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Paws and hands in harmony

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With incidents of animals being tested positive for COVID-19 both locally and in various parts of the world, there is a discourse and public anxiety about potential animal to human and human to animal transmission of the virus. We spoke to several authorities committed to animal welfare and virology to find answers and to dispel unnecessary fears.

by Randima Attygalle

The 14-year-old African Lion, ‘Thor’ of the Dehiwala Zoo, gifted by a zoo in Seoul, was reported to be having severe respiratory signs including breathing difficulties and a nasal discharge. Its loss of appetite and lethargy further worried keepers. On an official request made by the Director (Animal Health and Nutrition), Department of National Zoological Gardens, Department of Medical Microbiology of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya tested the nasal swab specimens of the sick lion for COVID-19. Fecal samples of the infected animal were sent to the Molecular and Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory (MNBL) at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya. Both laboratories confirmed the lion to be COVID-19 positive. This is the first known case of an animal contracting COVID-19 here at home.

The lion was confirmed COVID-19 positive according to the criteria of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), Prof. N.P Sunil-Chandra, Virologist and Chair of Medical Microbiology from the Faulty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya told the Sunday Island. “The nature of a specimen, whether it is human, animal or of environmental origin, is not going to alter the result. Hence COVID-19 PCR procedure adopted for the respiratory samples of the infected lion was the same as that which is used for human samples,” he said.

While veterinarians and other staff of the Dehiwala Zoo have been tested, further investigations, assisted by zoo authorities, are being carried out to identify the exact source of infection in the lion. Asymptomatic human infection is a very likely source for the infection in the lion, he said.

“Asymptomatic human infection was incriminated as the source infection in the case of a COVID infected four-year-old Malaysian tiger in the Bronx Zoo, USA which was reported in March last year. Infected pet cats have also been reported in Belgium, Hong Kong, USA and Brazil but there is not enough evidence to change the current opinion of the OIE that neither cats nor dogs appear to be able to pass the virus to people,” the senior professor said.

SARS CoV-2 infections in minks in the Netherlands and in Denmark have been reported in close proximity to a region with high incidence of COVID-19 in humans. A mutation of the SARS CoV-2 virus in a mink in Denmark and one of the variant was found in several people, he explained.

In 1918 the world experienced its worst flu outbreak (commonly called the Spanish flu) due to an influenza virus type A strain H1N1 which emerged in birds infected a third of the world’s human population killing over 50 million people. Three more influenza pandemics followed: in 1957 ‘Asian’ flu (A-H2N2), in 1968 ‘Hong Kong’ flu (A-H3N2) and the 2009 ‘swine’ flu (A-H1N1). “Although milder than the 1918 pandemic, these highlight the constant threat of es to human health.

Emergence of SARS CoV-2 virus in 2019 which led to the current COVID-19 global pandemic further highlights the threat of emerging zoonotic virus infections,” observed Prof Sunil-Chandra. He elaborated on the importance of working on ‘One Health’ concept (the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally, to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment) when confronted with emerging zoonotic infections such as COVID-19.

“Climate changes and deforestation affect animal reservoirs of viruses and due these adverse effects animal migration leads to increased interactions in the animal-human interface. This could spread viruses to new locations and across a wider range of domestic and wildlife species including birds and bats.”

‘Spillover events’ from wildlife via vectors or domestic animals are the starting points for many outbreaks, from influenza to HIV and from SARS to COVID-19, pointed out the Virologist. “Therefore, it is natural to have misconceptions among people with pandemic stress about how new diseases jump from animals to human. Although it is theoretically possible that the virus can be transmitted from an infected animal to human, todate there is no evidence for SARS CoV-2 transmission from animals to humans. Mink is the only animal known to have passed the coronavirus to humans, except for the initial spillover event from an unknown species in China.”

According to the OIE, there is no evidence that cats or dogs spread the disease to humans bit it recommends that sick persons with COVID-19 should avoid contact with pets, including petting, cuddling, being kissed or licked, and sharing food, in order to protect their pets during the time of their illness.

