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Current Trends in the Coconut Industry



by Dr. P. G. Punchihewa

“It’s an old and common saying: The coconut tree affords meat, drinks and cloth, true. I’ll also like to add – toddy, wine, vinegar, oil, milk and honey … all eatables, besides it affords other necessaries as mats, brooms, bottles, dishes and ropes” –so wrote Robert Knox the English sailor and trader in 1681 who spent 19 years in captivity in the island. .Long before Knox, coconut had played a vital role in the lives of the people of Sri Lanka. The first coconut plantation in the island, (cocopalm garden three yojanas in length according to Culavamsa )- may be even in the world-, was established during the reign of Aggabodhi I, He ruled from 571A.D to 604 A.D.

But Knox’s statement was the first which spelled out the many uses of the coconut tree in detail.

Coconut, a subsistence crop had to await the arrival of the colonial powers in the island, particularly the British, to change to a plantation crop. With the finding of new uses of coconut oil, in the manufacture of margarine, candles and soap in Europe, the demand for coconut oil increased by leaps and bounds. Accordingly all the major colonial powers started the cultivation of coconut in their colonies. The British in India and Sri Lanka, the Dutch in East Indies, French in Africa, and the Germans in the Pacific. The ‘Forward’ written by Sir W.H. Lever, the founder of Lever Brothers, to ‘Coconuts-the Consoles of the East’ published by Smith and Pape, speaks of the keen interest shown by the British in the cultivation of coconut as follows.

“I know of no field of tropical agriculture that is so promising and I do not think in the whole world there is a promise of so lucrative an investment of time and money as in this industry. The world is only just awakening to the value of coconut oil in the manufacturing of artificial butter of the highest quality and of the byproduct copra cake as a food for cattle.”

Accordingly, the colonial government encouraged the cultivation of coconut, particularly in the North -West of the island. “The rapid expansion of the coconut industry had begun in the late 1850s, but the pace had been accelerated in the 1860s .The acreage went up from about 250,000 in the 1860s to 850,000 in the first decade of the 20th century (K.M. De. Silva: A History Sri Lanka page 287).

Apart from encouraging the rapid expansion of the area under coconut, the English diverted the industry to processing of coconut products as well. The establishment of a crushing plant for milling copra into oil and copra meal commenced around 1830 and there had been regular shipments of oil from Ceylon to Europe. In 1853 Sri Lanka had exported, 33,900 gallons. (Samuel Baker: Eight Years in Ceylon: pg. 158.)

In 1855 soap making commenced and several kinds of soap were produced and exported. Sri Lanka was thus ahead of most of the coconut producing countries that were continuing to export only copra. The 19th century also saw Sri Lanka taking another important step in processing of coconut products.

Following the industrial revolution the need arose for a cheap ingredient for the ever increasing demand for candy among the working class in the UK. Coconut proved to be ideal. But the practice at the time to import the whole nut was cumbersome and expensive. Experiments had been carried out in the UK to find a solution. It was discovered that grated coconut meat heated on steam tables resulted in it not becoming rancid and the result was desiccated coconut. The first desiccated coconut factory was established at Dematagoda and by 1890 Sri Lanka had exported 6,000 tons of desiccated coconut. In 1900 it had gone up to 60,000 tons. At that time, Sri Lanka was the leading exporter of desiccated coconut.

Similarly, the first fiber mill was set up in the 19th century and in 1853, 2,380 tons of coir had been exported. Coconut thus came to be one of the three major exports of the island, the other two being tea and rubber.

Along with the plantation and industrial sectors coconut continued as a small holder crop serving mostly the needs of the local population. Coconut being an important food item of the people, with the increasing population, the consumption increased and by mid nineteen -fifties the export of kernel products, mainly desiccated coconut, coconut oil and copra decreased. A study done in 1969 for UN/ECAFE reported as follows “The fall in Ceylon’s exports of both copra and coconut oil in recent years particularly since 1964 is attributable to the progressive decline in exportable surpluses owing to a rising domestic consumption” (The Coconut Industry of Asia’ page 58) .

The downward trend continues .The exportable surplus as a percentage of production has varied from a high of 38.2% in 1985 to a low of 14.0%in 2007. (Coconut Statistics 2017 C.D.A page 11.)Product wise a volume of 56,144 MT coconut oil exported in 1985 declined to 6,310 in 2017 and 52,157 MT of desiccated coconut to 29,418 MT for the same period.

