by Sanath Nanayakkare
Sri Lanka’s rubber plantations are potentially on the brink of being wiped out, battered by a fast-spreading leaf disease and the sector could be nearing the ‘point of no-return’, commercial rubber growers claim, requesting for urgent government intervention to address the pressing issue.
The crisis, which evokes comparisons with the ‘coffee rust’ blight which wiped out Sri Lanka’s coffee plantations in the late 1800s, need to be immediately addressed since output has declined by nearly a third already in some rubber plantations and the industry is fast becoming unviable, growers claim.
Regional Plantation Companies (RPCs) that are involved in the commercial-scale cultivation of rubber, have joined together to voice the critical need to halt the spread of ‘Pestalotiopsis’, by requesting the government to ensure the availability of suitable fertilizer and agrochemicals in sufficient quantities, together with a proven mechanism which would allow the application of the necessary agrochemicals.
“This leaf disease is possibly best described as the equivalent of COVID-19 in the case of the rubber industry, considering both its devastation and the rapid speed at which it is spreading,” rubber industry veteran, Manoj Udugampola says. Udugampola has more than 30 years of experience in the sector and is the current Vice Chairman of the Colombo Rubber Traders’ Association (CRTA) and the Chief Operating Officer – Rubber of Pussellawa Plantations Ltd.
According to Udugampola, up to now, Pestalotiopsis, which causes leaves of rubber trees to fall off, has affected more than 20,000 hectares across nearly all rubber-growing regions in Sri Lanka. According to the statistics of Rubber Development Department (RDD), the extent of rubber cultivation under tapping in Sri Lanka (by both smallholders and commercial plantations) stood at 107,000 hectares in 2018. Hence, the leaf disease has already spread to approximately a fifth of the country’s rubber cultivation under tapping, based on 2018 figures.
Beyond the extent, the speed of the spread of Pestalotiopsis has also been alarming. While the issue only came into prominence in Sri Lanka during the second half of last year, Pestalotiopsis has spread rapidly from affecting 10,000 hectares of cultivation at the end of 2020 to double the extent by August 2021. However, Udugampola, like many others in the industry, fear that the worst is yet to come, based on the experiences of other rubber producing countries which have been previously affected by the leaf disease.
“Unfortunately, the wet weather conditions in many areas in which rubber is grown in Sri Lanka are ideal for the disease. The key issue is that while rubber trees need good foliage to produce output, Pestalotiopsis causes the leaves to fall off, so production declines significantly. When we look at the experiences of other rubber producing countries with this disease, the situation becomes even more grim.”
The industry’s fears appear to be well-founded, considering foreign news reports on Pestalotiopsis outbreaks in other rubber producing countries. By August 2019, a rubber cultivation extent equivalent to nearly three times Sri Lanka’s total rubber extent under cultivation in 2018, had been affected by the disease in Indonesia, resulting in the country reducing its annual rubber output target for the year by 15%. Similarly, news reports from Thailand, which too saw vast extents of plantations far greater than Sri Lanka’s total rubber cultivation extent being affected in 2019 by Pestalotiopsis, notes that the disease can halve the output of rubber plantations.
“By around April – May this year we were already seeing a 10 % to 20% reduction in output from rubber plantations due to Pestalotiopsis,” Udara Premathilake, Director Plantations (Rubber), Kelani Valley Plantations PLC says, supporting the views of Udugampola. “Since we continue to incur huge fixed costs including labour costs in running our operations, the reduction in output is reducing our revenue substantially and therefore our profits, so the industry is fast becoming unviable.”
“At this rate by year-end we are looking at a 15% to 20% reduction of the annual output. We are not sure where the industry would stand by next year. Companies are already looking at other crops like cardamom, pepper and cinnamon, which could spell the end of Sri Lanka’s rubber cultivation,” Premathilake said.
His prognosis is backed by Udugampola, who also points out that the Pestalotiopsis and related issues extend far beyond short-term remedies and is threatening the industry’s long-term viability.
“When this disease spreads to immature plants, their long-term growth will be badly affected. Since rubber trees have a life span of around 30 years this translates to a long-term decline in production. As concerted action should be taken at least now, or the industry will be unviable both in the short and the long-run.”
One of the key issues in addressing Pestalotiopsis is the lack of necessary fertilizer and the required agrochemicals (Carbendazim and Hexaconazole) in sufficient quantities. Since rubber trees lose their foliage due to the disease, to compensate and provide extra nourishment for foliage re-growth, Rubber Research Institute’s main recommendations is to apply additional fertilizer. However, following the fertilizer and agrochemical ban, let alone additional quantities, not even the required quantities are available, according to the Regional Plantation Companies (RPCs).
