by Merril Gunaratne
The investigations which followed the Easter Sunday carnage in 2019 gave rise to considerable speculation and inquiry concerning the manner in which the State Intelligence Service (SIS) handled information received from India about plans of the National Thowheed Jamath (NTJ) to commit terror strikes. The manner in which those handling as well as receiving such information at various levels sought to shift responsibility may have culminated in considerable confusion in the mind of the observer.
I therefore thought it apt to discuss the essential differences between ‘information’ and ‘intelligence’ because therein appears to lie the clue to identifying why the public have been left in a state of confusion. In fact when appearing before the Presidential Commission, I had the opportunity to clarify the essential differences between ‘information’ and ‘intelligence’.
ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ‘INFORMATION’ AND ‘INTELLIGENCE’
All sleuths in intelligence agencies including the SIS, the premier agency, commence their careers by being taught to discern the difference between information and intelligence. An intelligence career cannot advance without absorbing this fundamental lesson. When an informer provides a piece of information, the officer has to test whether it is suitable to be converted into intelligence. In other words, an intelligence officer has to determine whether the information is credible or reliable.
This test requires the sleuth to take cognizance of the previous record of the informer, and whether he had previously been consistent with procuring and providing reliable information. The officer has also to check abundant records of subversives and terror groups available in the subject and personal files stored in the “Registry” of the SIS to buttress his convictions further.
Once satisfied about the credibility of the piece of information received, his next step would be to put it down on paper. He would, in the same document, assign reasons why he believes the information received to be credible. This is done to convince those above him in the hierarchy to whom he would be reporting of the credibility of what is submitted. We call this part of the report ” assessment or analysis”, where the reasons adduced would help convince the recipient that the information is credible, and should be viewed seriously.
A piece of information can therefore emerge as “Intelligence” only if the writer can offer reasons to convince his superior of the credibility of information. I would quote from the book ‘Army of Evil’ by Adrian Weale to illustrate the point at which information converts to intelligence: “Broadly speaking, intelligence is information that is gathered and analyzed before informing decisions. Without the crucial analysis step, it is of no value”.
To express this in simple terms, the officer has to first satisfy himself about the credibility of the information received. He then converts it to intelligence. In fact the CIA sent officers in 2002 to help SIS officers here to polish the art of analysis by setting up an ” Analytic Unit”. It helped improve our ‘analytical’ capabilities considerably.
The process of ‘marketing’ the product (Information) begins at the point the officer prepares the intelligence report embodying his assessment . In the case of the SIS, the first such classified report has necessarily to be despatched to the president, with a copy to secretary of defence. Depending on the nature of intelligence, copies may also be sent to the IGP (as should have been the case with Easter Sunday), secretary to president, minister of defence and the service chiefs. Such highly classified reports have necessarily to embody intelligence, not mere scraps of untested information replete with ambiguity which the highly placed recipients will not bother to waste their time on.
If the intelligence in a report is of a grave and urgent nature, the SIS has to simultaneously alert the president, the secretary of defence and the IGP (as in the case of Easter Sunday) on the telephone without any delay. In the matter of intelligence pertaining to the terror plans of National Thowheed Jamat for Easter Sunday, the point could also have been made that an immediate discussion was warranted. The SIS had to act as the spur to goad, galvanize and energize the recipients to believe the intelligence and swing into action immediately. The process commences with the despatch of INTELLIGENCE Reports to the president and secretary of defence, the IGP etc, and would extend towards addressing them on the phone as well.
SIS RESPONSE TO INFORMATION FROM INDIA
Did the SIS deviate from established standards? The memo sent by Chief of National Intelligence( CNI) on behalf of secretary of defence to IGP dated April 9, 2019 refers to attacks planned on ‘some important churches’, and the ‘Indian High Commission’. To his letter was attached an unsigned note of the SIS where the modes of attack, and the leading figures of the NTJ have also been reflected. At paragraph four, this note had stated, “The input maybe kindly enquired into on priority and a feedback given to us.”
What required inclusion in assessing this information should have been the following: (1) whether the information was reliable or not, and the reasons for such a conclusion; and (2) a proposal to plan immediate security safeguards if the threat was likely to manifest. Instead of proceeding on these lines, what had been suggested was the conduct of “inquiries”. There was no sense of urgency shown here. It may therefore not be wrong to assume that priorities appeared to have been mixed up in the note of the SIS. Therefore, since the two papers of (CNI and the SIS) did not provide ‘assessments’, they were NOT INTELLIGENCE reports, but mere reports embodying untested information.