However there are a few , new kernel products –virgin coconut oil, coconut cream (milk) and powder and coconut water which are just making an entry into the export market (page 12 CDA).In 2017 the kernel product exports have brought in $312,316, 000.

It has been able to reach these levels of exports only due to a new trend in imports. To augment the local supplies Sri Lanka has been importing vegetable oils and fats for some time .But from 2005, it had increased by leaps and bounds. Till then imports were mainly for industrial purposes. But from 2005 large volumes of crude palm oil have been increasingly imported for edible purposes as well, reaching 121,706 MT in 2015.This is in addition to the import of small volumes of soya oil, sunflower oil and coconut oil. The total value of vegetable oils and fats imports in 2017 had been Rs. 29,662,257,394 of which the largest volume was for crude palm oil and palm oil products. (Table 23, 24 CDA.)It also cushioned the local nut price increase in order to satisfy the domestic consumers.

However as against the declining value of kernel products a redeeming factor is the enhanced export earnings from non-kernel products which has amounted to $ 283,872,000), in 2017compared to $94,989,000 in 2005 and $ 188,722,000 in 2010 .Products like coir pith and molded coir products for use in horticulture and increased volume of activated carbon have accounted for this enhanced export earnings.

There is a number of factors responsible for this huge drop in exports in kernel products. While the Philippines and Indonesia have vast extents brought under coconut, running into several millions of hectares, in Sri Lanka coconut acreage is shrinking due to urbanization, opening up of new industrial ventures, fragmentation of holdings, crop diversification, pests, diseases, and drought. From a peak of 1.15 million acres in 1962 the area under coconut decreased to 1.09 million acres in 2015.The study done by the Department of Census and Statistics in 2005 revealed that the aggregate extent under coconut crop at national level has declined by about 5% during the period from 1982-2002( page 4 of the study)


In 2006 the ‘Weligama Wilt’ was reported and it was estimated that 300,000 palms at the initial stages and more in repeated cycles had to be removed. March 16,2019 ,Daily Mirror reported of 96,000 coconut trees on 1,200 acres to be felled to construct the Bingiriya Free Trade Zone. Felling of coconut trees is continuing. And the production of coconut has remained static. Since 1980 Sri Lankan coconut production had exceeded 3,000 million nuts only few times. The average yield is around 2,500 nuts per acre per annum.

However it is noticed that in 2017 the domestic consumption has come down to 1,700 million nuts from a high of 2437 million nuts in 2008.In earlier years (2005) the domestic consumption was calculated at 95.52 fresh nuts and 1, 02 kg of coconut oil per head per annum approximately. (Coconut Statistics CDA 2005). But the 2017 report dumps fresh coconut consumption, coconut oil consumption, milk powder consumption and adjustment stocks all under domestic consumption. (Coconut Statistics 2017).With a provisional population of 21.44 million in 2017, it is surprising how the consumption had come down so drastically particularly when in the previous year it was reported that the domestic consumption was 2119 million nuts and the provisional population 21.20 million. It is worth studying this situation in the next few years as to why it happened.

Efforts to increase production and productivity have not had much effect. Sri Lanka has introduced only four high yielding varieties since 1960 the bulk coming from the two earlier varieties. The total number of seedlings issued from 2008 to 2017 is 386,555 (in thousands) ( Sri Lanka Coconut Statistics 2017). On the basis of 64 trees to an acre this should cover an area of more than 600,000 acres! By now some of them should be bearing. Obviously there is something wrong with the quality of seedlings or statistics!

From the above facts and figures, it is obvious that the future of the coconut industry in the island is not that rosy. Unless the industry and the government take corrective measures, an industry with so much of potential is on the path of no return. A study covering all the aspects of the industry and involving all stake holders is a necessity.

In the coconut industry there are many stake holders. Starting from coconut growers there are the processors of different products. Copra, desiccated coconut ,coconut oil, virgin coconut oil ,coconut water ,coconut cream, fiber products, coconut shell charcoal ,activated carbon and many others. They all operate in water tight compartments. There should be a forum chaired by the C.D.A where they could meet and discuss their sectoral and industry problems regularly.

