BY ARJUNA HULUGALLE
From the moment I met Upali Wijewardene, and that was at the age of five in the baby class at Ladies’ College, Colombo, I had a feeling he was exceptional.
As I stand today, galloping through life and reaching the Psalmist’s span, I look back and recall what a bright boy Upali was! We knew, of course, he had been well tutored by an in-house personal instructress. Studies were not all that Upali bothered about; it was clear to see that he had a great desire to project himself and as a result he glided over every hurdle to reach something bigger – an object we could not visualize at the time.
He came from a family similar to the Kennedys of USA. There was money, a sense of public spiritedness and burning ambition. His family was not restrained by any inhibitions of self consciousness of old families and his path was further reinforced not only by the genes of a Wijewardene from Sedawatte but also those of the Wijesinghes from the deep South. There they were much closer to the soil and to an indigenous ethos. Both his grandfathers had amassed enormous wealth. Upali’s father, Don Walter Wijewardene, died young when Upali was a little child. If I recollect correct this was forecasted in his horoscope. Upali missed a father dearly. This was definitely a gap in his life and in the formation of his personality. With the non existent guiding hand of the paternal influence, Upali fell to mimic it or seek it among other elders. He grew up much faster than his school contemporaries and was in ‘longs’ before any of us.
He rode a bicycle effortlessly before we learnt or even possessed one. He drove and owned his own car with an L board long before we started to dream about cars and may be some of us still don’t own one! Is it not surprising that I remember him going off to a Race Meet nattily dressed in a double breasted suit. He must have been fourteen then. He loved horses and was an accomplished horseman.
Upali’s mother was an astute woman abounding in commonsense. She and the children lived near their schools at Thurstan Road with Ladies’ College and Royal College only a short distance away. His sisters, Anula (later Mrs Wijesundara) and Kalyani (Later Mrs Attygalle), and Upali, I remember, being driven in a Bug Fiat with a driver who had the appearance of a character straight from Tintin.
Upali’s earliest friends would have been those in Miss Nelly’s Baby Class at Ladies. Among them were Ratna Sivaratnam, later Chairman of Aitken Spence, Nimal Fonseka, whose parents at that time were dominating the medical profession (Dr Marcus Fonseka was the first double MS and ENT specialist) and Dr Brendon Gooneratne, Lalith Athulathmudali was a year senior to us. I remember brothers Brian and Ralph Wickremaratne at Ladies. There was an array of girls who in later years distinguished themselves as outstanding women.
Miss Gwen Opie, was the Principal when we entered the school. She died in January 1944, and her sister succeeded her as acting Principal. Miss Mabel Simon, from Mowbray in Kandy, was appointed later in May 1946.
When Upali and I applied to Royal Primary School to join the 4th standard in 1947, I remember the entrance test. He was flanked by his mother and instructress. I was deposited at the school by my father who then left me to fend for myself. Upali and I had been coached at Ladies for the entrance ordeal and I did not have too much trouble handling the Arithmetic, English and Sinhala papers but I was stumped on how to write my initials (H.A.J.) in Sinhala. Mrs Wijewardene must have sensed my discomfort and moved smartly to help me. Even today, I thank her for my entrance into Royal Primary School. It was a case of ‘For want of a nail, a Kingdom would have been lost’. Upali and I were now in the real world. Royal Primary School was quite different in every way to the cloistered life of Ladies’ College. We were in the rough and tumble of a boys’ world with teachers who were less sensitive and understanding than in a girls’ school. Our main focus was to qualify for entrance into Royal College.
A.F. de Saa Bandaranaiake had been appointed Headmaster and we had legendary teachers like H.D. Sugathapala, H.P. Jayawardene, Mr Arasaratnam, Mr B.J.H. Bahar, Mr Lennie de Silva, Mrs Nicholas and Mr M.E. Piyasena.