While earlier at least these inputs had been available at exorbitant prices (at double the amount prior to the ban), now there is no fertilizer available in the market at present. In addition, the recommendation is to apply fertilizer for mature rubber fields primarily before July/August, which was not possible due to the ban of fertilizer.
The RPCs also point out that despite Rubber Research Institute’s significant efforts and the appointment of a taskforce by the Plantation Ministry to arrest the spread of the disease, a solution is yet to be provided on how agrochemicals can be applied, since existing equipment is not sufficiently powerful to spray agrochemicals to the canopies of full-grown rubber trees.
However, RPCs’ have taken proactive measures themselves to halt the spread of Pestalotiopsis, but these efforts have not yielded the expected results.
“Bearing significant costs, we tested the feasibility of using drones to apply pesticides to the canopies of mature rubber trees in some of our plantations,” Albert Peries, General Manager– Estate Management of Lalan Rubbers Private Limited said. “However, despite being extremely costly, it was not entirely successful, particularly since most rubber plantations are steep land, rather than flat areas, which appears to be an issue for the drones.”
“Hence, we need a commercially-viable solution for Pestalotiopsis and we need one right now, since the industry is in no condition to bear these kinds of exorbitant costs continuously.”
Peries notes that even the spraying of chemicals would only provide temporary protection for a period of few months. He points out that even if one plantation applies agrochemicals but the adjoining one fails to do so, the disease can still spread from the untreated cultivation.
Hence, it is critical that the disease must be dealt with at the national-level by the government, considering especially that a vast majority of Sri Lanka’s rubber plantations are managed by smallholders, not commercial growers.
An immediate solution to Pestalotiopsis
While calling on the government’s intervention to finding a commercially viable solution to apply the necessary agrochemicals, the industry highlights that ensuring the availability of sufficient fertilizer and agrochemicals could provide a starting point in addressing the issue, especially since application of additional fertilizer and agrochemicals are a key recommendation in mitigating the disease’s impact on rubber cultivations.
In the long-run, the industry stresses the need to strengthen the mechanisms available to deal with similar issues, if rubber plantations are to prosper.
“We do appreciate the efforts of government institutions such as the Rubber Research Institute,” Premathilake says. “However, unfortunately, they lack sufficient resources and their capabilities such as research need to be strengthened if we are to effectively tackle these issues. Small growers also need to be made more aware of Pestalotiopsis, since they may not fully know its danger.”
Pieris concurs with this view, also pointing out that the lack of a viable solution to Pestalotiopsis carries a significant opportunity cost to both the industry and the country as a whole.
“As an export industry, rubber has great potential to become an important player to generate much needed foreign exchange for Sri Lanka. In fact, the conditions now are ideal for this purpose since rubber prices are at their highest since 2011. This could have been a golden opportunity even for smallholders to earn a good income and to revive the industry, which has been declining in terms of production volumes since around 2013 due to low prices.”
“However, unfortunately, due to Pestalotiopsis the volumes produced are significantly lower than the potential, despite high prices and both the industry and the country is losing out.”
“While the industry is eager to collaborate and address the issue, with no solution in sight, the clock appears to be ticking for Sri Lanka’s rubber industry, an important earner of foreign exchange for the economy, a provider of employment and livelihoods and a source of pride for the country, considering its global reputation as a high-quality rubber supplier. However, a solution, together with ensuring the availability of the necessary fertilizer and agrochemicals, could still potentially save Sri Lanka’s rubber cultivations, a matter now entirely in the hands of the government.”, Pieris said.
BASL urges President to de-escalate tensions in different parts of country
The Bar Association of Sri Lanka has called upon President Gotabaya Rajapaksa to instruct the Defence Secretary, the Commanders of the Tri Forces and the Inspector General of Police to ensure that there is an immediate de-escalation of tensions in different parts of the country – especially at fuel stations – understanding the difficulties faced by the public.”
“Whilst keeping in mind that the police and armed forces are acting under very trying circumstances, nevertheless it is necessary to give strict instructions to the police and the forces to desist from violence in dealing with the public and to act with utmost restraint”, the BASL has said in a media statement.
“We also call upon you to ensure that steps are taken under the law to deal with errant officers who have subjected civilians to such violence.”
The BASL is of the view that it is not appropriate for service personnel to be deployed in the present manner in matters which essentially should be managed by the Sri Lanka Police.
The armed forces should also not be used to disturb or hinder peaceful protests as was seen last week in Galle.