Gorillas and chimpanzees are identified as animals that are at very high COVID-19 risk, pointed out Prof. Ashoka Dangolla, Senior Lecturer in Veterinary Clinical Studies from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, (FVMAS) University of Peradeniya. Felines such as domestic cats, tigers and lions are at a medium risk he said. “Veterinarians are very familiar with other animal Coronavirus infections in cats. This has been so for several decades. Feline infectious peritonitis is one such condition with respiratory signs in cats. But we must keep in mind that COVID-19 is a novel Coronavirus (SARS CoV-2) which has the ability to mutate into new variants. Therefore, all possible precautions must be taken while extending love and compassion to our pets.”

Since it is known that cat family members can contract the disease from symptomatic and asymptomatic parties, it is advisable to keep away from them if you are COVID-19 positive or suspected of it, Prof. Dangolla advises. “Cats cannot, according to available information, infect humans. But if you do find your cat having respiratory symptoms, it’s always advisable to take the cat to a vet in the area.”

Care should also be taken not to feed monkeys and to dispose of our waste in an irresponsible manner, the senior veterinarian warns. Dogs are of low risk for developing COVID-19. “So far, COVID- 19 positive dogs have not been reported in Sri Lanka though we test all dogs that are being brought into the country for COVID-19. If a household dog shows respiratory signs such as difficulty in breathing, best advice is to show it to a vet.”

Susceptibility of dogs, pigs and elephants to COVID-19 is low whilst ferrets, mink, mice and rats have very low susceptibility, says the veterinarian. Birds have never been reported to be COVID positive. COVID positive Asian elephants have been documented in India, therefore it is advisable not to go near captive elephants if a person is COVID positive or asymptomatic he notes. “If an infected (symptomatic or asymptomatic) person gets close to a healthy elephant, closer than two meters, the elephant may get infected, but there is no report to say that elephants infect people. Sheep, cattle and even dolphins can get infected but they are at medium risk.”

Since our local vets have been working with Coronavirus and the Sri Lanka Veterinary Research Institute has been producing several vaccines against viruses in animals, we can have some hope that the vets would produce a vaccine against COVID in animals if a need arises, says Prof Dangolla.

The Molecular and Nutritional Biochemistry laboratory of FVMAS, University of Peradeniya conducts tests to detect COVID-19 and the presence of SARS-like viruses in animals. Since September, 2020, the lab had been offering services to the Department of Animal Production and Health (DAPH) to screen hundreds of animals for COVID-19 infection that came into the country. These came as pets through the Animal Quarantine Department at the Bandaranaike International Airport (BIA) which operates under DAPH said Dr. Dilan Satharasinghe, Senior Lecturer from the Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, FVMAS, University of Peradeniya.

“We have also screened mangroves and toque monkeys as a part of a surveillance programme implemented via DAPH in collaboration with the Wildlife Department and it is an ongoing process,” he said. DAPH and Animal Quarantine Division at the BIA screen all animals coming into the country for COVID-19 infection. Samples are referred to the Molecular and Nutritional Biochemistry laboratory and upon the confirmation of negative results, animals are released to the owners.

The Department of Animal Production and Health (DAPH) implements disease control programmes mainly through Directorates of Animal Health and Veterinary Research. The DAPH has strong structure throughout the country with 26 Regional Veterinary Investigating Centres (RVICs), one located in each district. The disease control programmes are implemented by its islandwide network of 337 Government Veterinary Offices (GVOs) which come under nine Provincial Departments of Animal Production and Health (PDAPH). The central Veterinary Investigating Centres and the technical divisions of Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) provide referral diagnostic facilities for Regional VICs and GVOs in managing diseases.

Curative and Preventive measures are carried out by the DAPH and PDAPH. Disease investigations, epidemiological studies, surveillance programmes and vaccination programmes are being carried out in managing viral diseases.

Animal Disease Act No.59 of 1992 stipulates that no person can import any animal or animal related product without the permission of the Director General of Animal Production and Health. “This provision is to prevent the entry of any exotic disease to the country. Accordingly, animals, animal products, veterinary products and biological imports are controlled by the DAPH by issuing pre- clearance approval for such imports,” said the Director General of Animal Production and Health, Dr. Hemali Kothalawala.