Besides, the SIS, if it believed a piece of information to be credible, had to submit serial or special Intelligence reports to the president, secretary of defence, and the IGP . This step had also not been taken. The process convincing those who mattered had therefore been incomplete. This is because on the face of the memorandum of April 9, 2019, there is no indication that the writers had decided to energize, galvanize and push the secretary of defence and the IGP to act without delay. In a nutshell, the reports of April 9, 2021 appeared vague and hazy. They were not ‘wake up’ calls.
Was it possible that the SIS may not have been sufficiently convinced of the credibility of the information received for whatever reason? It is difficult to understand why they had deviated from the standards that had been observed by the national intelligence agency for countless years. For many years, heads and senior officers of the premier Intelligence service, Cyril Herath, Ana Seneviratne, , Edward Gunawardene, A T Fonseka, Zernie Wijesuriya, B A Jeyanathan , Felix Alles, Kingsley Wickramasuriya, Pat Swaris, SBW de Silva, M A Jayatillake, Sathkunarajah, Deva Corea, Indradasa, Wakista, Gajanayake, Punya de Silva etc, had only furnished intelligence reports to the authorities, not untested pieces of information. They had been accomplished practitioners of this unbroken tradition of assessing information.
It is also surprising that the SIS omitted to crosscheck the information received with it’s Indian counterparts, or to take into consideration the ample records of the activities of the NTJ ( Mawanella, Kattankudi, Vanathavillu), stored in its registry. The adoption of such steps may have convinced officers that the information was of a serious and credible nature.
PUBLIC OUTCRY AGAINST THE FORMER PRESIDENT
President Sirisena has been at the center of a storm over perceived omissions on his part. In fairness to him, the question that requires an answer is whether the director of SIS, despite speaking on a monotonously regular basis to the president (I believe this proximate connection did exist), informed him that the information was of a reliable nature, even if we assume that he had made reference to the information perfunctorily. In my view, director of SIS may not have done so, for he had not, either in writing or orally, proceeded to convince even secretary of defence, Chief of National Intelligence and the IGP of the credibility of information received. Therefore, would he have briefed the president differently? The fact that an intelligence report had not been despatched to the president as had been the usual practice, may further support this point of view.
OMISSIONS OF OFFICIALDOM
Secretary of Defence, the IGP and his deputies who had received the flawed information reports should have examined the material by initiating discussions in their enclaves. These officials were assigned national security and defence responsibilities, and could not have chosen to ignore even the untested information which spoke of planned terror attacks. If secretary of Defence and IGP had held discussions with the participation of SIS officers, convincing material about the background of the NTJ may have come to light, leading to an awareness of dangers, and the need to prepare security plans. The inertia of Secretary of Defence, IGP, and his deputies to desist from engaging in conferences to test the veracity of the untested information is baffling. On the other hand, had the SIS made a proper intelligence report as should have been the case, it was possible that the officials concerned may have swung into action without being complacent.
IDENTIFYING ROOTS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF NATIONAL THOWHEED JAMAT (NTJ)
The Presidential Commission was required to explore the roots and ramifications of the NTJ. This is a vast tract. In effect, the process requires a study of many fields: the causes or grievances which sustained the NTJ, their local and foreign links and patrons, financiers; procurement and storage of arms, arms training and indoctrination, safe houses, methods of communication, district operational cells etc. Most information in such spheres in respect of clandestine, highly sophisticated terror groups emerge from intelligence received from secret sources, not from those who can provide overt, peripheral information. Even material which accrue from open police investigations are inadequate to build up a convincing dossier.
I therefore believe that about 60-70 % of intelligence about the roots and ramifications of a terror group can be procured from covert agents and informers, rather than from overt sources. Unfortunately the SIS has always shown great reluctance to permit access to such classified intelligence stored in their Registry. A study of roots and ramifications in former days was done by the national intelligence agency itself where periodic comprehensive reports were prepared and furnished for the National Security Council to take suitable remedial measures to thwart threats. I think this discipline was in vogue only up to the late 1980s. The point that such studies are usually handled by those with expertise in subjects of national security, intelligence, terror and subversion needs emphasis for findings and conclusions have invariably to be based more on intelligence (60-70%), than on oral evidence. Evidence is a scarce commodity with terror groups.