Full text of the BASL letter to the President:
The Bar Association of Sri Lanka (BASL) expresses its gravest concerns at the current situation at fuel stations throughout the country and the reports of several incidents of conflicts between civilians and members of the police force and the armed forces at fuel stations. There has been video footage of civilians being assaulted by personnel of the armed forces and the police, the latest being of a civilian being kicked by an Army officer at a fuel station. There have also been situations of the police and Army opening fire into the air to contain the crowd.
Your Excellency is no doubt aware that thousands of desperate civilians are waiting in queues at hundreds of fuel stations in the country. The queues are kilometres long. The tension at the fuel stations have arisen from this desperation for which there is no immediate solution in sight.
The BASL wishes to warn Your Excellency of the imminent dangers this situation could give rise to. The present unrest could result in a conflagration between civilians and members of the armed forces or the police. Some years ago, confrontations between members of the public and the armed forces resulted in the deaths of civilians. Such incidents between the members of the armed forces or the police and the civilians will discredit Sri Lanka’s armed forces and the police.
We call upon Your Excellency to take all necessary steps to give instructions to the Defence Secretary, the Commanders of the Tri Forces and the Inspector General of Police to ensure that there is an immediate de-escalation of the situation in different parts of the country – especially at fuel stations – understanding the difficulties faced by public. Whilst keeping in mind that the police and armed forces are acting under very trying circumstances, nevertheless it is necessary to give strict instructions to the police and the forces to desist from violence in dealing with the public and to act with utmost restraint. We also call upon you to ensure that steps be taken under the law to deal with errant officers who have subjected civilians to such violence.
The Sri Lanka Army and other service personnel must be deployed only in very limited circumstances as contemplated in the Criminal Procedure Code. The BASL is of the view that it is not appropriate for service personnel to be deployed in the present manner in matters which essentially should be managed by the Sri Lanka Police. The Armed Forces should also not be used to disturb or hinder peaceful protests as was seen last week in Galle.
We trust that this will receive the immediate attention of the Government as to do otherwise may otherwise result in unprecedented turmoil and harm.
The BASL believes that the ultimate solution to the situation at fuel stations is to be transparent with the public and to ensure an equitable and effective system of fuel distribution throughout the country.
SC orders AG to submit report on fuel purchases and distribution
By A.J.A. Abeynayake
A three-member Supreme Court bench consisting of Justices Vijith Malalgoda, Mahinda Samayawardena and Arjuna Obeysekera yesterday ordered the Attorney General to submit a report on fuel purchases, the distribution thereof and the sectors to be provided with fuel on a priority basis.
The Supreme Court made the order after considering two fundamental rights petitions presented by the Bar Association of Sri Lanka.
The BASL has requested the Supreme Court to direct the Cabinet of Ministers to consult all stakeholders and independent experts to formulate and implement the necessary policies, and to provide concessions in relation to the prices of essential goods and services to the people including LP gas, fuel, electricity, milk powder, medicines and food.
The petitions were filed by the President of the BASL Saliya Pieris PC, Deputy President Anura Meddegoda PC, former Secretary Rajeev Amarasuriya, Treasurer Rajindh Perera and the Assistant Secretary Pasindu Silva.
A/L may be delayed by one month
Education Minister Sushil Premajayantha told Parliament yesterday that although it had been scheduled to hold the G.C.E. A/L Examination 2022 in November this year, it could be further delayed by another month.
Responding to a question by MP Shantha Bandara, the Minister said: “The examination should be held at least after three months of releasing the results of the previous A/L exam because the students who need to sit it again should have enough time to prepare,” the Minister said.
BASL urges President to de-escalate tensions in different parts of country
Solidarity and Aragalaya: A few thoughts from an educationist’s perspective
Kandy, Galle, Puttalam Schools win combined schools hockey titles
‘Dates have the highest sugar content to fight Coronavirus’
U.S. Congress to probe assets fleecing by US citizens of Sri Lankan origin
Sunday Island 27 December – Headlines
Features3 days ago
When will the Gang of Four be held accountable for their irresponsible decisions?
News4 days ago
Fuel crisis: Key CPC facility opened for VIPs, friends as public transport shrinks
Business2 days ago
Young apparel entrepreneur offers ‘winning deal’ to Sri Lankan nationals living abroad
News5 days ago
HRCSL: No prisoners were used in 09 May attacks on protesters
News4 days ago
Resignation of Prez, PM prerequisite for resolution of current crisis – Direction Sri Lanka
News7 days ago
Sajith says ‘super’ PM has failed, SJB ready to take over govt.
News2 days ago
Dr. Godahewa warns govt. over its IMF strategy
Features3 days ago
The Estate Appus – a dead or dying species?