Quarantine stations are established in ports of entry such as Katunayake, Colombo, Mattala and Jaffna to control imports through air and sea passage. Animal entry is permitted based on negative test certificates of certain given diseases and in high-risk situations animals are being quarantined for a number of days at the quarantine stations or on-farm, explained Dr. Kothalawala. “Apart from these routine protocols, today a COVID-negative certificate is mandatory when importing any animal to the country.”

The Animal Disease Act also requires the Director General of Animal Production and Health to take action to control animal disease spread in the country. Today DAPH has established a diagnostic facility with animal specific RT-PCR antigen kits and an Epidemiological Survey is planned to uncover the factors associated with the COVID-19.

The Veterinary Research Institute (VRI), of DAPH has a long history of vaccine production in Sri Lanka. VRI produces several viral vaccines and bacterial vaccines for the livestock sector in the country. Among the viral vaccines, the most important as Dr. Kothalawala explained, is the one for Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) which causes severe milk production drop in cows when infected. The vaccine which was first produced locally in 1964 is now developed using the latest technology to enhance the immune duration and its shelf life. “Presently, 50% of the country’s requirement is produced within the country. Recently approved project on FMD control is planning to expand the capacity by two-fold by end of the next year,” Dr. Kothalawala said.

A viral vaccine for goat Contagious Pustular Dermatitis (CPD) which causes severe production loss and kid mortality is also being produced at the VRI. It also produces a live viral vaccine for New Castle Disease which causes a very high death rate among chicken. While a newly invented vaccine with oil adjutant to give lifelong immunity in birds is ready to release for the industry another vaccine is being produced by VRI as well as Veterinary Investigation Centres for warts in cattle, she noted. Several bacterial vaccines are also being produced at the VRI for deadly diseases in cattle and poultry. A vaccine for tick fever which causes severe economic losses in milk production especially in high producing animals such as cattle and buffalo is also being produced at the VRI.



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THE VULNERABLE SRI LANKAN LEOPARD: One of only two island sub-species

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Sri Lanka Leopard Day today

by Rukshan Jayewardene

Today, leopards live in 26 range countries scattered across the African and Asian continents and are subdivided into nine sub-species based on their genetic divergence and distinction. Of these, the Sri Lankan leopard (Panthera pardus kotiya) is one of only two sub-species restricted to islands. The other sub-species (Panthera pardus melas) live on the Indonesian Island of Java. The Javan leopard clings precariously to existence in several protected areas and high-altitude forests. Their total number is estimated to be down to 250 adult individuals and it is considered to be critically endangered by IUCN. Java’s forest cover is also below 10% of the total land area of the island. The predicament faced by the Javan leopard should be a wake-up call for all those who wish to ensure the conservation of the Sri Lankan leopard.

Population pressure, land conversion to agriculture (loss of habitat), prey depletion and untimely death at the hands of humans are common problems faced by these two island leopards. If one were to make a geophysical comparison of these two tropical islands, Java has a land area of 128,297 sq km and 145 million people (2015) while the island of Sri Lanka has an area of 65,610 sq km and 22 million people. Therefore, Java has approximately twice the land area of Sri Lanka and six and a half times its population. When compared in this way, it is plain to see that Java’s pressure on the land for agriculture and settlements is immense. Although Sri Lanka’s equation is far better, we are still a densely populated agricultural land, with our population unevenly distributed across the island. This so called maldistribution allows for living space for wildlife away from humans, especially in the comparatively sparsely populated dry zone districts.

An irreplaceable role

Wise land use policies and practice, and the strict enforcement of the laws that govern the extensive protected area network, is a key to conservation of all but the elephant (who require separate attention). Recent reversals regarding the legal safeguards put in place to conserve forest land, as well as haphazard, non-consultative land use policies especially concerning agriculture has accelerated deforestation, wildlife habitat loss and population pressure on wilderness lands.

The leopard is an important animal in the wild, a keystone species that plays an important regulatory role in the eco-systems in which they naturally occur. Here, in Sri Lanka, it is an apex predator (at the apex of all food webs on land), plays an irreplaceable role, and its extirpation would create a void that cannot be filled by any other animal. The leopard can be characterized by three qualities; intelligence, adaptability and resilience. Its intelligence and agility makes the leopard a behaviorally interesting animal, and its beauty makes it one of the most sought after wild animals in the world.

