterion of the process of scientific advance.
This quandary emphasizes the limitations of modern science on the one hand to cope with obscure natural phenomena that have been repeatedly validated, with what may on the other hand, be considered phenomena that are as replicable as heat, light, sound, electricity and magnetism which are the substance of modern physics, but which are as yet difficult or impossible to include in the ambit of modern science.
The ola leaf phenomenon is a subject on the other side of the Two Culture divide that separates the mysterious phenomena from domains of scientific knowledge and experience. The accuracy of documented past events is incredible with information that was not disclosed earlier to the reader such as the client’s name, names of his family members and events in the client’s life and even when the client would get his reading. The leaf reader’s statements are not verbatim but are read off words written on the leaf as confirmed by an observer who was conversant with the leaf’s written language – Tamil. A leaf is selected for reading, on the basis of the client’s thumb print as a sort of Index Number or Accession Number in a library book. It also correlates the client’s present life’s events with those of his previous life in terms of the idea of Karma.
In addition, the palm leaf phenomenon challenges our extant ideas of the past, present and future that Albert Einstein and Arthur Eddington considered as delusions. This phenomenon deals with ideas in philosophy that have no place in modern science but which have repeatedly demonstrated validity in terms of replicability as in the vein of modern science; these include re-incarnation and the idea of karma. While the leaf’s recital of the past events is stunningly accurate, the future’s accuracy was variable from 11 to 32 years in this author’s experience, illustrating the behavior off subatomic particles, according to Austrian Nobel Prize winner Erwin Shroedinger’s theory of probabilities concerning the behaviour of subatomic particles, that states that only one of these probabilities is realized when the particle is observed. He used mathematical models to describe the likelihood of finding an electron in a certain position. This atomic model is known as the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.
It was pointed out by Johannes Muller, the German physiologist that natural phenomena are of two kinds, those that are amenable to methods of critical, quantitative inquiry which are required to provide rigid proof as in the modern hard sciences, and from others that have only accumulated probabilities that include horoscopes and paranormal phenomena, for their consideration or even validation.
For the present, in terms of the limitations of our knowledge, C. P. Snow’s contrasting and irreconcilable Two Cultures, illustrated by modern physics on the one hand, and the ancient Indian palm leaf horoscopes on the other, will probably be with us for some time to come. The implication of this discussion is that the ola phenomenon as much as other phenomena now classified as paranormal or parapsychological, deserves scientific study with the hope that a synthesis or a compatibility of phenomena on both sides of this cultural divide, modern science on the one side and paranormal phenomena on the other, could be achieved to establish what Gregory Bateson termed the Unity of Knowledge, while nomothetic bases can be established for paranormal phenomena.
A word about astrology. There are extremes of acceptance of astrology from skepticism to acceptance of its validity through demonstration and conviction. The ola phenomenon and the ordinary variety termed mundane or horary astrology, are based on the seven planets with two intersecting nodes of orbital crossings, Rahu and Kethu, making a total of nine.
The mechanism through which ola leaf horoscopes were written is unknown. An Indian reader of the leaves surmised that they were based on tutorials given to Indian students of astrology. The effects on earth and its inhabitants from the planets is obvious from the life-giving affects of the sun, moon that affect tides, while their effects on humans are supposed to be causatively linked to the movements of the planets; aggression from Mars, art and beauty from Venus. Thomas Ritter in Germany, carbon-dated these ola horoscopes to 1400 years. They were transcribed a few times from the original goat skins to copper plaques and finally to ola leaves. Errors in transcription could have occurred to explain inaccuracies.
