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Sat Mag

The danger of airport walls



By Capt. G A Fernando MBA

Former Chief Pilot B737-200, Air Lanka

Former Member CAASL Accident Investigation Team

Former Crew Resource Management (CRM) Facilitator Singapore Airlines

Designated Flight Operations Inspector CAASL.

President, Aircraft Owners and Operators Association Sri Lanka

On the night of 7th August, 2020, Captain Deepak Vasanth Sathe and First Officer, Akhilesh Kumar, were approaching land at the Calicut International Airport, during heavy monsoonal rain, in a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, operated by Air India Express. The aircraft, registered as VT-AXH, was carrying out a repatriation flight IX-1344 from Dubai. Capt. Sathe was an ex-Indian Air Force pilot.

It is too early to know what exactly happened. Under bad weather conditions, such as this, the pilots will attempt to fly solely with reference to instruments, with little or no outside visual clues. The flight deck lights will be dimmed. Only one pilot is allowed to handle the controls and is designated as the ‘Pilot Flying’ (PF) and the other one is designated as the ‘Pilot Monitoring’ (PM). Their heads (and eyes) will be inside the flight deck, monitoring the flight and radio navigation instruments, with the Autopilot(s) on, to about 1000 feet, above the airport altitude, where the PM will announce “1000 feet” while looking inside, will now also start to look outside for visual clues with the windscreen wipers switched on. The PF must acknowledge that call. At a 100 feet, above a specified minimum altitude, depending on the airport and the type of instrument approach carried out, the PM will announce again loudly “Hundred above” The PF must acknowledge with a “Roger”. If the PF doesn’t do so at 1000ft or 100 ft, the PM will announce for the second time  If there is no response, then it is assumed that PF is incapacitated in some way, and the PM will ‘abort’ the landing approach and carry out a go around. Once at a safe altitude he will ensure that the auto pilot is on and check on the wellbeing of the handling pilot.

As can be seen from the above, it is a matter of close teamwork, standard call outs and procedures that enable pilots to land in bad weather. It is reported that the operating crew of Flight IX-1344 initially approached the runway (2845 meters/9330 feet long), from the opposite (East) side. They had initiated a ‘go- around’ at an altitude of 2700feet, which was well above the minimum altitude that they were allowed to descend to. We can assume that there was bad weather picked up on their Airborne weather Radar Display on their proposed approach path, which was unacceptable and may have opted to come on the less cloudy and rainy landing approach from the direction they did, even with a compromising tail wind of 10 to 15 knots. (a judgment call). Monsoon weather comes in cells of cloud and rain. Looking at their cockpit Radar display, pilots can easily analyse and decide on the better side to approach a runway from.

The last bit of the landing approach is critical after the ‘Hundred above’ call by the PM who will declare whether he has the runway lights in sight. At the minimum authorised altitude, PM will announce “minimums runway in sight” or “minimums, no contact” which will mean that the PF will have to go around. On this stormy night, the fact that they continued the approach and landed on the runway, successfully, showed that they had sufficient visual cues through the wind screen between the sweeps of the wipers, which create a major distracting, racket. In extreme conditions, the Flying Pilot will have about 1 mile (30 seconds) to decide whether it is safe to continue with the landing. There will be less time than that if the approach is downwind. They would have practiced approaches like this, many times in the B737 Simulator, to the satisfaction of an Indian Civil Aviation Authority Examiner.

Then comes a host of other problems. Is the beginning of runway (Threshold) crossing height correct? Ideally, it should be around 60 feet. Any height above that would mean that the aircraft would be touching down further into the runway than the recommended 1000 ft to 1500 ft, from the start. It again is a judgment call by the Captain. It was reported that the Calicut Air Traffic Control Officer saw the B737 -800 touching down quite deep. Even at this point the crew could have gone around if they felt uneasy. The pilots are trained to trust that ‘empty, something-is -not –quite- right’ feeling. After the touchdown, the Flight Crew will have to depend on the stopping devices (Reverse Thrust, Wing Spoilers and Wheel brakes) of the aircraft to bring the aircraft to a stop. Once these devices are applied, the Flight Crew will be committed to stay on ground.  Did they all work effectively? It was reported that there was standing water on the runway. It was also reported that the runway surface wasn’t ‘grooved’, to improve traction and drain the water.  Was the aircraft subjected to Hydroplaning? Hydroplaning is when a layer of water gets between the tyres and the runway surface resulting in no traction and stopping power. In fact it was reported that a survivor felt the aircraft accelerate after a few seco

