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Safety of mRNA vaccines: Pfizer, Moderna – Statement by Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Forum of Sri Lanka

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Our respected senior virologist in Sri Lanka, Professor Tissa Vitharana has written an article, on ‘Positioning science technology and research to meet new normal industrial challenges’. In paragraph 9 of this article, he has said that “I consider the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines as unsafe as they are based on the use of mRNA, which are composed of viable genetic material alone. This type of vaccine has not been used in humans before and it is uncertain how their mRNA will act once they combine with genetic material in our bodies.”

With due respect to him, the Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Forum of Sri Lanka would like to clarify its position with regards to this statement. This statement could create confusion among the public and could jeopardise the government’s efforts to vaccinate adults and children, in order to provide protection against this deadly virus. It is the decision by the global experts on vaccinology to give Pfizer or Moderna vaccine for children taking in to account of their safety and efficacy compared to all the other candidate vaccines. Many of our colleagues have already witnessed parents refusing to get the vaccine given to their children, after reading this article published in two national papers.

The Vaccine and Infectious Diseases Forum of Sri Lanka assures the safety of these vaccines for the use of humans including children.

First of all mRNA is not the genome. A genome consists of DNAs. mRNA is not the same as DNA, and it can’t combine with our DNA to change our genetic code. It is also relatively fragile, and once it is introduced in to the cell, it will be degraded within 72 hours. RNA can be transformed to DNA by one virus group called retroviruses. Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus. They will do so by producing a special enzyme called reverse transcriptase. No other virus has that ability. Human cells do not have reverse transcriptase, and therefore, cannot convert the vaccine mRNA to DNA.

In all RNA viral diseases, the virus once it enters the host cell releases mRNA into the cell. Viral mRNA then utilizes host cell processes to produce their proteins. These proteins are then assembled together to form many daughter viruses, which in turn infects new cells. This is how viruses infect hosts. The process will go on until body defense mechanisms overcome the virus. This relationship had been there for many millions of years, even before the existence of man. But there had never been any viral RNA material incorporated into host DNA other than in retroviral infections.

Although mRNA vaccines are a relatively new technology, they are based on the same ancient premise: delivering mRNA into our cells, which they will use to manufacture a viral protein. But in this technology, it delivers only a small fragment of RNA which is only encoding spike protein of the virus. As such it does not produce anything other than the spike protein. It does not produce the virus, but only produces one single protein. The RNA fragment will be there inside the cell for less than 72 hours.

The other important consideration is that the mRNA used in vaccine making is a synthetic mRNA, not the exact viral mRNA.

In the US, an ant-vaccine group went to Supreme Court against mRNA vaccines. This group was headed by the lawyer Robert F. Kennedy Jr., nephew of ex-president John F. Kennedy, against a group of scientists including Bill Gates, the infectious diseases specialist and White House advisor Anthony Fauci and many others. The US Supreme Court dismissed the case saying that it is baseless as they could not prove it scientifically. Yet this anti-vaccine group went globally saying that these vaccines will change your DNA.

Our sincere advice to the public is that this is a false statement and that there is no scientific evidence what so ever to prove that any RNA material from a vaccine is incorporated in to our genome.

Globally, there is a rush to make vaccines and other treatment modules using this mRNA technology instead of traditional vaccine manufacturing methods, as it provides very robustly effective, safe vaccines. The manufacturing process is also very cheap and quick. There is ongoing research to produce vaccines using mRNA technology against cytomegalovirus (CMV), human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies, zika and vaccines against many cancers.

This paradigm shift of vaccine research is a solid proof of safety.

Dr. H T Wickremasinghe

Consultant Paediatrician

President

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Forum of Sri Lanka



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Opinion

Building trust, a better investment

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The government has allowed private companies to import chemical fertilisers. The farmers had been holding many a street protest against the government’s blatantly unwise policy of shifting to organic farming overnight, but to no avail. The Minister concerned and others repeatedly said that they would not change the government’s decision as it had been made for the good of all the people. The farmers had no problem with organic farming but insisted that the transition had to be phased out to avoid serious adverse effects. But no! The government never relented and tried to show that the street protests were instigated by interested parties including chemical fertiliser companies, to make the government unpopular. The government insisted that chemical fertilisers have caused many ailments including the dreaded kidney disease and turned a deaf ear to the farmers’ grievances.