My first contact with the ola horoscopes was with that of my father, who on his frequent travels to India, got his from there. It said that he is employed in a department of ‘wheeled conveyance’. He worked in the railways. His family data was correct. It said his life span is 71 years and his demise was at 71. My father’s first two name were given correctly but had never used the first name. The selection procedure is that the right thumb of males and the left of females and as with accession numbers of library books, these are used to select the client’s leaf from a bundle brought from India or found in Indian centres of ola readings. I discussed these leaves with two friends, a university professor and a Tamil surgeon. The Sinhalese professor’s leaf was read before he married and it said that he would marry a girl of a different race and religion, and names were given. Years later he did marry such a girl but her family name was different. On inquiry, the parent said that the original family name that was given in the ola leaf had been changed later. The Tamil surgeon obtained his leaf from India and it gave his wife’s uncommon Western name; he was able to read the ola leaf’s reading himself and so verified its validity and authenticity, excluding telepathy or fraud as the mechanism of the correct readings. I had my ola readings by two readers in Colombo, and two in Trichinopoly and in Chennai in India. The readings in Colombo were given by two Indians who had brought the leaves from Tanjore, India. All four readings tallied.
Let me now compare the leaf phenomenon with the phenomena investigated by modern science. In science, there are hypotheses and theories; these are either falsified as advised by Karl Popper or verified as in earlier times. The leaf phenomenon as with other paranormal or parapsychological phenomena have no hypotheses or theories as their bases. They cannot be falsified as parapsychology has not yet developed theoretical or intellectual bases. But incorrect or fraudulent readings can be detected. Thus parapsychology has no paradigms that are the bed-rock of modern science. However, another characteristic of modern science, inter-subjective testability, that is the repetition or validation by independent observers can be done with the leaf readings.
In referring to modern science I must quote the example of Nobel Prize winner Brian Josephson from Cambridge, England. He was interviewed by BBC on why he switched his interest from his highly successful field of physics, to the paranormal. He said he saw personally the performance of psychokinesis or telekinesis which is a well-documented and spectacular phenomenon in parapsychology, done by Mathew Manning in Toronto, Canada. He said that modern science has nothing to say about such phenomena. I wrote to him describing our own work and agreeing with his views.
For skeptics who dismiss the paranormal without reason, I’d advise that a literate scientist would say, “I do not know but let me find out”. The world’s most prestigious scientific society, The Royal Society of London, founded in 1660 has as its motto “Nullius in verba”, “on the word of no one”, don’t take anybody’s word for it, find out for yourself. This is what the Buddha advised 2500 years ago in saying “ehei passiko, come and see”.
George Floyd, African-Americans, and Sri Lanka’s Estate Tamils (Part I)
By Uditha Devapriya
Over two weeks, the George Floyd protests spread practically everywhere. From Kansas to Kenya, from Baltimore to Berlin, they turned into symbols of dissent against not just the racism, but also the xenophobia, of White America.
One of the most haunting images to emerge from the demonstrations was that of a young Sri Lankan girl, draped in the flag of her country, posing defiantly on the streets of an American city. The image and the girl in it attracted both support and opposition, the latter coming from militant Sinhala nationalists who felt she dishonoured a national symbol by using it as a sign of civil disobedience involving a domestic issue of another country.
The response of the nationalists to the George Floyd uprisings was, if at all, amusing. One section of this crowd took to social media to condemn White America for exhibiting its racist, chauvinist face yet again. Another section – no less big or significant – took the opposite stance, censuring those protesting against the murder of a black civilian because, to them at least, Floyd’s murder did not warrant the rampaging and the pillaging of public property. To the latter group, these protests seemed disproportionate to what they regarded as an instance of police authority enforcing the law over a minority community.
The few within the nationalist crowd who did support the raging protests were, even more amusingly, taken to task on social media by another group, this one ideologically opposed to nationalism. The latter crowd seemed to think, not without justification, that the nationalists sharing posts and posting comments against White America were myopic: they seemed to sympathise with George Floyd, but not with the Tamils and Muslims of Sri Lanka, whom the anti-nationalists alleged are as discriminated against over here as George Floyd’s community is over there. Thus both nationalists opposed to the protests AND anti-nationalists critiquing the selectivity of those supporting the protests persisted in comparing African-Americans to the Tamils and Muslims of Sri Lanka.