Unlike in rubber or tea it is not possible to get actual and correct figures except for exports of coconut products. The total extent under coconut is taken from the agricultural census conducted once in ten years. By the time the figures are available nearly eleven to twelve years have lapsed and much change would have taken place on ground specially with felling of coconut trees for various activities. Therefore reliance on them for planning for the industry would naturally give a wrong picture.

In order to assess the current situation of the extent of land under coconut and production levels, the feasibility of conducting a regular random or sample survey under the direction of the Department of Census and Statistics should be considered. Field level officers of the Coconut Cultivation and Research Boards could be used for this survey.

Earlier domestic consumption was calculated on the basis of the household income and expenditure survey conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics. Now the basis of calculation is not provided with the overall figure.

Although recently exports of non-kernel products have increased in volume and value ultimately it too depends on the increased production of coconut. As such it should be the concern of processors and exporters of kernel as well as non-kernel products to get involved with projects to increase production .They have the capital and a drop in nut production may affect their outputs.

One last question is how long Sri Lanka is going to depend on import of vegetable oils to sustain the export of kernel products. Economically and health wise whether it is worth should draw the attention of the government and others concerned.

There is a more important aspect to it. In Sri Lanka coconut is important as a source to meet the daily requirement of nutrients particularly of the lower income groups. The study done in 2002 by the Department of Census and Statistics reveals that out of the daily requirement of the nutrients needed by the Sri Lankans 15%calories,5% of protein and 70% of fat are derived from the source of coconut.

“Dr. Mary G. Enig, a nutritionist/biochemist of international renown for her research on the nutritional aspects of fats and oil addressing the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community 36th annual session had the following to say.

“Recently published research has shown that natural coconut fat in the diet leads to a normalization of body lipids, protects against alcohol damage to the liver ,and improves the immune system’s anti-inflammatory response .Clearly there has been increasing recognition of health supporting functions of the fatty acids found in coconut. Now it can be recognized for another kind of functionality: the improvement of the health of mankind.” This was in 1999.

In 2006 ,Conrado S. Dayritt Professor Emeritus of Pharmacology ,College of Medicine ,University of the Philippines at the technical meeting of the Asian and Pacific Coconut Community stated that “the chemical properties and biologic actions that make coconut oil superior to other oils for cooking and health use ,viz chemical nature and stability ,absorbability, metabolism, physiologic, and pharmacologic actions, antimicrobial, immune-regulatory and anti-inflammatory.”

In this context, is it in the interest of the health of the people of Sri Lanka that we should continue to use imported vegetable oils in large quantities and barter a time tested precious, healthy oil for the sake of some additional dollars?

Our slogan should be increase the production and productivity of coconut, increase the domestic consumption of coconut and increase the coconut exports.


(From String of Archaeological sites in the East coast and other articles by Dr.P.G.Punchihewa Former Secretary Ministry of Coconut Industries and former Executive Director Asian and Pacific Coconut Community Jakarta.)

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India and China opting to make positive impact in Ukraine



Ukrainian troops ride atop an armoured vehicle on a road in the eastern Donetsk region

In what could be considered the most thought provoking development to date in the global politics growing out of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, China and India have called on Russia and Ukraine to go for a negotiated solution to the crisis. Of particular importance is Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi’s pronouncement to the effect that the parties need to ‘keep the crisis from spilling over and affecting developing countries.’

Elaborating on this policy position, Wang Yi was quoted saying: ‘China supports all efforts conducive to a peaceful resolution of the Ukraine crisis. The fundamental solution is to address the legitimate security concerns of all parties and build a balanced, effective and sustainable security architecture.’

As pointed out by some commentators, this stance by China is indeed a far cry from the unconditional support extended to Russia by China in all matters of vital importance to the former. In other words, it is a comedown of sorts from the ‘all weather friendship’ that was seen as binding the countries.

As explicit as the Chinese Foreign Minister on this question was India’s Foreign Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar. He said: ‘As the Ukraine conflict continues to rage, we are often asked whose side we are on. Our answer, each time, is straight and honest – India is on the side of peace and will remain firmly there. We are on the side that calls for dialogue and diplomacy as the only way out.’