nds on ground after touchdown. Jet aircraft of today are equipped with antiskid devices, but for that to work the wheels must spin first. So what is recommended to the pilots is to touch down firmly to dispel the thin layer of water between the tyres and the runway surface and let the auto brakes commence the braking action. However, if braking manually, initially the pilot must go easy on the brakes and progressively use maximum braking (foot pedal pressure). It is also reported that the engines were shut down. Did such action make the reverse thrust from the engines unavailable for stopping? The pilots could have used maximum reverse thrust till the aircraft came to a stop. (In some B 737 models pilots could even use reverse thrust to reverse from the parking stand without the aid of a tractor.) They could have even ‘cooked’ the engines by exceeding operating temperatures if necessary to save lives. The safety experts say that with reference to Flight Operations, the Captain should himself, (his own ability) know his crew,(How well did the Captain know his First Officer?), know his aircraft, (B737-800), know his mission (Flying passengers safely from Dubai to Calicut), and above all, factors that continuously evaluate the risks.(Rain, down- wind, should I continue the approach? wet runway, can I stop, safely?)


Were the pilots aware of their precarious situation? (ie) that they were going to overrun this runway. If so, at what point of time did they realise that they will be unable to stop. Only the recovered black boxes (Cockpit Voice Recorder and Flight Data Recorder) will be able to shed some light to the accident investigators. One thing we know for sure. The aircraft went down a slope and impacted a solid perimeter wall, killing both pilots and passengers. The force of the impact broke the aircraft in two.

Here is what one rescuer said “Most challenging was to bring out the two pilots. They were both found in an unconscious state. Because of the impact of the crash, the cockpit cabin got separated from the rest of the aircraft and had rammed the perimeter wall of the airport. The speed of the plane must have been very high because the cockpit cabin got stuck into the wall. Luckily, we found a JCB machine on the main road across the wall. It was used to demolish a portion of the wall. The firefighters and medical staff then used equipment to cut open the body of the aircraft to pull out the two pilots. Their rescue alone took close to an hour.

Their bodies were badly damaged. Both of them were rushed to the hospital without any delay,”

Most developed countries have perimeter fences instead of solid airport walls to prevent this sort of unfortunate accidents.

India is an exception. The Indian airport authorities are forced to have walls to prevent encroachment of cattle and the community who tend to use the airport premises as public open air toilets! In airports, like Mumbai, men and women, from the slums, in the vicinity, climb over the walls every morning, to do what they have to do, on the airport side. The walls act as a deterrent but create a safety hazard. On the morning of 12th October ’2018 a Boeing 737, departing Triruchinapoly, Kerala, India, for Dubai, UAE, hit the perimeter wall on departure, but was miraculously saved.

Every year, during the monsoon time, runway overruns and other occurrences, in India, are frequent. This year, there were six occurrences in India alone. On 29th April 2020, SpiceJet Boeing 737- 800 in a place called Shirdi; 30th June’2020, in Mangalore. Air India Express; 30th June, another smaller SpiceJet DH dash 8 in Surat; 1st July 2020, a SpiceJet Boeing 737-800 overran the runway, in Mumbai; 1st July ’2020, there was  a hard landing of Air India Express B737.-800 in Calicut; 2nd July 2020, another SpiceJet almost veered off the runway, running over some runway edge lights. In Kolkata. The last being the fatal accident B 737-800, on August 7th 2020.