1947 was the year of the first general elections and I was at Royal Primary. There are several memories I had of that year, a few stand out. One was of my classmate, Bimal Padmaperuma, who later rose to a senior public service position and became a trusted confidante of President Premadasa. Bimal at that tender age of 10 years was an authority on the elections that took place that year. He collected posters, pamphlets and enlightened us on the candidates. That was my first introduction to Sri Lankan politics.
Another highlight was the lending library of Upatissa Attygalle who had mainly comics! He would to come to school from his uncle Dr Nicholas Attygalle’s home. We had to pay Upatissa 5 cents to borrow a comic. Captain Marvel, Superman, Roy Rogers, Gene Autry Gaby Hayes are some of the names of the heroes I remember.
Sadly from 1946, we were separated and put into streams and from then onwards we missed our Tamil, Muslim and Burgher friends and they missed us. Mercifully, this was changed when we entered Royal College in 1949, because the education was in English and all races blended in the classrooms.
Both Royal Primacy and Royal College were made up of children from a cross section of the population but we soon acquired a common spirit of Royalists and a common culture. Most of the children who were with us had got a flying start for their future lives. The facilities they enjoyed at school whether with studies, sports and the vast range of extra curricula activities equipped them to handle life with confidence. Airs and graces and snobbery were taboo and the rough edges were evened. Upali who came from a wealthy propertied family had to be with the rest of us who had parents who were wage earners with modest incomes.
In later life, our class of 106 at Royal (three parallel classes), produced 23 doctors some of whom are the top Consultants in their fields; lawyers (including two President’s Counsel), several outstanding businessmen; three civil servants; Permanent Secretaries, Judges of the Supreme Court and other courts, diplomats, engineers, planters, company executives, teachers, sportsmen and a Vice Chancellor of the University of Peradeniya and a controversial social scientist and a political chronicler among others. One of this batch who acquired high academic qualifications as an agriculturist opted to live a peasant’s life in a distant village. It was by any standards a galaxy of achievers. If I am excused for not being modest, I would say this was one of the most outstanding classes Royal had ever produced. Certainly 1948, 1949 and 1950 produced a crop of outstanding and interesting men. Upali was one of this fascinating group of individuals.
I have picked at random a few exceptionally interesting characters. Laki Senanayake, the world renowned artist was one of them. He was a nightmare to many teachers because in the mould of great intellectuals like Bernard Shaw, he considered the trappings of a school, a trauma for a child and one which retarded human progress. He made the life of teachers difficult, albeit in a genteel and gentlemanlike manner by his cynical observations and humourous repartee. He broke away from this “jail” of boyhood as soon as he could, having failed in art at the “O” level.
From that time onwards, his pen, brush, hands and mind produced the masterpiece of art which we admire in this country and all over the world. His mind wondered into a wide range of other intellectual pursuits and he filled his spare time with reading and talking as people of his caliber do in other parts of the globe to a captive audience of followers.
A more violent character was Rahula Silva, who to many was a notorious policeman. From the time he could crawl, he was a “Chandiya”. He was gifted with enormous strength and was the Public School Heavy Weight boxing champion winning his event at the Stubbs Shield competition. His body was too powerful for his brain but to his friends he was a kindly man.
Towards the end of his days, he had squandered the great gifts nature had bestowed on him and he died a lonely man but not before my wife and I visited him in hospital where he lay frail. She always recalls how humbled she felt when he tried and tried to sit up when he saw her.
Kumar Ponnambalam was also in our class. He never failed to come to our get together on the second day of the Royal Thomian match and the Colombo leg of the Bradby. He came to Royal Primary from Ladies’ College and then went on to Royal. He had the wherewithal and potential to make a substantial impact on public life. However, all his life lie lived under the shadow of his great father, G.G. Ponnambalam.
He had also gone to Cambridge like Upali. Kumar was referred by Dudley Senanayake to his old College Corpus Christi. After his death, Kumar was honoured by no less a person that Mr Prabakaran for his services.