Hard ground realities and economic pressures that are extending well beyond the Eastern European theatre could be considered as compelling China and India to adopt this policy stance on the Ukraine crisis. It is plain to see, for instance, that the Russian invasion is meeting stubborn Ukrainian military resistance which is rendering the invasion a highly costly exercise for Moscow.

Despite the initiation of some desperate measures by the Putin regime, such as the partial mobilization of Russia’s citizenry for the war effort and the holding of ‘referendums’ in territory seized from Ukraine in an effort to legitimize Russia’s hold on it, the invasion could be considered as having all but stalled. On the other hand, the Ukrainian resistance seems to be having ample resolve and morale. Bolstered by recently supplied sophisticated Western weaponry, it has more than taken the fight back to the Russian invaders.

Evidently, then, Russia’s war effort is not going according to plan. However, the human costs, in particular, for both main sides to the conflict are prohibitive. Ukraine civilians are being subjected to a bloodletting that civilized sections the world over are recoiling from in horror. They could be said to be at the receiving end of state-inspired barbarism.

On the other hand, the majority of Russian civilians ought to be seeing themselves as nothing less than cannon fodder in Russian strongman Putin’s efforts to resurrect the defunct Soviet empire, now that they are being forcibly conscripted into an apparently futile war effort.

All this and more, ‘on the ground’, is clearly evident to both the friends and foes of Russia. They are likely to be of the view that the senseless war ought to be brought to a close.

On the other hand, to a greater or lesser degree, all countries are currently experiencing the adverse economic effects of the war. As is known, the Ukraine invasion is a principal cause for the worldwide rise in food and energy prices. If stagflation is fast spreading in the world and the more vulnerable sections among citizenries are sinking further into poverty and disempowerment it is, to a considerable extent, due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine and its ill effects.

China and India, two of the foremost economic powers of the South, ought to be fully alert to these realities. Among other things, they know for certain that there could be no economic growth for them and the world amid mounting material hardships and the steady impoverishment of people.

To re-state a fundamental axiom in classical economics, there could be no demand for goods and services if people lack the power to purchase, which comes from money in hand. And without the exercising of demand the production of goods and services comes to a grinding halt. That is, economies crumble. This is happening in the South right now.

The inference is inescapable from the foregoing that the invasion of Ukraine must end and that needs to be achieved by political means since a continuation of armed hostilities would only beget more war and its ill-consequences. Accordingly, China and India would prefer to have a negotiated solution to the Ukraine crisis.

A peek at recent growth trends in India and China would disclose the extent to which these economies have been dependent on the growing prosperity of their upper and middle classes to nourish their material fortunes. A report published in this newspaper on September 21, 2022 said, among other things, that by 2026, India’s dollar millionaires are expected to double. During the 2021- 2026 period China’s dollar millionaires are expected to grow by 97 per cent. It is these classes that have been keeping their economies ticking in recent decades by virtue of their growing purchasing power. Their purchasing power has steadily translated into a strong indigenous manufacturing base, among other things.

It does not follow from the foregoing that economic equity is a very strong point of India and China. That would necessitate a steady trickling down of wealth to the economically lower classes but we would certainly be having growth and that has been happening markedly in India and China.

Likewise, the prosperity of their neighbours as well as that of the rest of the world contributes positively towards the growth stories of India and China. While India and China have been interacting positively in the economic field over the decades on the basis of their increasing economic power and thereby gaining mutually, it will be to their advantage to ensure that their neighbours too advance towards economic wellbeing.

This accounts for the ready extension by India and China of economic assistance to Sri Lanka in its current woes. Indeed, India and China would extend their largesse to other countries in the region in their hour of need as well because the growth successes of these economic giants are predicated upon the prosperity of their neighbours, among other factors. In the absence of a degree of economic prosperity, these smaller neighbours could not expect to interact effectively in the economic sphere with India and China and gain significantly by it.

Accordingly, it will be in the national interest of India and China to call on Russia and Ukraine to go for a negotiated settlement. If the conflict is thus ended it will not only benefit India and China but the rest of the world as well, considering that the conflict is exerting widespread economic ill-effects.

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‘Use heart for every heart’



World Heart Day 2022

By Dr.Mohan Jayatilake
Consultant Cardiologist
Former President of Sri Lanka Heart Association

The theme of World Heart Day 2022 is “USE HEART FOR EVERY HEART”. The World Heart Federation has created this day to raise awareness about Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD).