In that sense the protests taught us two important lessons. Though they don’t form the subject of this essay, they are relevant to it, and hence need to be examined.
Firstly, the inability of many Sinhala nationalists to take their struggle against neo-colonialism and Western hegemony forward. Resistance to colonialism has historically formed the bedrock of the Sinhala nationalist lobby, yet their denunciations of this uprising betrayed a failure to think beyond geographic borders. This came out quite despairingly in their reaction to the only local political party that saw it fit to organise a protest in front of the US Embassy. The government’s crackdown on the demonstration didn’t seem to ruffle their feathers, nor did the point that the demonstrators were making.
Secondly, and just as importantly, the inability of local left-liberal outfits to come up with a proper front, in Sri Lanka, against the George Floyd murder. The Frontline Socialist Party (FSP) organised the protest against the US Embassy, while the Socialist Equality Party (SEP) organised a discussion on it online. But neither of these belongs to what is traditionally labelled as “civil society.” The point can be made that the issue at the centre of these protests was not Sri Lankan and that is why civil society ignored it, but that excuse pales away when one considers that the moment sections of the nationalist crowd let out their anger at the US’s handling of the protests, certain social media civil society activists focused their energies more on pointing out the hypocrisy of the nationalists.
Despite the hostile exchanges between the two factions, one particular point brought them together: their comparison of African-Americans to Sri Lankan Tamils and Muslims. They underscored this comparison from two different vantage points.
Thus the nationalists who critiqued the protests seemed to believe that, like extremist Tamils and Muslims, African-Americans and other minorities in the US were unfairly questioning the legitimacy of rule by an ethnic majority. Those opposed to the nationalists, on the other hand, inadvertently, by their critique of the nationalists’ sidelining of Tamils and Muslims, equated the latter two with the community which Floyd hailed from. The question to be asked here is whether such an analogy is, if not plausible, then at least tenable.
In 2011, a year before Barack Obama won election for a second term, Vinod Moonesinghe wrote a cogent reply to someone who in an article had wished for a Tamil or Muslim to be elected as this country’s leader. Vinod made two points there: considering Obama’s win as a win for all African-Americans failed to distinguish between his class origins and those of most African-Americans; and equating African-Americans with Tamils and Muslims was anachronistic, given the economically privileged status of the latter two groups.
Taking class and caste into consideration, then, Ranasinghe Premadasa’s election win seemed closer to such a comparison than the potential coming to power of a member of a “minority.” Taking class, caste, AND ethnicity into consideration, the analogy would have to extend, not to Jaffna and Colombo Tamils, Moors, and Malays, or Borahs and Sindhis, but instead to a community that, like the blacks of the US, was imported as dirt cheap labour, cut off from the rest of the population, and supervised under a setup no different to the plantations of the southern US. In other words, the migrant Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka.
Before making an analogy between these two groups, though, it would do well to reflect, very briefly, on the historical trajectory of slavery in the West.
Following the Arab invasions of the seventh and eighth centuries, Europe turned inward. The eminent historian Fernand Braudel has written of a “second serfdom” that sprang up in parts of the continent where feudalism failed to give way to capitalism. The result was the growth of a kind of slavery, white slavery, across the East, in what is now Russia; it’s a testament to the legacy of the trade which emerged there that the word “slave” derived from the ethnicity of those marshalled into it from that region, Slav.
With the influence of the Arabs and the Ottoman Turks after them waning after the fall of Granada in 1492 (the same year Columbus “discovered” the New World), a liberated Europe, discovering hitherto unchartered colonies in the Americas on one side and Australia on the other, gradually instituted a system of indentured white bondage.