My wife and I last met him at the fiftieth anniversary of the 49 year group. (We had joined Royal College in 1949). He was amazed when my wife gave him a big hug and greeted him. His father, GG, was a good friend of my father and also my brother Upatissa and his son, Gajendran, was a schoolmate of my son. It was on that occasion that we met Beverley Vandergert, brother of Rodney the former Foreign Secretary and Dr Geoffrey Vanden Driessen. I had not met them since 1955 when I left school. Beverley had settled in Holland and Geoffrey first in New Zealand and then at Alice Springs in Australia.
The contrast to Kumar Ponnambalam was the ascetic Chelvanayagam Vasekaran, son of the Federal party leader Mr S.J.V. Chelvanayagam. He and Nimal Fonseka were the two most brilliant students of our generation at Royal. Vasekaran in later years did a doctorate in mathematics and Nimal became a successful Accountant in London. Vasekaran remained a close friend of my wife and I till his death, and Nimal remains my closest friend today.
Another interesting character was Alavi Mohamed, who was a great oarsman and an institution at the Colombo Rowing Club. He was a good friend of my wife’s brother, Patrick. His passion was to teach his students rowing. He lives in the UK.
The story of Upali’s school mates at Ladies’ College, Royal Primary and Royal College will make fascinating reading if it is ever recorded in detail. His early education was the milieu which moulded Upali to becoming a special personality and a public figure in later years. The potential I had sensed when I first met him at the age of 5 was realized in adulthood.
He and I had both read Wordsworth’s poem The Rainbow at Royal College where the poet wrote “Child is the Father of the Man’.
How true it was with Upali.
Lives of journalists increasingly on the firing line
Since the year 2000 some 45 journalists have been killed in the conflict-ridden regions of Palestine and senior Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh was the latest such victim. She was killed recently in a hail of bullets during an Israeli military raid in the contested West Bank. She was killed in cold blood even as she donned her jacket with the word ‘PRESS’ emblazoned on it.
While claims and counter-claims are being made on the Akleh killing among some of the main parties to the Middle East conflict, the Israeli police did not do their state any good by brutally assaulting scores of funeral mourners who were carrying the body of Akleh from the hospital where she was being treated to the location where her last rites were to be conducted in East Jerusalem.
The impartial observer could agree with the assessment that ‘disproportionate force’ was used on the mourning civilians. If the Israeli government’s position is that strong-arm tactics are not usually favoured by it in the resolution conflictual situations, the attack on the mourners tended to strongly belie such claims. TV footage of the incident made it plain that brazen, unprovoked force was used on the mourners. Such use of force is decried by the impartial commentator.
As for the killing of Akleh, the position taken by the UN Security Council could be accepted that “an immediate, thorough, transparent and impartial investigation” must be conducted on it. Hopefully, an international body acceptable to the Palestinian side and other relevant stakeholders would be entrusted this responsibility and the wrong-doers swiftly brought to justice.
Among other things, the relevant institution, may be the International Criminal Court, should aim at taking urgent steps to end the culture of impunity that has grown around the unleashing of state terror over the years. Journalists around the world are chief among those who have been killed in cold blood by state terrorists and other criminal elements who fear the truth.
The more a journalist is committed to revealing the truth on matters of crucial importance to publics, the more is she or he feared by those sections that have a vested interest in concealing such vital disclosures. This accounts for the killing of Shireen Abu Akleh, for instance.
Such killings are of course not unfamiliar to us in Sri Lanka. Over the decades quite a few local journalists have been killed or been caused to disappear by criminal elements usually acting in league with governments. The whole truth behind these killings is yet to be brought to light while the killers have been allowed to go scot-free and roam at large. These killings are further proof that Sri Lanka is at best a façade democracy.
It is doubtful whether the true value of a committed journalist has been fully realized by states and publics the world over. It cannot be stressed enough that the journalist on the spot, and she alone, writes ‘the first draft of history’. Commentaries that follow from other quarters on a crisis situation, for example, are usually elaborations that build on the foundational factual information revealed by the journalist. Minus the principal facts reported by the journalist no formal history-writing is ever possible.