A counter-productive ‘numbers’ game

The leopard’s tourism potential is not fully utilized and generally mismanaged by both the government and private sectors. It is a special animal that needs focused conservation attention as well as knowledgeable field guides, trackers and naturalists. Up to this point in time, the bulk of wildlife tourism is sustained by the mass market and package tours that this country courts. These tours are unwieldy for the most part and consist of “beach holiday” visitors who are only cursorily interested in this valuable and fragile resource of ours. Therefore, tourism’s stamp on the protected areas of Sri Lanka is heavy, ecologically insensitive and for the most part ignorantly so.

Leopard-centric tourism, as practiced by this country, exerts damaging pressure on a few national parks that are victims of their own popularity. If this valuable animal and its habitat are to be protected, and at the same time maximum revenue is to be earned, it is never going to be done through a tourist arrival head count. Wildlife/nature/eco-tourism as practiced in this country is a ‘numbers game’ which is counter-productive to the long-term conservation of species and habitats.

Starving a Natural Heritage

Importantly the Department of Wildlife Conservation has to be empowered with manpower, legal knowledge and capacity, as well as state-of-the-art training and other material resources to deal with the ever more sophisticated threat posed by poachers and encroachers within and outside protected areas. As long as wildlife and wilderness remain a State monopoly in the custodianship of the government, legislators must see fit to give the relevant departments adequate funds and resources as stated above to enable effective conservation.

By starving these ministries and departments of resources, a case cannot be made for privatization of the natural heritage common to all present and future Sri Lankan citizens. In Sri Lanka natural assets in private hands have always been governed by an overriding profit motive and exclusivity which is not conducive to managing natural assets for the benefit of its citizenry Alternatively Public-Private partnerships are an option that can be explored. However, regulatory mechanisms and oversight must remain in government hands at all times or else these too will not serve the nation in any meaningful fashion.

On this Sri Lankan “Leopard Day” while celebrating this unique animal, it is apposite to give thought to the management of wild leopards as much as the concerns regarding their conservation.

Pix by Rukshan Jayewardene

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Are women’s and men’s protein needs different?

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As women lose a lot of blood in their menstrual cycles, women need more iron than men in order to fight fatigue or anaemia.

Protein intake is a widely-discussed issue among those trying to achieve their fitness goals like building muscle mass or muscle loss after intensive fitness training. Since women tend to have lower quantities of lean mass and more fat mass compared to men, boosting protein can sustain the lean mass.

It has also been observed that most men are interested in hypertrophy, or a visible increase in the size of muscle cells. For women, who may not want to bulk up but rather lose visible fat and build lean muscle, nutritional requirements like protein needs can look different.

Rightly called the ‘building blocks of your body’, protein is a macronutrient which serves various anatomical functions like adequate flow of blood and oxygen through the body, digestion and regulation of hormone levels. Protein helps our muscles to repair and regrow after exercise and injury. It should also be noted that every gram of protein contains four calories, whereas that number for one gram of fat is nine calories.

Rich protein sources for both men and women include animal and plant-based sources like milk products, eggs, meat, soy, tofu, pulses, beans, black gram, and legumes, and a healthy person should consume all of these in combination to get high-quality proteins. ICMR-NIN says that protein requirements vary with age, physiological status and stress. More proteins are required by growing infants and children, pregnant women and individuals during infections and illness or stress. For people doing fitness training, protein requirements differ as well.

According to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), while the recommended daily allowance for a 55-kg woman (whether doing sedentary or heavy work) is 55 grams of protein, for pregnant women and breastfeeding women, this goes up significantly. When it comes to health supplements like protein shakes, women often have to make do with products made for men, since the market is saturated with those.

Doctor’s Choice, a 2018-established health supplement brand, is launching a new range of women-centric protein supplements that also aid fat loss. DC’s Lean Pro, a high- protein meal replacement for a lean and fit body, balances weight, having zero trans-fat, sugar-free, no preservatives and is gluten free which is safe to use. Suggested by Nupur Vats, Co-Founder, Doctor’s Choice, here are things female fitness enthusiasts should keep in mind about their protein intake:

1. Try to build and maintain a high-protein diet that significantly aids weight loss and helps with fitness performance. Just increasing protein intake won’t magically give results and needs to be complemented with healthy food choices and regular workouts.