It has been estimated that around 67% of all white immigrants to the new colonies arrived there as servants. These immigrants were bound to a contract that compelled them to work for an overseer, without pay, over a specified period of time. Most often such contracts were drawn for those who had a prior obligation to these overseers which they couldn’t meet, such as a debt. Since the government usually didn’t interfere with these contracts, extortion and kidnappings became common, as they would among Africans later on. The situation was such that even in as late as 1910 the US government was trying to put an end to white slavery: the White Slave Traffic Act (or the Mann Act) that year made it a felony to transport women across state borders for the purposes of “prostitution or debauchery.”
Debt bondage, however, applied in the early period only to white immigrants to the white colonies, and the Irish; the difference between their situation and that of African slaves was that the latter were never recruited to pay off an obligation; most of them ended up as lifelong labourers, unpaid and treated as chattel or property. As Liam Stack once observed, “[u]nlike slaves, servants were considered legally human.”
To put this in its proper perspective, the position of those shipped to the sugar plantations of the West Indies and the cotton mills of the southern United States fitted that of neither indentured servants nor wage labourers. The process of recruiting and transporting these Africans, in the long term, thus became, as Gordon K. Lewis put it, “quasi-militarised”, while once quartered in the plantations their owners did everything to isolate the unfortunate immigrants, prisoners really, from the world outside.
Revisionist historians, white and black, have tried to understate the full weight of black slavery, either by pointing at the involvement of African intermediaries in it or by showing that European Christians became as entangled in it as Africans.
Thus Robert Davis (Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters) argues that while the Atlantic slave trade was 12 times as large, more Christians than Africans were captured between 1500 and 1650, while Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (“How Many Slaves Landed in the US?”) contends that of the 10.7 million Africans who survived the passage to the West, “only about 388,000” were shipped to the United States. What these “findings” fail to show is that black slavery was not geographically limited to the US, or for that matter to Western Europe, and that from 1530 to 1780, when more than five million Africans found themselves dispatched to Portugal and Brazil, only about a million Christians were forced into servitude in North Africa, along the Barbary Coast and into the Ottoman Empire.
The Abolitionist movement, no doubt representative of a progressive, enlightened wing in the Evangelical Revival, agitated for African slavery’s end. It did this as much for moral reasons as for pragmatic ones; the rise in Britain of an industrial Whig bourgeoisie over a landed Tory gentry and the expansion of British interests in Asia and Africa had by then necessitated the rise of plantation colonialism. It is hence not a coincidence that African slaves in the British West Indies were emancipated by official proclamation in the same year (1833) that the most ambitious set of administrative proposals were tabled in Sri Lanka (Colebrooke-Cameron) to lay the foundation for the new colonial plantation economy.
Against this backdrop, black slavery soon receded to countries where a white settler class predominated, including Rhodesia, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. S. B. D. de Silva in The Political Economy of Underdevelopment refers to these as “settler states”, a distinction I will return to later. In any case, what we have here is the first of many differences between the plight of African-Americans and that of Sri Lankan Tamils and Muslims.
Plantation colonialism demolished and also made use of existing traditional political, cultural, social, and economic patterns in much of Asia and Africa. The most immediate result of that, of course, was the impoverishment of the peasantry; in Sri Lanka, as we know, the peasantry most directly affected by these policies remained the Kandyan Sinhalese.
Marx was largely correct in his comparison of British domination of India to that of Ireland. He was more prescient in the implication that the British brought with them to the colonies their experience in subjugating the Irish peasantry. Two policies make it clear to what extent they were following the Irish example in India and Sri Lanka: the expropriation of peasant land, and the pursuit of divide and rule. I shall turn to these next week, and with them, the growth and evolution of Indian migrant labour.
To be continued next week…
The writer can be reached at email@example.com
Imagine yourself being fried and eaten bit by bit
I cannot make up my mind: Is the meat eater, who eats dead animals killed in slaughterhouses, worse than the meat eater who kills the animal himself while eating it?
There is a certain type of person who goes to a restaurant, chooses a live fish, octopus shrimp or snake in a transparent aquarium tank, has it taken out of the glass and killed and cooked in front of him. His only reason for this to himself is that the meat should be “fresh”. In actual fact some people truly enjoy suffering. That, for them, is as important as the taste.