Over the decades the journalists’ death toll has been increasingly staggering. Over the last 30 years, 2150 journalists and media workers have been killed in the world’s conflict and war zones. International media reports indicate that this figure includes the killing of 23 journalists in Ukraine, since the Russian invasion began, and the slaying of 11 journalists, reporting on the doings of drug cartels in Mexico.
Unfortunately, there has been no notable international public outcry against these killings of journalists. It is little realized that the world is the poorer for the killing of these truth-seekers who are putting their lives on the firing line for the greater good of peoples everywhere. It is inadequately realized that the public-spirited journalist too helps in saving lives; inasmuch as a duty-conscious physician does.
For example, when a journalist blows the lid off corrupt deals in public institutions, she contributes immeasurably towards the general good by helping to rid the public sector of irregularities, since the latter sector, when effectively operational, has a huge bearing on the wellbeing of the people. Accordingly, a public would be disempowering itself by turning a blind eye on the killing of journalists. Essentially, journalists everywhere need to be increasingly empowered and the world community is conscience-bound to consider ways of achieving this. Bringing offending states to justice is a pressing need that could no longer be neglected.
The Akleh killing cannot be focused on in isolation from the wasting Middle East conflict. The latter has grown in brutality and inhumanity over the years and the cold-blooded slaying of the journalist needs to be seen as a disquieting by-product of this larger conflict. The need to turn Spears into Ploughshares in the Middle East is long overdue and unless and until ways are worked out by the principal antagonists to the conflict and the international community to better manage the conflict, the bloodletting in the region is unlikely to abate any time soon.
The perspective to be placed on the conflict is to view the principal parties to the problem, the Palestinians and the Israelis, as both having been wronged in the course of history. The Palestinians are a dispossessed and displaced community and so are the Israelis. The need is considerable to fine-hone the two-state solution. There is need for a new round of serious negotiations and the UN is duty-bound to initiate this process.
Meanwhile, Israel is doing well to normalize relations with some states of the Arab world and this is the way to go. Ostracization of Israel by Arab states and their backers has clearly failed to produce any positive results on the ground and the players concerned will be helping to ease the conflict by placing their relations on a pragmatic footing.
The US is duty-bound to enter into a closer rapport with Israel on the need for the latter to act with greater restraint in its treatment of the Palestinian community. A tough law and order approach by Israel, for instance, to issues in the Palestinian territories is clearly proving counter-productive. The central problem in the Middle East is political in nature and it calls for a negotiated political solution. This, Israel and the US would need to bear in mind.
Doing it differently, as a dancer
Dancing is an art, they say, and this could be developed further, only by an artist with a real artistic mind-set. He must be of an innovative mind – find new ways of doing things, and doing it differently
According to Stephanie Kothalawala – an extremely talented dancer herself – Haski Iddagoda, who has won the hearts of dance enthusiasts, could be introduced as a dancer right on top of this field.
had a chat with Haski, last week, and sent us the following interview:
* How did you start your dancing career?
Believe me, it was a girl, working with me, at office, who persuaded me to take to dancing, in a big way, and got me involved in events, connected with dancing. At the beginning, I never had an idea of what dancing, on stage, is all about. I was a bit shy, but I decided to take up the challenge, and I made my debut at an event, held at Bishop’s College.
* Did you attend dancing classes in order to fine-tune your movements?
Yes, of course, and the start was in 2010 – at dancing classes held at the Colombo Aesthetic Resort.
* What made you chose dancing as a career?
It all came to mind when I checked out the dancing programmes, on TV. After my first dancing programme, on a TV reality show, dancing became my passion. It gave me happiness, and freedom. Also, I got to know so many important people, around the country, via dancing.
* How is your dancing schedule progressing these days?
Due to the current situation, in the country, everything has been curtailed. However, we do a few programmes, and when the scene is back to normal, I’m sure there will be lots of dance happenings.
* What are your achievements, in the dancing scene, so far?