(The writer is a retired Senior DIG Police who had held important intelligence positions is the course of a long career. He testified before the Presidential Commission probing the Easter attacks.)
A solution to problem of extra heavy school bags
By Anton Peiris
B.Sc. (Ceylon), PGCE (Kenya), M.Sc. (London), DAES (York) and Emeritus Coordinator, International Baccalaureate, Switzerland.
(‘Reduce O/LevelSTRESS’ – continued)
Extra Heavy Schoolbags carried by school children and the setting of homework
Dr. B.J.C. Perera (Specialist Consultant Paediatrician) has said, “Students, even little children, are forced to carry large numbers of books in their schoolbags, to and from school, every day. The deleterious health effects of carrying improperly loaded and very heavy school bags are another associated problem”. It is not difficult to solve this problem.
(i) Install a set of lockers (with at least one shelf inside) preferably in close proximity to the classrooms. Lockers can be made of wood or metal, approximately 20 X 15 X 15 inches or 30 X 10 X 15 inches. i.e. about 4500 cubic inches per student. Allocate a Locker to each student.
(ii) The teachers should set Homework a maximum of twice per week (i.e. 2 X 20 minutes per week) in mathematics and only once per week (maximum of 30 minutes) in any other subject , making sure that a student gets no more than a total of approximately one hour of homework per day, Some subjects require homework only once a fortnight.
Some subjects do not require any homework at all. This can be done if the Deputy School Principal and the Class Teacher get together and use their ingenuity to produce a practical Home-Work Timetable for the class that allows the setting of homework only for a maximum of two subjects per day.
Here’s the underlying principle behind this: If a teacher does a good job of teaching in class and if he makes the students work in class, then the students need very little or no homework at all.
During my 40 years as an O/Level mathematics teacher, I have given them only 20 minutes of homework per night twice a week and sometimes no homework at all. They did well in their O/Level mathematics exam because the bulk of the work was done in class during the five years of preparation for the O/Level exams. I taught them well and I made them work maths problems in class. Some of them obtained As (distinctions) in mathematics.
There should be no homework set in any subject for the weekend. The students will then have time to play, to climb a tree, to go swimming, to go on trips with their parents, to devote some time for their extra-curricular activities (CAS), attend Daham Paasela, etc., during the weekends.
The foregoing is for Grades 6 – 11 only. (Obviously, there should be some homework set for the weekend for GCE A/L students).
If the schools adhere to the Homework Timetable given above, then the students in Grades 6 – 11 will be able to leave more than half of their text books in their Lockers every day because homework has been set only in one or two subjects per day. The weight of the schoolbag will be reduced automatically by more than 50%. They will be able to keep a few other things (e. g. swimming trunk, umbrella) also in their lockers.
If that method of allocation of homework and the use of lockers works well in Europe, the UK, Australia and Canada, why not in Sri Lanka?
Lockers should have padlocks because, when they lose their locker key, the padlock can be cut off in two seconds with a three feet long metal cutter. Each locker should have either a metal or a hard-plastic number plate fixed on its door. Lockers can be made in units (e. g. 20 or 25 lockers per unit). Most schools need additional space to keep the lockers. The Ministry of Education should provide the necessary funds to the schools to procure the additional space and to install the lockers. It is an investment on the health of the population. Nobody wants our students to grow up into adults having back problems and damaged spinal columns. The important thing is to make a start NOW by providing lockers to about 50 pilot schools.
It is the duty of the Private Schools and the International Schools also to provide Lockers for their students.
(To be continued)
Next instalment: The Problem of Tuition Classes.
The writer has taught O/L, A/L and IB mathematics and physics for 45 years in Sri Lanka, Kenya and Switzerland.)
The edge of tolerance
BY Kusum Wijetilleke
In March of 2021, a nine-year-old girl from Delgoda, died as a result of injuries sustained at the hands of an exorcist. Her helpless screams were reported by several of the exorcist’s neighbours. The ritual required that the girl be beaten with a cane, presumably to drive out the undesirable spirit. Her father spoke to multiple news outlets, decrying the ritual and exhausting himself; insistent that his daughter was never under any sort of demonic spell.