The weather, in the Western Coast of Sri Lanka, is Identical to that of Kerala, during the South West Monsoon. There is a similar safety hazard, at the Galle Road end, of the Ratmalana Airport. The wall was introduced by the SLAF, during the time of war, to prevent public peering into the airport which posed a greater risk than losing an aircraft with passengers on an overrun (excursion) and the subsequent impact with the concrete wall. Since the situation has now changed, the SLAF has no problem if the wall is removed. An essential part of ‘Safety Management’ is learning from accidents committed by other Operators. Runway over runs in intense rain, don’t only happen to others but could occur in our own back yard. For over eight years this writer, and many others, have been trying to convince the authorities that this solid Concrete wall is an accident waiting to happen and should be replaced by a fence, as in other airports of the world in keeping with international safety standards. Unfortunately, there are three ‘co-owners’ of the concrete wall. The Civil Aviation Authority Sri Lanka (CAASL), Airport and Aviation Ltd, Sri Lanka (AASL) and the Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF). This was pointed out as an unnecessary hazard to air operations at many Policy Development Meetings at Temple Trees. The SLAF said they had no objection for its removal (since the 30-year war was over). Although the AASL was standing by for its removal, the CAASL was ‘foot dragging’

After the B 737 incident in Triruchinapoly, India, 27 very Senior Pilot Instructors and Designated Flight Operations Inspectors (totalling flying experience of 330,500 flying hours) forwarded an appeal to the then Director General of the CAA requesting him to remove the wall as it created a definite safety hazard to operations at the Ratmalana.

Later, on a further appeal by the Aircraft Owners and Operators Association, Sri Lanka, the New Director General of the Civil Aviation Authority declared that he has no objection for the replacement of the solid wall with a fence. The AASL is now proceeding to check with the Ministry of Defence (MOD) again for concurrence. The merry-go-round continues. The advertisements on the said wall may be the problem as millions of Rupees have changed hands. Thus putting a price tag on air safety.

It seems strange that in a country where the authorities have removed the walls of Police Stations without hesitation, we are unable to remove this hazardous wall. Are we waiting for a fatal accident to happen in our neck of the woods?


— Jerome Lederer Flight Safety Foundation


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Sat Mag

Teach students animal rights for a better world



Five years ago, I requested the Head of the Bar Council of India to get animal welfare introduced as a subject in the law colleges. He did it immediately. The result has been much more sensitive and informed lawyers, an annual moot court that is hosted by NLU Bangalore, PhDs in animal welfare (the first one was in NLU Cuttack), more people aware of animal welfare activism and far more sensitive judges. A big thank you to Shri Manan Kumar Mishra!

22 years ago, at the instance of Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee, who supported all new ideas, we built the National Institute for Animal Welfare in Ballabgarh. Unfortunately, the government fell when it was ready. The Congress shut it down, and now the BJP is in its seventh year without restarting it. The Minister for Environment gave it to JNU. They fooled around for 2 years and then returned it to the Ministry, who slept on it for two years and then handed it to Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, who have ignored it for three years and only now have appointed a retired vet to make a course. I have lost all hope. In 2002, I wrote out all the courses, made some textbooks, contacted Oxford, Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh, for teachers, got a grant from UNEP for the library. But nothing has happened and nothing ever will. The magnificent seven-acre centre now houses ten people of the Animal Welfare Board of India and runs “awareness” courses of three days each for the student vets of The Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS).

But there are huge job opportunities for trained animal welfare people: shelter managers, gaushala managers, laboratory managers, forest and wildlife officers, city management of animals, elephant rescue centres, city snake rescuers, poultries, slaughterhouses, to begin with and hundreds of others. I simply cannot understand why it has taken so long for even one course to begin.

A huge thank you to the Vice Chancellor of IGNOU, Prof. Nageshwar Rao, and to Professor P. V. K. Sasidhar, for starting the first-degree related course in India for animal welfare. Prof. Sasidhar has been labouring at the modules for over three years now. The first session itself has over 800 students!

It is a PG Diploma in Animal Welfare (PGDAW) and the admissions are open for the January 2021 Session. The Online Admissions ink:

The PGDAW programme is meant for animal welfare volunteers and professionals across India, and for graduates / post-graduates interested in studying animal welfare. I have seen the learning module and I like it. I wish I had been able to compile the 3000+ articles I have written on every aspect of animal welfare. They could have been part of the course. But my editor has been fooling around with the 7 volume compilations for 5 years now, and I have no idea when she will be done. National Book Trust had offered to print them all, but not even the first volume is ready.