2. If you are taking protein supplements, avoid fake products that saturate the market and do more harm than good. Go for makers who swear by quality and international standards. Put health before money.

3. Most protein powders are formulated focusing on male body requirements. Women simply need smaller doses of protein to reach their macronutrient needs. While some proteins do have male-specific ingredients, like testosterone boosters. These products should not be taken by women. It’s suggested to women to consume soy-based protein more since it has agents which boost estrogen levels in women and hence it’s advised for male to consume it less.

According to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), while the recommended daily allowance for a 55-kg woman (whether doing sedentary or heavy work) is 55 grams of protein, for pregnant women and breastfeeding women, this goes up significantly. When it comes to health supplements like protein shakes, women often have to make do with products made for men, since the market is saturated with those.

Doctor’s Choice, a 2018-established health supplement brand, is launching a new range of women-centric protein supplements that also aid fat loss. DC’s Lean Pro, a high- protein meal replacement for a lean and fit body, balances weight, having zero trans-fat, sugar-free, no preservatives and is gluten free which is safe to use. Suggested by Nupur Vats, Co-Founder, Doctor’s Choice, here are things female fitness enthusiasts should keep in mind about their protein intake:

1. Try to build and maintain a high-protein diet that significantly aids weight loss and helps with fitness performance. Just increasing protein intake won’t magically give results and needs to be complemented with healthy food choices and regular workouts.

2. If you are taking protein supplements, avoid fake products that saturate the market and do more harm than good. Go for makers who swear by quality and international standards. Put health before money.

3. Most protein powders are formulated focusing on male body requirements. Women simply need smaller doses of protein to reach their macronutrient needs. While some proteins do have male-specific ingredients, like testosterone boosters. These products should not be taken by women. It’s suggested to women to consume soy-based protein more since it has agents which boost estrogen levels in women and hence it’s advised for male to consume it less.

4. Beyond just the protein content, women’s protein powders have additional ingredients that a body needs. There are brands in the market that aim at different kinds of whey protein made just for women. Folic Acid is essential for pregnant women or are trying to be. It helps women fight the risk of strokes, heart disease, and several kinds of cancer. Vitamin B6 which helps women maintain a healthy immune system and reduce heart disease. Iron assists red blood cells in the transferring of oxygen throughout the body. As women lose a lot of blood in their menstrual cycles, women need more iron than men in order to fight fatigue or anaemia.

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Ashwagandha – “The chill-out herb”

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by Emme Haddon

The latest buzzword to hit the health food and supplement market is ‘adaptogen’. Health and beauty blogs are raving about them and the health conscious and fitness enthusiasts are taking them as supplements, in tinctures, herbal infusions and adding them to meals and smoothies.

But what exactly are they? The term “adaptogen” stems from the Latin ‘adaptare’, meaning to adjust, and was first coined in the late 1940s by the Russian toxicologist, Nickolai Lazarev, while studying the body’s resistance to stress. Workplace stress alone has risen by nearly 20% over the last 30 years. With the COVID-19 pandemic in its second year, the economic difficulties and curbs on social interaction have had a marked effect on people’s mental health.

Stress boosts cortisol production – the chronic overproduction of which is detrimental to the immune, digestive, cardiovascular, sleep, and reproductive systems. To be considered adaptogenic, herbs have to meet specific criteria: be non-toxic to the body; reduce and regulate stress by helping the body adapt to it and they must benefit overall well-being.

By restoring balance in the stress response, adaptogens aid overall adrenal health. Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate the metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions. The concept of adaptogenic herbs dates back 5,000 years to ancient Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda healing traditions – many of the “rasayana” (rejuvenating) medicinal plants referred to in ancient ayurvedic manuscripts are adaptogenic.

Ashwagandha (Latin: Withania somnifera), also known as Indian winter cherry and amukkara in Sinhala, is a highly prized adaptogenic rasayana that has been cultivated and used in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years. It is a small, evergreen plant with velvety leaves, and bell flowers that contain orangey-red fruits, native to India, the Middle East and North Africa.