In this supposed age of information, not only do ancient belief systems, including those that revolve around witchcraft, demons and exorcisms persist, they remain culturally relevant and widely practiced.
Garudan Thookkam, a symbolistic ritual involving Lord Vishnu, that originated in Kerala, and is also practised in Sri Lanka, requires that devotees be hung with metal hooks from a moving vehicle. An ancient Hindu ritual called Sati, which requires a widow to leap into the funeral pyre of her husband, is still practiced and was documented as recently as 2006. In parts of Africa, children suffering an epileptic seizure are treated not at a hospital, but by a witchdoctor.
There are literally hundreds of reports of exorcisms and witchcraft in various parts of India. In 2011, a woman from Kamhara died after an exorcist performed a ritual to banish a demon allegedly preventing her from conceiving a child. The exorcist branded various parts of her body, including her genitalia, with hot iron tongs and proceeded to beat her. In that same year, in Poaltore, several villagers were suffering from diarrhoea and fever. The local witchdoctor suspected a man from the same village had placed a curse and ordered his murder as well as those of his two sons. In 2021, in Odisha, an elderly couple was burnt to death while they slept, on suspicion of practicing witchcraft. Just a few months ago, a man and his toddler, from a village outside Delhi, were beaten to death during an exorcism.
There are no official statistics for the practice of exorcisms in Sri Lanka, though anecdotal evidence persists. What happened in Delgoda should not shock or surprise: these rituals occur regularly and in households of varying socio-economic backgrounds. The widespread belief in exorcisms may indicate a higher number of injuries and deaths than are reported.
Around the world, we have more substantiated evidence. The Vatican, Roman Catholicism’s HQ, has a programme that specializes in training and tutoring would-be exorcists. All the major religions have some belief in exorcisms or similar rituals.
Belief in ritual is a part of culture, and to each of us, our cultural inheritances can be definitive. The things we believe are unquestionably influenced by our environment, teachers, elders, parents and family; these are considered sacred. For many, the practice of these rituals is a key determinant of success and failure, of life and death.
The demise of the nine-year-old girl is proof that not all belief systems are benign. In Sri Lanka, we are taught the importance of culture, from an early age. We are obligated to participate in ritual and ceremony without question.
During this once-in-a-century pandemic, when the focus must be on using the latest available science to inform our decisions, Sri Lanka’s Minister of Health was pouring pots of ‘holy-water’ into a river. She approved a ‘potion’ as a remedy for Covid-19. Despite condemnation, she is still the Health Minister. She paid no price professionally for making laughable, ill-informed and potentially dangerous decisions. This should be alarming for any modern society that is serious about progressing.
Sri Lanka is hardly alone in the battle against dangerous dogmas. The UK Government’s own statistics from 2017 show 1500 child abuse cases linked to witchcraft and demonic possessions. This cannot be explained away by a lack of education. In 2018, a GP from Manchester was delisted from the NHS after taking a mentally ill patient to a church for exorcism. He also faced additional charges for threatening that she would be cursed if she told anyone about the ritual.
An average of polls from the last decade shows that more than half of all Americans believe in demonic possessions. A Gallup poll shows that belief in the devil was at 55% in 1990, but reached 70% in 2007. In 2011 the US had fewer than 15 ‘official exorcists’ (licensed by the Catholic Church); in 2019, there were over a hundred. It must be noted that, in the US, the official request for an exorcism requires a psychiatric evaluation with a mental health professional. The vast majority of mental health issues, when investigated, were found to be results of psychiatric issues and/ or related to psychotropic medication.
There has to be a reckoning, an acceptance, that we as a society must discourage belief systems that require nonsensical and often dangerous rituals, which very often leave deep psychological scars on the victims. Sometimes, it really does seem polite to simply ignore blatant incoherence. Society tolerates nonsensical statements and damaging actions if they are based on deeply and solemnly held beliefs.
Beliefs are our personal representations of the world, they affect our emotions and thus our behaviour, especially towards one another. If we feel that someone in our vicinity is disrespectful towards our belief system, this invariably affects how we treat them. This prejudice has led to the oppression of homosexuals, non-believers, scientists and philosophers. Fundamental differences in belief systems have disastrous consequences. In fact, it seems that part of the story of humanity’s progression has been the constant struggle to survive our cultural ethno-religious differences.