I have won a Sarasavi Award. I believe my top achievement is the repertoire of movements I have as a dancer. To be a top class dancer is not easy…it’s hard work. Let’s say my best achievement is that I’ve have made a name, for myself, as a dancer.
* What is your opinion about reality programmes?
Well, reality programmes give you the opportunity to showcase your talents – as a dancer, singer, etc. It’s an opportunity for you to hit the big time, but you’ve got to be talented, to be recognised. I danced with actress Chatu Rajapaksa at the Hiru Mega Star Season 3, on TV.
* Do you have your own dancing team?
Not yet, but I have performed with many dance troupes.
* What is your favourite dancing style?
I like the style of my first trainer, Sanjeewa Sampath, who was seen in Derana City of Dance. His style is called lyrical hip-hop. You need body flexibility for that type of dance.
* Why do you like this type of dancing?
I like to present a nice dancing act, something different, after studying it.
* How would you describe dancing?
To me, dancing is a valuable exercise for the body, and for giving happiness to your mind. I’m not referring to the kind of dance one does at a wedding, or party, but if you properly learn the art of dancing, it will certainly bring you lots of fun and excitement, and happiness, as well. I love dancing.
* Have you taught your dancing skills to others?
Yes, I have given my expertise to others and they have benefited a great deal. However, some of them seem to have forgotten my contribution towards their success.
* As a dancer, what has been your biggest weakness?
Let’s say, trusting people too much. In the end, I’m faced with obstacles and I cannot fulfill the end product.
* Are you a professional dancer?
Yes, I work as a professional dancer, but due to the current situation in the country, I want to now concentrate on my own fashion design and costume business.
* If you had not taken to dancing, what would have been your career now?
I followed a hotel management course, so, probably, I would have been involved in the hotel trade.
* What are your future plans where dancing is concerned?
To be Sri Lanka’s No.1 dancer, and to share my experience with the young generation.
Responding to our energy addiction
by Ranil Senanayake
Sri Lanka today is in the throes of addiction withdrawal. Reliant on fossil fuels to maintain the economy and basic living comforts, the sudden withdrawal of oil, coal and gas deliveries has exposed the weakness and the danger of this path of ‘development’ driven by fossil energy. This was a result of some poorly educated aspirants to political power who became dazzled by the advancement of western industrial technology and equated it with ‘Development’. They continue with this blind faith even today.
Thus, on December 20th 1979, an official communiqué was issued by the Government and displayed in the nation’s newspapers stating, “No oil means no development, and less oil, less development. It is oil that keeps the wheels of development moving”. This defined with clarity what was to be considered development by the policy-makers of that time. This fateful decision cast a deadly policy framework for the nation. The energy source that was to drive the national economy would be fossil-based. Even today, that same policy framework and its adherents continue. Everything, from electricity to cooking fuel, was based on fossil energy.
The economics of development, allows externalizing all the negative effects of ‘development’ into the environment, this being justified because, “industrialisation alleviates poverty”. The argument, is that economies need to industrialise in order to reduce poverty; but industrialisation leads to ‘unavoidable emissions. Statements like, ‘reduction in poverty leads to an increase in emissions’ is often trotted out as dogma. Tragically, these views preclude a vision of development based on high tech, non-fossil fuel driven, low consumptive lifestyles. Indeed, one indicator of current ‘development’ is the per capita consumption of power, without addressing the source of that power.
A nation dependent on fossil fuel is very much like an addict dependent on drugs. The demand is small, at first, but grows swiftly, until all available resources are given. In the end, when there is nothing else left to pawn, even the future of their children will be pawned and finally the children themselves! Today, with power cuts and fuel shortages, the pain of addiction begins to manifest.
The creation of desire
This perspective of ‘development’, the extension of so-called ‘civilised living’ is not new to us in Sri Lanka, Farrer, writing in 1920, had this to say when visiting Colombo:
“Modern, indeed, is all this, civilised and refined to a notable degree. All the resources of modern culture are thick about you, and you feel that the world was only born yesterday, so far as right-thinking people are concerned.