Every year, on September 29th, people all over the world celebrate Heart Day as a way to draw attention to cardiovascular illnesses, their management as well as the worldwide toll they take on society. World Heart Day was created in the year 2000 to inform people around the globe that Heart diseases and Stroke are the world’s leading cause of death, claiming 17.9 million lives every year. According to WHO statistics, 82% of deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries are due to lack of resources.

Together with members of the World Heart Federation, we need to spread the news that at least 80% of premature deaths, from heart disease and stroke, could be avoided if the main risk factors, heavy smoking, unhealthy diet, reduced physical activity, and alcoholism, are controlled.

Increased high blood pressure, increased blood sugar levels, being obese, or overweight, are all side effects of living a bad lifestyle that may harm your heart.

The world was battling the Covid-19 pandemic for the last two years. Unfortunately, patients, with CVD, are more vulnerable and have become high risk groups. Heart patients are susceptible to get a more severe form of Covid-19 infection which could make matters worse.

National activities such as public talks, cardiovascular screening, walks, runs, concerts or sporting events are organised worldwide by members and partners of World Heart Federation.

Global leaders have recognised the urgency to give priority to prevention and control of heart diseases with other non-communicable diseases (NCD) which include cancer, diabetics and chronic lung diseases.

This year also, according to the theme, we ask people to take charge of their home’s heart health by taking steps to reduce the burden of the following risks:

Stop smoking

Stop smoking to improve your own and your children’s heart health.

Cigarette smokers are 2-4 times more prone to get heart disease and strokes, than non-smokers. Stopping smoking dramatically reduces the risk of heart disease, strokes and deaths.

A Few steps for successful cessation

Find your reason – strong motivation will help.

Line up support in advance – medical assistance

Lean on your loved ones

Find new ways to relax/unwind – stress can make a person fall back to smoking. Music, meditation, yoga or any other activity will help to alleviate stress.

Try and try again

– you only need to try again and again to achieve your target, even though you are unsuccessful in your first attempt.

Avoid alcohol and other triggers.

Physical exercise always helps to alleviate stress and avoid triggers of smoking.

Healthy diet at home

Unhealthy diet is at the root of many health issues, especially obesity, diabetics and CVD. Rapid urbanisation, changing lifestyles and easy accessibility of fast foods have made our dietary patterns unhealthy. Following are some healthy food patterns:

Limit saturated and trans fats

Limit salt

Limit sugar

Plenty of fruits and vegetables

At least five portions of fruits and vegetables per day should be a norm of your dietary habits. You should opt for low fat milk and dairy products.

Animal products, mainly beef, pork, poultry with skin, mutton, lard, butter, cheese carry a lot of saturated fat. Trans fats are contained in baked, processed and fried food items, certain margarines and spreads. In order to cut down saturated and trans fats, consume lean meats, poultry without skin, low fat dairy products, fish and nuts. Vegetable oils should be in moderation.

Regular Exercises

It is recommended that adults should do at least 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity or at least 75 minutes of high intensity physical activity per week.

Families should limit the amount of time spent in front of TV to less than two hours per day.

Exercise should be a regular part of your life. Due to the Covid pandemic, public exercise facilities are closed and most of the time movement of people is restricted. Therefore, home-based exercises were adopted to make exercises an enjoyable task.

Lose Weight

The world is now facing visible epidemic of obesity. It not only adversely affects your cardiovascular health, but also can affect your mental well-being.

The ways to lose weight effectively,

Do not skip meals – it will make you hungrier and go for more snacks.

Plenty of fruits and vegetables

Get active

– exercise burns off excess calories.

Use a smaller plate – eating smaller portions definitely reduces weight.

Do not ban foods

– you can enjoy an occasional treat otherwise you crave them more.

Cut down on alcohol

– it can make you gain weight.

Manage Stress

Psychological health and well-being can affect your cardiovascular health. Regular exercise, practising relaxation, being with your family and friends sometimes, adequate sleep, various hobbies, and maintaining positive attitudes towards life.

Know your numbers

Visit your doctor or healthcare professional.

Know your blood pressure which is one of the risk factors for CVD. Check regularly and take steps to control it including salt intake, exercises and medication.

Know your cholesterol – high cholesterol is another major risk factor for CVD. It should be checked regularly and controlled with dietary measures and medication.