Liberal thought and modernism prescribes a tolerance of other’s belief systems so as to co-exist in a society. Tolerance, in the hopes of minimizing the chances of conflict, defines modern liberal thought on social issues.
The neuroscientist and author Sam Harris has eluded to the “balkanization of the world” and the consequences of being defined by our cultural assemblies. A belief is one’s personal representation of the world. A structure of thinking that guides our emotions and behaviour. The (new) liberal consensus also believes that the most appropriate means of countering extreme beliefs is to encourage moderation.
Then when skeptics question even the most extreme religious doctrines, they are instantly told that questioning these beliefs will only serve to isolate the moderates. Thus moderation provides a safe haven for fundamental beliefs because very often, moderates do not question more extreme beliefs. The conversation is muted.
Throughout history, reason and debate have left a lot of dogmas in the past and it is that willingness to question a belief about reality that has led to human progression. To hide behind moderation for the sake of tolerance, to ensure no offence is caused, has consequences of its own.
The endgame for any civilization or society is not to be politically correct and tolerate all manner of absurdity, but to use reason and openness to evidence to challenge dogma. The idea that one’s beliefs, religious or otherwise, must be respected is deeply flawed. Ultimately, as sentient human beings, it is not up to us to respect a person’s belief, it is up to us to evaluate their reasoning. Modern society has weaponised tolerance in a manner that runs counter to human progression and flourishing.
Sustainable solution to decline in tea production, export revenue and livelihood issues
by Jayampathy Molligoda
Chairman, Sri Lanka Tea Board
The word “sustainability” is often distorted without being used in ecological context to get its proper meaning. In simple terms, we have the responsibility to protect the right of future generations to live in a safe environment. Similarly, Climate change can be understood as a set of alterations in the average weather caused by global warming due to the emission of greenhouse gases. Climate change phenomenon is serious, which is worse than the COVID-19 pandemic. it is the one challenge that potentially has the most severe impacts globally and on Sri Lanka. The very reason for this is that climate change affects virtually every aspect of our ‘every day today’ life, economic, social and environmental. It is a multidimensional challenge, with its impacts ranging from issues like human health, supply of safe water and food, biodiversity, economic development, etc.
(2) Systems view of life:
Modern Science has come to realize that all scientific theories are approximations to the true nature of reality. Science doesn’t have answers to natural phenomena. Mechanistic view looks at a closed view of a specific area which is a tiny part of a large system. They have dominated our culture for the past three hundred years and is now about to change. Before 1500 AD the dominant world view was that people lived in small communities and experienced nature by the interdependence of spiritual and material phenomena.
The Systems view looks at the world in terms of relationships and integration, inter-dependence of all phenomena i.e.: physical, biological, social, and cultural. Instead of concentrating on basic building blocks, the systems approach emphasizes basic principles of organization.
According to Prof. Fritjof Capra, an Austrian-born American physicist, the architect of “systems view of life” to find lasting solutions, there are solutions to the major problems of our time. They require a radical shift in our perceptions, our thinking, and our values. An “Eco system” is a living system of communities of plants and animals, microbes sharing an environment with non- living plants such as air, water, climate, soil. In my view, the above is the best illustration to understand the importance of adhering to the “system view of life” to find lasting solutions. Capra’s view is that our traditional politicians and business leaders have been unable to provide long term solutions to these problems and he welcomed the creation of social movements founded on the premises to change the current traditional sociological paradigm and to build sustainable communities.
From the systemic point of view, the only viable solutions are those that are “sustainable” Therefore, the challenge of our time is to create sustainable communities, that is, social and cultural environments in which we can satisfy our needs and aspirations without diminishing the chances of future generations. The sustainable communities need to be designed in such a way its social structures do not interfere with natures inherent ability to sustain life but support and corporate with natures inherent ability to sustain life.
(3) Structures, Processes and patterns:
The following ten points are useful in order to understand as to how the eco- system works.