And, up and down in the shade of glare, runs furiously the unresting tide of life. The main street is walled in by high, barrack like structures, fiercely western in the heart of the holy East, and the big hotels upon its frontage extend their uncompromising European facades. Within them there is a perpetual twilight, and meek puss-faced Sinhalese take perpetually the drink orders of prosperous planters and white-whiskered old fat gentlemen in sun hats lined with green. At night these places are visible realisation of earthly pleasure to the poor toiling souls from the farthest lonely heights of the mountains and the jungle.” The process goes on still …
Develop we must, but cautiously – with the full awareness of the long-term consequences of each process. Development must be determined by empowering the fundamental rights of the people and of the future generations. Clean air, clean water, access to food and freedom from intoxication, are some of these fundamental rights. Any process that claims to be part of a development process must address these, among other social and legal fundamental rights.
One problem has been that, the movement of a country with traditional non-consumptive values, into a consumerist society based on fossil energy tends to erode these values rapidly. Often, we are told that this is a necessary prerequisite to become a ‘developed country’, but this need not be so. We need to address that fundamental flaw stated in 1979. We need to wean ourselves away from the hydrocarbon-based economy to a carbohydrate-based economy. Which means moving from a fossil fuel-based economy to a renewable energy-based economy.
Fossil Fuels or fossil hydrocarbons are the repository of excess carbon dioxide that is constantly being injected into the atmosphere by volcanic action for over the last 200 million years. Hydrocarbons are substances that were created to lock up that excess Carbon Dioxide, sustaining the stable, Oxygen rich atmosphere we enjoy today. Burning this fossil stock of hydrocarbons is the principal driver of modern society as well as climate change. It is now very clear that the stability of planetary climate cycles is in jeopardy and a very large contributory factor to this crisis are the profligate activities of modern human society.
As a response to the growing public concern that fossil fuels are destroying our future, the fossil industry developed a ‘placating’ strategy. Plant a tree, they say, the tree will absorb the carbon we emit and take it out of the atmosphere, through this action we become Carbon neutral. When one considers that the Carbon which lay dormant for 200 million years was put into the atmosphere today, can never be locked up for an equal amount of time by planting a tree. A tree can hold the Carbon for 500 years at best and when it dies its Carbon will be released into the atmosphere again as Carbon Dioxide.
Carbon Dioxide is extracted from the atmosphere by plants and converted into a solid form through the action of photosynthesis. Photosynthetic biomass performs the act of primary production, the initial step in the manifestation of life. This material has the ability to increase in mass by the absorption of solar or other electromagnetic radiation, while releasing oxygen and water vapor into the atmosphere. It is only photosynthetic biomass that powers carbon sequestration, carbohydrate production, oxygen generation and water transformation, i.e., all actions essential for the sustainability of the life support system of the planet.
Yet currently, it is only one product of this photosynthetic biomass, sequestered carbon, usually represented by wood/timber, that is recognized as having commercial value in the market for mitigating climate change. The ephemeral part, the leaves, are generally ignored, yet the photosynthetic biomass in terrestrial ecosystems are largely composed of leaves, this component needs a value placed on it for its critical ‘environmental services’
With growth in photosynthetic biomass, we will see more Oxygen, Carbon sequestering and water cleansing, throughout the planet. As much of the biomass to be gained is in degraded ecosystems around the planet and as these areas are also home to the world’s rural poor, these degraded ecosystems have great growth potential for generating photosynthetic biomass of high value. If the restoration of these degraded ecosystems to achieve optimal photosynthetic biomass cover becomes a global goal, the amazing magic of photosynthesis could indeed help change our current dire course, create a new paradigm of growth and make the planet more benign for our children.
Instead of flogging the dead horse of fossil energy-based growth as ‘Economic Development’, instead of getting the population addicted to fossil energy, will we have the commonsense to appreciate the value of photosynthetic biomass and encourage businesses that obtain value for the nations Primary Ecosystem Services (PES)? The realization of which, will enrich not only our rural population but rural people the world over!
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