Know your blood sugar – diabetics, conditions with high blood sugar levels multiply CVD risk. Diet control and medication required to control it.

Know your warning signs

Recognising symptoms of CVD can help you survive because earlier the treatment better the chances of survival.

Chest pain of tightening or burning in nature with pain radiating down the upper limbs or to the neck or back associated with sweating and nausea is the typical presentation of heart attacks. Sometimes heart burn or burning tummy pain could be due to a heart attack rather than gastritis or indigestion.

Sudden weakness of limbs, slurring of speech, mouth deviation or double vision could be due to a stroke. Knowing these symptoms and seeking medical assistance allow you to get treatment early and prevent complications which can be life threatening most of the time.

Take your medicine regularly and correctly

If you are already diagnosed with a heart disease or stroke, taking your medication, without fail, will reduce the chances of getting another attack of stroke or heart disease

Measures during pandemic

The Covid-19 pandemic has created havoc, globally. People with CVD fall into very high risk category.

Therefore it is important to,

Continue your medication uninterruptedly

Follow medical advice

Continue exercise and balance diet.

Maintain your social network and

Do not hesitate to take vaccination.

By doing the household steps, mentioned above, you and your family can reduce the burden of heart diseases.

Breastfeeding and lifelong health

Breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for newborn and infants, according to WHO. Increasing public awareness is important. Infants who are breastfed tend to have lower cholesterol and blood pressure as well as lower rates of overweight and obesity all of which improve cardiac health.

Both undernourished and over nourished, early in life, can increase the risk for developing CVD. Evidence suggests that children who are undernourished while in the uterus and at childbirth bear a higher CVD risk later in life.

Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been associated with obesity in children which also increases the risk of developing CVD in life.

As always, our emphasis will be on improving heart health across all nations in adult male and female, as well as children.

By adopting lifestyle changes, people all over the world can have longer and better lives through the prevention and control of heart disease and strokes.

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Doctors…taking a break



When we think of doctors, what comes to mind is medicine, patients, etc., and that’s only natural as doctors are our saviours…when we are ill.

We would hardly associate doctors with entertainment, and that’s where most of us are wrong.

I’ve been to a couple of concerts where these men of medicine have excelled, on stage, as entertainers, and some of them, I would say, are super-duper.

Yes, the Annual Sri Lanka Medical Association Doctors’ Concert is a much-looked-forward to musical extravaganza where the doctors, and their families, are provided the unique opportunity to showcase their talents, in performing arts.

It is usually held on the final day of the Annual Scientific Congress of the Sri Lanka Medical Association (SLMA), and it’s all happening this Saturday, October 1st, at the Lotus Room of the BMICH.

Says Dr. B.J.C.Perera, Senior Consultant Paediatrician:

“It is a common belief that medical doctors are a sombre set of people who are mainly involved in looking after people with illnesses. True enough, they do perform that ever so immensely important task in society, and such a mission is by no means to be taken lightly, in view of its tremendous significance. Healing the sick is certainly a noble task and many of them are renowned performers, as well as experts in their own chosen specialties of the profession.

“However, it may come as a surprise to many that several of these medical men, and women, have other talents – musical, acting, drama, etc. There are very many extremely gifted performers of real class amongst our medical men, and women. In recognition of this, the SLMA has provided an opportunity for these artistic men, and women, to showcase their talents, and flair, in the performing arts, at the glittering SLMA Doctors’ Concert.

“This is a much-anticipated opportunity for members of the medical profession, and their family members, to put their hair down and forget medicine, at least for an evening. The Doctors’ Concert was started many years ago as a rather informal event and it has a most proud tradition of being staged annually, for quite a few decades, in the history of the SLMA.

“A dedicated band, consisting mainly of doctors, first played at the concert, in 2014. This was in the Committee Room 1, currently the Lotus Room, of the BMICH. They performed on a small stage done for them on a side.

“The continuing progress of the event was due to the untiring efforts of that absolute virtuoso in music, a drummer himself, Dr. Christo Fernando. He left no stone unturned to make the event a resounding success, from 2014 onwards.”

This Saturday, October 1st, we will not see doctors, in their usual uniforms (Coats and Scrubs), stethoscopes, or anything connected with medicine, but entertainment, at its best…on stage!

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