The IGNOU course has four core components: Animal welfare science and ethics, Animal welfare issues, Animal welfare laws and policies, and Animal welfare practices and standards.

Animal welfare is concerned about the welfare of all animals that are managed in some way by humans. Farm animal welfare means the care of animals grown for milk and meat, and that is where animals suffer the most. Welfare issues, pertaining to working, performing, companion, zoo, lab and street animals, need a great deal of attention as well. The PGDAW programme, in 85 modules, has covered welfare, science, ethics, issues, laws and standards, of all farm and draught animals – cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, working animals like donkeys and horses, performing animals, pets, zoo and lab animals. These modules have been developed in collaboration with The Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education, University of Edinburgh, UK.

It’s a one-year course, and graduates from any discipline can take it. It has two objectives: To impart science-based animal welfare education through open and distance learning. To build the capacities of stakeholders to take socially responsible decisions concerning animal welfare. The total fee of the course is Rs. 5400/-.

Who should take this course : Obviously all young people interested in animals, Employees Working in Animal Welfare Organizations/NGOs/Gaushalas, Faculty, Researchers, Technical Staff & PG/PhD Students in Universities, Research Organizations and Veterinary Colleges, Veterinarians / Para-veterinarians in State Central Government/RVC & Para-Military Forces, Members of State Animal Welfare Boards/SPCAs, Members of CPCSEA/ Institutional Animal Ethics Committees /Animal House Facilities, Civil Servants, Officials and Researchers Working in Forest Departments, Zoos and Wild Life Institutes, Faculty and Research Scholars under Zoological Survey of India and Zoology Departments, Law Professionals and Police Personnel dealing with Animal Welfare Laws and their Enforcement, Graduates Seeking Career as Animal Welfare Professionals.

Ideally, I would make it compulsory for all schools – if we want a better India.

The Programme Coordinator, Prof. P.V.K. Sasidhar, School of Extension and Development Studies, IGNOU, New Delhi (e-mail:, has great credentials himself. He has been in the Agricultural Research Service of ICAR (2003-09), a Norman Borlaug Fellow of USDA, Tuskegee University, USA (2008), USAID Fellow, Michigan State University, USA (2015), and an OIE Performance of Veterinary Services Evaluator, OIE (2018).

 If you want to join this, now is the time. Also, if you have suggestions to make it better, write to the Professor. I would recommend it for activists in Sri Lanka and Nepal as well, as the issues are the same.

( To join the animal welfare movement contact,

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Sat Mag




A tale of a boy’s courage

By Uditha Devapriya

Situated at Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Planetarium continues to captivate and fascinate, yet unless you strain your eyes, you can easily miss it. It’s one of those places you go to, through a prior appointment, and emerge from wishing you could go back in again. I must have been in Grade Five when I visited it on a class trip in 2004. Supun Jayasinghe was in Grade Five, too, when he went there with the rest of his class seven years later. The only exception, apart from the year of the visit, was where he came from: a 100 miles away, in Dambulla. It was the first time he had been to the city.

Intriguing and exhilarating as such a trip may have been, he had other things in his head. A few months later, he wouldbe sitting the Grade Five Scholarship Exam. How would he study for it? What marks would he score? Where would he go, if those marks turned out to be high? These questions nagged him, yet for the moment he let them off.

In any case, the ride had been exhausting: having started at four in the morning, it was about nine when the bus entered the city. It made its way to Independence Avenue, and from there towards the University of Colombo.

Between Independence Avenue and Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Race Course faces Royal College. Intrigued by the Arcade, then the College, Supun and his classmates turned to their teacher. Standing up, he looked at them and described what they were, laying emphasis on the school more than the complex. Having described it in detail – the oldest public school, the most popular such institution, and so on – he brought the discussion back to his audience. “You have your scholarship exams this year,” he reminded them. “Try scoring as high as you can, because if you do, you’ll get a chance to come and study there.”