However, hot on the heels of Mr. Modi’s U-turn last week, the Minister has changed track and tells us that the government, being one which is always ‘sensitive to people’s concerns’, has decided to make chemical fertilizers available through private imports, but would not import them on its own or change its policy of going fully organic. Questioned by journalists, another ruling party spokesperson quipped that the government’s decision came about neither due to the Indian PM’s ‘example’ nor in response to the loud protests. It is a result of the discussions held within the party, he assured.

However, it is unfortunate that the government had to wait for more than seven months to be ‘sensitive to peoples’ concerns’. If the ruling party members had only taken a few minutes to watch TV news headlines, they would have proved their ‘sensitivity’ months earlier, not waiting for Mr. Modi to steal a march on them, so to speak. To any reasonable person, the government obviously has responded to the rampant protests that were actually the climax of a prolonged process, which began with pleading, explaining their predicament, reasoning, chest thumping, expressing disbelief, which gradually culminated in loud protests, burning of effigies and threatening to come to Colombo in numbers. Surely, Mr. Modi didn’t make it any easier for the government to justify its ‘sensitivity’ to farmers’ grievances!

Thus, to any reasonable person, the government had actually responded to the unbridled anger of the helpless farmers, not to their grievances. What’s more, looking at how the government had handled the previous issues of a controversial nature, it is hard to recall any instance where it promptly responded to people’s concerns; it was always a case of responding to people vehemently protesting as a last resort- be it the Port City issue, Eastern Terminal, Teachers’ salary or Yugadanavi Power Plant issue, not to mention the pathetic state of innocent villagers being perpetually traumatized by wild elephant attacks often taking their lives wantonly. In each of these cases, the government, wittingly or unwittingly, seemed to regard the voices of concern, not as appeals worthy of serious attention, but as attempts at disruption or politically motivated interventions. This, surely, does not augur well for the government or support its claim to ‘sensitivity’ as regards people’s concerns.

The government’s decision to compromise on its strict chemical fertiliser ban, which has come soon after Mr. Modi’s reversal of sorts, allows room for the discerning public to make obvious inferences, despite the government’s claim about its decision not being influenced by that of the Indian PM. In fact, the government reps have nothing to gain by pretending to blush when journalists suggest that they perhaps took a leaf from their neighbour. Even at this juncture, people’s representatives seem reluctant to prefer sincerity to affectation; hence the government’s growing aloofness, which is causing a “severe trust deficit”- to borrow a pithy phrase from The Island editorial of November 19.

As the representatives of the public, what any government needs to foster are sincerity and empathy. It is this tacit bond between the people and the government, which will consolidate trust in the long term. Being the party that holds power, the onus is on the rulers to secure people’s faith. Instead, every party that has come to power since Independence has always helped the Opposition to make a five yearly ‘ritual cleansing’ in the eyes of the people. So, the wheel turns.

Susantha Hewa

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Opinion

Don’t harass whistle-blower

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Thushan Gunawardena, who alerted the authorities and the media to a serious fraud taking at Sathosa should not be harassed by the Police as it is clear that he has no political motives and has acted in the public interest.

The Cabinet minister concerned is attempting to show a conspiracy against him when he has failed to prevent such frauds at Sathosa and let it continue as there were benefits flowing to him in addition to his being able to employ family members and manipulate the system for personal profit.

It is patently clear that he is trying to take the investigation in a different direction and prevent changes that would clean up the mess that is contributing to the massive losses at Sathosa.

Mahinda Gunasekera

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Opinion

Stanley (Sam) Samarasinghe

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A TRIBUTE TO A PATRIOT

Even with the prior knowledge that the end was near, when the news of the passing away of Sam on the 23rd of November 2021 was conveyed to me, it was difficult to bear. Though living the better part of his adult life in the United States, to those with whom he had regular contact and dialogue, he was ever present. He succumbed to an illness that he bore with courage and fortitude for several years. In that time his enthusiasm to live his life to the full did not diminish. Except family and close friends none had even the slightest inkling that he was battling an invasive enemy within.