What can I say about people who enjoy eating these foods?
The Chinese Ying Yang fish is fried but kept alive. You can see videos of diners prodding at the face and eyes with their chopsticks while the fish struggles to breathe with its mouth and gills. It is prepared extremely quickly, with care not to damage the internal organs, so that the fish can remain alive for 30 minutes. Fish are the most sensitive of all to pain. Imagine yourself being fried and then eaten bit by bit.
In Japan, Sashimi, which means pierced body, is a common Japanese dish consisting of fresh raw fish or meat sliced into thin pieces and eaten with soy sauce. One kind of Sashimi is Ikizukuri (“prepared alive”) made with live sea beings. Fish and octopus are common ingredients that move on the plate as you eat them. Sashimi could also include live frogs. The frog is stripped of its skin while alive and stabbed delicately with a fork and eaten. One restaurant in Shinjuku serves the frog’s fresh, still beating heart, as starters. Lobsters are not always boiled alive and dead by the time they reach your plate. Restaurants in New York serve lobsters while they’re still alive. They are upturned and diners pick out “belly sashimi” from the lobster which flails in pain for all the time you take to slash and take out his stomach meat. Another common dish in Japan is swallowing live baby eels dipped in vinegar and saké.
In South Korea, Sannakji is a dish that involves hacking the tentacles off a baby octopus and serving them still wriggling. Sannakji connoisseurs enjoy the sensation of the still-active suction cups on the octopus’ arms as they stick to the mouth.
The Chinese cannot be bested for their addiction to cruelty. Live shrimp are put into a liquor called Baijiu and diners bite their heads off while drinking it. This can give you lung fluke disease, but what is more important than proving your manhood by killing a shrimp. In China there is a dish called “Three squeaks” in which live baby mice are dunked in sauce and eaten alive. The reason why it is called “Three Squeaks” is due to the sounds the mice make when grabbed with chopsticks, dunked in the sauce and bitten through.
Raw live baby monkey brain is a very expensive dish eaten by rich people in China and Hong Kong. The chef puts a live monkey beneath a table with its head poking up through a hole. The chef slices the top of the head off and the customers eat its brains while it screams. Fresh baby donkey, or Huo Jiao Lu. The animal has its legs tied and its body held down, while the chef cuts its body and serves the meat immediately to customers.
Live baby duck embryos, just a day from being hatched, are a famous Chinese specialty which is now common in the Philippines as well. In the latter country it is called Balut. The Filipinos eat the egg boiled. The Chinese eat it raw to get the full taste of the egg white, the little yolk left, and the live squirming chick. No wonder the Chinese make such dangerous enemies. They love violence and gore.
Odori ebi or “dancing shrimp” is a Japanese sashimi in which the baby pink shrimp is still moving its legs and antennae while being eaten. The shrimp only dies when chewed. Odori Don is a live cuttlefish whose tentacles twitch as you pour the soy and chew it.
Consuming the beating heart and blood of live snakes is common in Vietnam. You choose the live snake at roadside stalls and they cut it and serve it within a minute. I have seen this in Hong Kong. In China people eat live baby snakes.
Sea urchins are the porcupines of the sea; globular animals with long spines to defend themselves. They live on the seabed. But their spines cannot protect them from human greed. They are caught and served live. Their testicles are a delicacy across the world, specially Europe. The live animal is cut on the plate with scissors and its salty gonads are taken out and eaten raw.
The most common animal to be eaten alive is the oyster which is served alive. Its spine is broken, and its insides are slurped up raw. This was originally a French dish but is now eaten all over.
A famous chain of restaurants in Copenhagen serves salads crawling with live ants supposedly to add a zesty taste. These move slowly because they have been kept in the fridge previously. Wichetty grubs are chewed live in parts of Australia. They are said to taste like nutty fried eggs.