1. Eco system is a living system of communities of plants and animals, microbes sharing an environment with non- living plants such as air, water, climate, soil
2. The theory of living system tries to understand this and the ecological literature deals with the basic principles of ecology (and live accordingly)
3. Nature, every organism, plant, micro-organism, cells, tissues all are in a living system.
4. All living systems need energy and food.
5. All living systems produce waste, but there is no net waste
6. Capra expresses the life of any living organism as made up of pattern, process and structure.
7. If we apply these ideas to ourselves or our organizations, we can see that in the patterns we find our identity.
8. In the processes we develop our relationships, our beliefs, our principles and behaviours becoming more conscious.
9. In the structures we become more fluid, more focused on the present moment; we become alive.
10. The building of sustainable communities is deeply connected to our search for a new sociological paradigm.
This gave rise to the concept of Complex Adaptive Systems, as a multidisciplinary concept- are considered complex because they are made-up of diverse elements which are interconnected with each other and are adaptive in that they have the capacity to change and learn from experience.
(4) Decline in tea production, market share, revenue, despite chemical application:
In this connection, we wish to state that Sri Lankan tea production has been drastically declining over a period of time, despite supplying large quantities of imported artificial fertilizer. For an example, in 2010 the total tea production was 330 million kilos, covering 222,000 hectares, wherein some 160, 000 metric tons of fertilizer per year had been used on an average basis up to date on a regular basis, however, we have ended up with only 289 million kilos of tea production in 2020, covering 253,000 hectares. The compound annual average growth rate (CAGR) was negative 1.5% and the Sri Lankan tea industry cannot sustain anymore as both quality, quantity as well as the competitiveness have drastically eroded. As a result, our market share has come down and the foreign exchange revenue which was around US $ 1.6 Billion eight years back has now come down to US $ 1,24 million/year only. As you are aware, during the period 2017 to end 2019, a large number of tea factories had to close down and many smallholders were badly affected and the new/re planting extents were less than 1%, where as it should have been at least @2% of the cultivated extent.
As a result of excessive usage of agro-chemicals, there has been a number of rejections of our Ceylon tea consignments reported from the major important markets such as Japan, EU, UK, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan etc. This situation has arisen due to detection of pesticide residues in the Ceylon Teas exported, which are over and the above the permitted maximum residue levels (MRLs). Tea Exporters Association (TEA) has brought to the notice of SLTB notice on number of occasions the serious non- compliances which includes detection of excessive pesticide and other chemical residues over and above MRLs. In addition, the presence of foreign/extraneous matters and high moisture levels which lead to microbial contamination & fungus formation may end up in development of micro toxin fungus – these will become health hazard.
(5) Tea plantation system as a complex adaptive system:
My own view is that the long- term goal of Sri Lankan tea industry would be to build “sustainable communities” for the tea plantations and, achieving higher foreign exchange earnings from tea exports may be only one of the unit objectives.
A sustainable community is one that is economically, environmentally, and socially healthy and resilient. It meets challenges through integrated solutions rather than through fragmented approaches that meet one of those goals at the expense of the others. And it takes a long-term perspective—one that’s focused on both the present and future.
Scientists began to observe certain properties in biological systems. The adaptation of the individual independent components within the system to the environment was one such property. The experts observed this phenomenon was visible in systems such as eco-systems, global economics systems, and social systems.
(6) Strategies implemented by the new administration:
With the new administration, the government together with the private sector stakeholders have been able to reverse the negative trends experienced previously and the higher fob prices and increased tea auction sale averages are now getting tricked down to growers, thus addressing the livelihood income issues systematically.
The Sri Lanka tea industry witnessed a recovery amidst the COVID pandemic, with a substantial increase in production and the export volume during the first quarter of 2021 compared to the corresponding period as well as the year 2020 compared to 2019.
During the Q 1- January to march ’21, the tea export revenue was Rs. 65 Billion, up by Rs. 16 billion YoY, from Rs 49 Billion during the 1Q, 2020.
Q 1- January to march ’21 cumulative production totaled 74 million kgs, up by 20 Mn. kg.
FOB price was Rs. 939/= per kilo during the Q1, which is an increase of 13%, from Rs. 827/= during the corresponding period 2020.
FOB price in US $ during the Q1 was US$ 4.77 as against US$ 4.47 during Q1 -20.
March fob in US $ was ($ 4.87) the highest ever.
FOB price during the year 2020 was Rs 867/=per kilo, when compared to Rs 823/= per kilo during the year 2019.