The memory of those words remained in Supun for a long time. The moment he heard them, he vowed to get as high a mark as he could, to get that chance, to come here.

Whatever the shortcomings of the Scholarship Exam may be, there’s no denying that it has opened up a world of opportunity for an aspiring lower middle-class. Supun’s father, a businessman, and mother, a teacher, hailed from this middle-class. Having attended a local Montessori and a Model School, he spent the whole of 2011 studying for the exam, forfeiting what little free time he had poring over books under a tree in his front yard. Yet, while he hit the books as hard and as much as he could, he did not push himself to compete with his peers. He’d told everyone he would ace the paper, but that owed less to a desire to be the best in the class than to a yearning to enter the best school he thought there was.

In any case, he got what he wanted. The marks came home somewhere in December 2011: having aimed at 180, he had scored 186. An even better piece of news came soon afterwards: the cut-off mark for Royal in 2012 happened to be 182. This meant only one thing: he would be boarded at the College Hostel, the following month, the following year.

The decision to go to Colombo did not come easy. Supun’s mother had opposed it at first, claiming it was too far. The marks were what convinced her. Even so, going to a city he’d only heard about and seen just once, and choosing to stay there for the better part of the next seven or so years, was a challenge. How would he fit in? What would he have to adjust to? Did people act there the way they did here? Did they differ in how they studied, read books, wrote answers? How they ate, drank, walked, and talked? He had much to think about, and as the weeks drew the year to a close, not much time to think them over.

Before everything, of course, there was the question of visiting the Hostel. On January 8 a letter arrived at his home, notifying them that the new term would commence a few weeks later, and that an orientation would be held before it did, on January 20.

Excited as he was, Supun nevertheless felt uneasy. On January 19, he and his father made their way to a rented house at Mount Lavinia, where a not-so distant relative lived. The next day came slowly, excruciatingly slowly. “I couldn’t sleep, I did not want to,” he remembers it today. Somehow, the night passed, and the following morning, having consulted and checked out at an auspicious time, the two of them made their way to Colombo.

Sri Lanka’s public schools, in particular those whose origins go back to the 19th century, are distinctly British in their architecture. The historian K. M. de Silva not unjustifiably calls it bland, unremarkable, and passé, when compared with Portuguese and Dutch architecture. For all their blandness, though, the British invested these buildings with an aura of expansiveness, with corridors giving way to gardens, quadrangles, and still other corridors.

Finding their way through an endless maze of entrances and exits, Supun and his father could not locate the Hostel. When they finally did, they were ushered into an orientation. Supun remembers two things from that day: his new class (6N), and the school song. The latter awed him: he hadn’t listened to many English songs, let alone school anthems, until then.

Having returned home after the orientation, father and son were told that the new term would begin five days later, on January 25. The second time around they came to Colombo in a car. Starting the journey of more than a hundred miles at four in the morning, they arrived at their destination at one or two in the afternoon.

At the Hostel the usual procedure was followed. The seniors directed him to his room. Each room had bunker beds. Not used to sleeping on them, he chose the first compartment, sharing the bunker with three others. When the last of the parents left, he predictably felt his nerves on the edge. The old fears returned: would he be able to fit in?

As with all public schools located in the city, the history of Royal College has woven itself into the history of its surroundings. Confusing at first, its topography extends from one end to another, covering a great many sites. To socialise into and familiarise himself with such an environment physically was not, however, tough for Supun. The real challenge lay elsewhere: the all too ubiquitous presence of English, and the melange of race and religion within the classroom. In other words, language proficiency plus cultural assimilation.

Glancing through his achievements from then, it struck me how his resolve stood out in them all. Back in Dambulla he had neither let the achievements of his peers ruffle him nor allowed himself to be overtaken by a desire to do better than them. He always, for instance, came first at his first school, but not because he wanted to beat everyone else to it; he just wanted to do something, and when he put his mind to it, he tried to do it somehow, on his own.