I have described Sam as a Patriot, if its definition is “one that loves his country and zealously maintains its interests”, then it fits him well, as he did that in full measure.

Having schooled in Kandy at Dharmarajah College, Sam completed a special degree in economics at the Peradeniya University where his father worked. Having being accepted by both Oxford and Cambridge Universities, he turned to his mentor, Professor H. A. de S. Gunasekera, who had advised him to take Cambridge. He went there with his wife Vidyamali, whom he had met at Peradeniya and obtained his Ph.D. in Economics. They both returned to Peradeniya and Sam became a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Economics. He taught there until 1989, when he left for the United States with his wife and two sons, Mevan and Ranmal. He was appointed Professor of the Development Studies Programme at the USAID, a position he held for many years in Washington. But what is remarkable, is that he continued his abiding interest in the many facets of Sri Lankan life, especially in education and politics and of course, Kandy. He returned to Sri Lanka at least twice a year. While others would spend such breaks as a let up from work, Sam vigorously involved himself in many spheres of activity.

Along with Prof. Kingsley de Silva, he created the only intellectual hub outside of the Peradeniya University in Kandy at the International Centre for Ethnic Studies (ICES). As Director, he secured funding for many academic projects that the Centre did. Sam was instrumental in the ICES buying its own place and then constructing a tarred road leading to the Center. The way he set about it will give the reader an idea of the man Sam was. The road served at least 12 houses. He arranged a meeting of all the householders and sold them a deal that none could refuse. Each household was asked to pay proportionately to the distance from the main Peradeniya Road to their house. At the end of the exercise. Sam refunded the excess in that same proportion!!

Sam was an academic, researching and writing extensively, sometimes collaborating with other academics such as Prof. Kingsley de Silva and Prof. G.H. (Gerry) Peiris. On several occasions, he brought out his post graduate students from the Tulane University, New Orleans (where he was Visiting Professor of Economics) to Sri Lanka and to Kandy, arranged field trips and had them interact with academics and professionals.

His particular interest in Kandy made him do a study of its traffic congestion and organised a public seminar with other experts on the subject. As the President of the Senkadagala Lions Club, Sam obtained funding for many of its projects. In fact, Sam had a penchant for writing up project proposals, an expertise he ungrudgingly shared with anyone who asked for it. He started a monthly local newspaper in 1994, the “Kandy News”, becoming its Chief Editor and its main sponsor. The last issue was a special supplement done in the run-up to the Kandy Municipal Council election in 2018.

When the tsunami stuck the country in 2004, Sam was the lead Consultant of a World Vision programme designed to make a qualitative assessment of tsunami and non-tsunami villages from Kalutara in the Western Province to Kilinochchi in the Northern Province. A task he successfully completed with his team under the aegis of the ICES.

He was an advocate for cooperation and harmony among the races. His involvement in the post tsunami work in Jaffna and Trincomalee with the Lions Club is proof of that, as much as it was when he asked the guests to the nuptial reception of his son Mevan, not to give presents but to contribute towards the project initiated by Mevan and himself in giving school books and equipment to the Tamil Primary School at the Gomorra Estate in Panwila.

My own association with Sam goes back to the time I ran for office as Mayor in 1997. He threw his weight behind me helping out in ways too numerous to mention. That friendship grew and grew and it embraced my family as well. He would ask me to criticise his writing especially on politics. He was a stickler for accuracy and uncompromising on facts. His opinions were rational, practical and unbiased. A bubbly personality, he was always a believer that there are better times ahead. His enthusiasm was infectious. His criticism of events and people were never personal. There is much to take from the life and times of Sam Samarasinghe.

We share his loss with his wife, the two boys of whom he was justly very proud of and his siblings whose welfare he always had. The country is poorer for his passing.

May he find peace in Nibbana!

Harindra Dunuwille

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