Casu Marzu is a traditional Sardinian sheep milk cheese eaten in Italy. Its specialty is that it contains the live maggots of the cheese fly, which jump about in panic as you scrunch them. Casu Marzu has so much ammonia in it from its faeces that it scorches the tongue. Milk cheeses containing living insect larvae are produced in several Italian regions.
Television game shows that I have repeatedly complained about to the Ministry over the years is Fear Factor and Survivor where contestants eat live insects, spiders, cockroaches and worms. But by the time they take action, the series is already over. Then we start the cycle again with the next series. Man vs Wild is another show in which Bear Gryllis shows his manhood by eating live insects.
What is the word for people who demand food that is so full of pain? Monsters? Ugly terrifying evil beings that are probably a menace to human society as well.
(To join the animal
welfare movement contact firstname.lastname@example.org, www.
The elephant and alli mankada
By Ashley de Vos
In 1999, a proposal was made by the undersigned as President of the Wildlife and Nature Protection Society of Sri Lanka, to document from the existing information in the Department of Wildlife Conservation, held in the archives of Mr. Wilson, an erudite Officer, and draw a map showing the original Alli Mankada, as they existed prior to 1977. Many ‘Experts’ objected, that they had all changed. They had all changed, yes, but we were after the Ayurveda solution to the problem, instead of the ampicillin solution of the western educated experts.
As a quick fix an ampicillin solution in the form of an electric fence was promoted and installed at enormous cost. This we all know has failed. These elephants for centuries have travelled from A to B along the Alli Mankada. Today this highway or the Mankada they travelled along has been blocked, and a detour has been introduced. Let’s apply the very same scenario to us humans. We are merrily travelling along the highway with our family trying to get to B. Half way we are confronted with a road block, we are not told why, but forced to take a detour. We have now to travel along narrow roads, not properly sign posted, across unfamiliar territory, meet new people, some friendly, some not, they are agitated, because of the sudden increase in traffic encroaching into their privacy and disrupting their life styles as well. Some put up boards requesting that the traffic should move slowly and hope the detour would be closed down and the highway opened up as soon as possible.
The poor elephant faces the very same scenario. They have travelled the highway, the Alli Mankada for centuries. Suddenly without any warning, due to a politically influenced decision and without a bird brain of thought the elephant highway, the Alli Mankada is closed. The disruption could be a badly located chicken farm belonging to a friend of the politician, an ill designed housing scheme, or the indiscriminate distribution of land usually for political expediency. Remember the people have a vote, the elephants don’t. The elephant journey from A to B, now for no real researched reason has been diverted through new areas. Through villagers have never seen the movement of the elephant herds in their village before. Some of the coconut trees destroyed are close to 10 years of more. They had been safe till the indiscriminate blocking of the Alli Mankada that diverted the herds, via electric fences in a new direction.
It is certainly not the fault of the elephant, but they are forced to suffer, they are shot, they are electrocuted, fed the insane Hakka Pattas. Those who indulge in this method, should lose any good karma that they may have accrued in the past, and be relegated to spend the rest of their million lives in the darkest hell hole. One cannot induce arbitory changes to the Alli Mankada, the fact is that these highways are engraved in the genes, is why we still see elephants climbing Koslanda on their way up to the highest landscapes like Poonagala.
Any good research has to commence from the base not from a contorted half way, leaving elephants on both sides of the electric fence. The cause has to be understood first, to arrive at the real solution. If people have been wrongly settled, if industries have been wrongly placed, if national parks have been compromised, now is the time to change, to get back. To look for permanent solutions, even if it means alternate lands. This would then constitute a permanent solution. To open up the Alli Mankada. We will not need the electric fences or the Hakka Pattas anymore, much to the disappointment of the suppliers. The politicians responsible for creating the illegal encroachments should be taken to task. If the map of the original Alli Mankada could be produced and forwarded to all authorities at least the Officers will understand the possible repercussions of their folly. No one can fane ignorance and say, THEY DID NOT KNOW.
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