In Colombo this remained his philosophy. Whether it was winning creative composition and literary criticism prizes, becoming Junior Prefect (2015) and Junior Steward (2018), right before winding up as Steward (2019) and Chairman or Secretary of a great many clubs and societies (to list just some: Philatelic, Science, Library Readers), he let himself into whatever he took a fancy to. He did not, however, abandon his academics; studying for his O Levels, he ended up with nine As. Needless to say, on the field and in the class, at studies and sports, he confronted, and got over, those two challenges of proficiency and assimilation.

Supun’s story, I realise when I read through it, at once reflects and deviates from the norm. Reflects, because it conforms to the general pattern (initial difficulties at getting used to life in the city being followed by assimilation into the cultural and social patterns of that city), and deviates from, because his willpower is hard to find among his peers, or at least most of them. There is a reason for that: born with congenital anomalies on his right hand and leg, he has refused to let them get in his way, having won medals at the Para Games (2018) as well as for volleyball, boxing, table tennis, hockey, baseball, scouting (with a President’s Badge in 2019 to boot). By all accounts, this is to be admired, as it should be even now.

Steven Kemper dedicates the last chapter of his book on advertising in Sri Lanka (Buying and Believing) to a Sinhala lower middle-class family, residing in the outskirts of Colombo, who manage to realise their aspirations through their second son gaining entry to Supun’s school. Kemper, ever sensitive to the vagaries of class, points out how two-pronged entering a better school can be: a “singular opportunity”, yet one that comes with the price of accommodation “in a hostel.” Boarding their son, the family later relocates to Colombo. They make that move because they have to: the son is their link to the city, and to all it represents.

This country is home to a great many families who aspire for a better life, and one way through which they seek that life is education: not merely what you study, but where you study. Supun’s case is therefore illustrative: it’s the story of every other middle-class child. What’s interesting is how their integration to the city has brought about a transformation in the country’s elite schools. In that sense Supun’s story, as with that of the family in Kemper’s book, is not only illustrative, but also instructive. A Senior Prefect today, waiting for his A Level results, he finishes the conversation with a simple personal credo: “I’ve always aimed high and big, and I think I’ve always got there.” I am inclined to agree.

The writer can be reached at

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Sat Mag

Cleaner production – an urgent need



By Dr. Debapriya Mukherjee
Former Senior Scientist
Central Pollution Control Board, India

If we look into the areas close to the industrial sector, production of pollutants particularly from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) has damaged the natural environment by excess emission of wastewater, gas or other solid waste. Environmental agencies are failing miserably in controlling pollution from most of the SMEs across the country. SME contributes asignificant fraction of total environmental burden in developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh. Despite enforcement of environmental acts and regulations, the consumption of huge quantities of resources and energy, within a remarkably short period through industrial production had a far-reaching influence on natural environment. Reducing this burden needs environmental improvement at the micro level, a goal which has been stubbornly elusive in India. 

According to my observations, the major problems in SMEs, are old technologies, poor management practices, limited availability of funds, inadequately trained officials, lack of appropriate inspection and monitoring and overall sustainable gap between enforcement agencies, industries and communities because impassivity of top management in environmental sector and political will have impeded sustainable environment management.  Regulatory pressure on the SMEs could not implicate positive effect on environment to maintain sound ecosystem as observed in many areas close to SMEs such as foundry, sponge iron, electroplating industry, food processing, tannery and others. 

Environment Sustainability (ES) to maintain wholesomeness of the environment by controlling production of pollutants has been practically jeopardized. The possible reason is that several industrial complexes have been established without considering environmental and social impacts and thereby sustainability of industrial development is not gaining momentum. This dismal ES remains well hidden because social aspects (such as human rights, corruption, poverty, child mortality, land degradation, illiteracy and health problems) and their interrelation with economic and environment aspects are not considered with due emphasis by the regulatory agencies. The traditional approach of enforcing environmental acts and regulations is unable to explain and address the complex dynamic inter-relation among economics, environmental and social aspects with time. Though environmental impact assessment and environmental management system as per the Environment (Protection) Ac are mandatory to establish and to operate any project but, ES, and social benefits are always questionable. Industrial growth without ES under prevailing socio-economic condition is definitely neglected and delayed.