It grows well in dry stony soil with sun to partial shade and is able to tolerate drought conditions. The Latin species name “somnifera” means “sleep-inducing” whilst the name “ashwagandha” is a combination of the Sanskrit words ‘ashva’, meaning horse, and ‘gandha’, meaning smell, reflecting the strong horse-like odour of its roots.

In Ayurveda ashwagandha is used in various formulations as a tonic to strengthen, rejuvenate and bring balance to all the body systems. The root is also used in Ayurveda to balance vata doshas and is considered a grounding and nourishing herb. Ashwagandha is a powerful reproductive tonic having aphrodisiac qualities that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, boost vitality, balance hormones and improve sperm count and semen quality.

In the Kama Sutra it is described as a natural sexual stimulant that men can use to increase their sex drive. It is also an acclaimed tonic for the brain and nervous systems, traditionally used to treat hysteria, anxiety, stress, memory loss, epilepsy, insomnia and other nervous disorders.

Ashwagandha, is one of the most studied of all adaptogenic plants. Ayurvedic tradition is enough proof for some, but there is a growing body of research lending the herb credibility among those who value science above all else. Scientific studies describe the benefits in a language of the times. Known as “the chill-out herb” it is likened to a stress vaccine that tweaks hormone production and helps our bodies manage, adapt and build resilience to external stressors.

Many of ashwagandha’s health benefits are attributed to the high concentration in its roots of withanoloids which have immunology, anti-inflammatory, neuron and brain regenerative properties and show promise in oncology. Studies have demonstrated its benefits in:

stress management and sleep support – reducing cortisol production and boosting testosterone has a positive effect on mood, libido, erectile dysfunction, energy, body fat, sleep, muscle and bone mass and overall well-being;

improving heart health by reducing cholesterol and triglyceride levels;

lowering blood sugar levels;

lowering blood pressure;

increasing the activity of natural killer cells that fight infection;

decreasing markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein, linked to an increased risk of heart disease;

easing the pain and joint swelling in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis;

treating skin conditions such as ulcers, skin sores, leukoderma and scabies,

promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species which disrupts the function of cancer cells and inducing apoptosis, the programmed death of cancer cells;

slowing, halting or reversing the progression of neurodegenerative disorders including, dementia, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases and

improving cardiovascular endurance exercise in healthy athletes, with significant improvement in muscle mass and strength, testosterone levels, recovery time and tolerability and reduction in exercise-induced muscle damage and decrease in body fat.

In Sri Lanka, despite having a long ayurvedic tradition and growing body of research, the health benefits of ashwagandha are relatively unknown. Here it is referred to as “Nature’s Viagra” with little awareness of its other remarkable health benefits. Globally, however, sales of ashwagandha are enjoying huge success as it responds to key consumer needs: sleep, brain-health, anxiety and stress.

In the U.S. by the end of 2020, with the outbreak of Covid-19, ashwagandha sales saw a massive 3,995% increase as new consumers sought natural remedies to help them deal with poor sleep quality and stress. Studies that focus on improved athletic performance, overall cardiovascular health, immunity, neurodegenerative benefits and pet-care have opened up new avenues for ashwagandha root and its supplements.

With consumers interested in more novel delivery forms, ashwagandha is now available in the form of beverages, chocolate, coffee, powders, gummies, and candies. It is also formulated with complementary ingredients to promote specific health benefits

The popularity of ashwagandha has served as the gateway herb to the overall adaptogen category of herbs. Ashwagandha is poised to lead adaptogens into the mainstream in 2021. Once again, this poses the question will Sri Lanka wake up to the wonders of ashwagandha and the many other adaptogenic Ayurvedic herbs native to this biodiverse island?

(Emme Haddon has lived in the West Indies, France, Malaysia, Hong Kong and the UK. She has run various businesses and has set up a successful on-line clothing operation. For the past seven years she has lived in Sri Lanka where she has been able to pursue her passion for natural medicines. She has a great interest in Sri Lanka’s plants and herbal medicines.)

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