Consequent to this cabinet decision under the caption “Towards a green socio-economic pattern with sustainable solutions to climate change” actions have been taken by SLTB to request stakeholders to encourage them to produce, supply and use organic manure to be set up on each agro- climatic region in large quantities. It was suggested in the SLTB circular that immediate action be taken by TRI to formulate and prepare specifications of organic manure applications covering different applications such as Nursery stage, immature, mature VP and Seedling and recommendations for small holdings etc. The development of the organic fertilizer business needs high tech inputs based on R&D, the required raw material availability and market acceptance based on different crops. The regulatory issues that prohibit or delay arranging import of trial quantities of organic materials (without micro- organism) for R&D evaluation need to be addressed. The necessary guidelines from the regulatory authorities should support development of organic fertilizer at large scale.
(7) Implementation of tea industry strategic plan:
As a solution, we have recommended the stakeholders to follow strategies which includes ‘Integrated weed management system’ and migrate in to offering high quality ‘Ceylon Tea’ with near Zero pesticide & other chemicals to the global market in accordance with our ‘Tea industry strategic plan 20-25’ and CTTA tea strategy-road map.
One of the most striking features of the current operations of the stakeholders is the increased awareness and adherence of the social & environmental considerations at estate level. Ceylon tea is at an advantageous position in the global market viz; other competitors for reasons such as “Zero tolerance” policy on child labour, adherence to environmental considerations on a sustainable basis and of course the quality of Ceylon tea as perceived by the buyers. As a result, Ceylon tea continues to fetch a higher price at the Colombo auction compared to teas from other producing countries, although the cost structures and productivity levels of our estates are totally disproportionate to make the industry commercially viable in short to medium term scenario.
Tea plantations have to therefore pursue environmentally friendly and socially responsible practices & methods in all their agricultural field operations (i) tea manufacturing processes(ii) and managing its employees (iii)to ensure that all-natural resources and eco-systems will be managed in a sustainable manner. The companies will have to make every endeavor to conserve the usage of all resources by optimizing resource utilization and minimizing waste through practicing cleaner production principles. They will strive to be self-sufficient in green energy to operate all our tea factories through harnessing the hydropower potential within all the lands belonging to the company.
There are many strategies recommended by TRI and others such as development of Agro- forestry farming systems using all unutilised estate land to have ‘nitrogen fixation’ as suggested by Chairman TRI. This will improve the soil porosity, provided we issue guidelines instructing them to follow TRI guidelines on Integrated soil fertility management strategies as mandatory good agricultural practices (GAP)towards minimizing soil acidity, top soil erosion and wastage of inputs etc.
As stated, it is a fact that there has been no increase in productivity, but a gradual decline in tea productivity measured in terms of the yield per hectare in Sri Lankan tea estates, partly due to continuous application of chemical fertilizer and due to difficulties in adopting mitigating strategies to arrest negative impact of climate change. This depleted soil condition and land degradation issues need to be corrected as a matter of priority. This proposed strategy will enable the growers at least to correct the high acidity levels in the soil and improve soil porosity and tea product quality.
In sustainability circles much is written about “three pillars of sustainability” or in other words, “triple bottom line” of environment, society, and economy. My own view is this is to confuse ends with means. The Environmental sustainability and Human well-being are two desirable points. Economic wellbeing in the long run is driven by those two. In other words, the necessary precondition for long term economic sustainability and profitability of the tea estates is environmental and social well-being from the long- term perspective.
As for marketing of tea in the global markets, the discerning customers have high expectations of the standards and practices applied by the supply chain including tea estates. For example, Tea” is made according to the principles of “sustainable food” thus providing values to discerning customers, employees and all other stake holders. SLTB global promotion campaign aims to popularize tea drinking around the world in order to expand demand and increase per capita consumption, using three USPs; authenticity means demonstrating sustainability credentials, wellness factor and the premium quality of Ceylon Tea.
If the estate management does not look at long term view, it is unlikely they make profits on a continuous basis. Eventually, the long- term value creation for the shareholders depends on the sustainable development of the estates and the community in which they operate. That is why I consider tea plantation sector as one of the truly complex adaptive systems.
Are we leaving the tea plantations to future generations in a better condition than the one we inherited?
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