Survey of these industries reveals that SMEs are mainly dependent on end-of pipe(EOP) technology and their functionality are not consistent. Regulatory pressure compelled these industries to install a pollution control system for compliance with standards. But non-compliance is a common feature due to non-availability/ non-operation/ failure of pollution control system. Though regulatory agencies inspect the industries once or twice a year they are unable to ensure consistent control of pollution. Also, the regulatory authority cannot evaluate the different compliance level and thereby violation of standard to any extent is subject to the same penalties as it is marginal violation. Environmental managers can easily control the pollution level within a permissible limit during inspection by manipulating raw materials feeding and/or by operating the pollution control devices. It is not always feasible with limited trained/experienced personnel to conduct in-depth study on material and water balance in order to justify the quantity of pollutants emitted to environment based on the monitoring data. Enforcement agencies put emphasis on performance evaluation of EOP technology as per the stipulated standard without considering ecological crisis and social problems in the area closed to the industries.  As a result, owners of the industries are not serious to initiate CP despite economic benefits associated with its implementation.  On the contrary, owners of the industries are well versed on how to tackle an adverse situation temporarily and make their units in operation. Regulatory agencies  issue time to time   closure notices or directives to improve the performance of pollution control system to the non-compliant industries.  In response to these notices, owners of the industries with the help of outside experts, find out temporary solution with little financial investment just to fulfill the legal requirement and not “real” requirement. As a result, actual compliance status over time remains well hidden and thereby environmental and social problems remain unattended. One ofthe reasons may be vested interests of the concerned officers entrusted for verification of the report. Otherwise why water, air and soil are still so much polluted?

In this context it may be  mentioned that the majority of residents are poor and do not have access to higher authorities for solving their problems as well as they are not well educated to explain their sufferings to the media/press highlighting ecological crisis created by these industries. Government has already launched various projects to remove poverty, to educate the people, to provide health facility and to create environmental awareness among the people to highlight the  pollution problem,  but implementation status of these projects is not always satisfactory. This has resulted environmental and social problems reaching alarming proportion in many industrial clusters in India and simply visual inspections supplement these findings. Limitations in government’s actions to solve the problems are not disseminated via media for public awareness for various reasons. Moreover accountability of government employees for implementing the projects in terms of success and failure is not properly evaluated because knowledge and hardship required for evaluating degree of success are practically lacking. 

This problem in regulatory organization, may be attributed to top management persons because they often recruit either new scientists/engineers or retired government engineers/scientists on the basis of political connections or bribes or nepotism to look after activities related to environment management but their style of management clearly exhibit impassivity towards CP implementation because of their poor technical capability. Whereas huge potential offered by the country’s young population is far from being leveraged. Also many highly qualified young scientists/engineers refuse to take up the challenging works related to environment management in these organizations because of the lack of knowledgeable and skilled experts to guide the newly recruited personnel, hostile environment and bureaucracy. 

This is really a disturbing situation. Thereby, India needs innovative minds to meet its formidable challenges. For this, both the state and central governments should take urgent action and must appoint highly qualified, broad-minded top most officers, who will recruit qualified competent engineers/scientists and give them state-of-the-art technology based on sound scientific evidence with no external interference. Fixing our organization system will require a complete overhaul of the recruitment system, changes in environment policy and implementation of CP concept in these SMEs. According to UN Environmental Progrmme (UNEP) CP is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy towards processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment. However this will be difficult with the present disconnect between science and policy in these organizations.

My experience clearly established the economic efficiency of CP through incremental innovation based on  production process optimization and thereby the payback period of investment towards CP technology was short.   Unfortunately, in India actual level of implementation of CP in industries in particular all SMEs as found in other countries  to deliver environmental advantage is not determined. Therefore, evaluation of actual environmental and economic performance improvement is an emergent need to maintain sustainable industrial development, social welfare, social equity and sound ecosystem. In India, the manufacturing industries and the government can play a major role in this sustainable development.  However, community pressure followed by enforcement of environmental acts and regulation has slowly changed the attitude of these industries but overall success towards consistent compliance is still a distant dream. 

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