by Rohan Wijesinha
As at May 5, 2021, many as 118 wild elephants had died this year, thus far; that is almost a death a day. The majority of these deaths were at the hands of humans. Of course, these are only those deaths that are recorded. Many elephants, when mortally wounded, will drag themselves away to die in the depths of the jungle, and are thereby unaccounted for. Most of these are males, and a substantial number of them are mature, breeding bulls.
Many instruments of destruction are used in perpetuating this slaughter, and apart from firearms, the most popular ways of killing are electrocution, when a line from the Main Grid is illegally attached to a wire fence, or by blowing out their jaws and mouth parts after they consume food items in which are secreted explosives called hakka patas; a unique way of killing that ensures the victim endures a lingering, agonizing death, from starvation, loss of blood or septicemia. In 2021, however, electrocution seems to be the preferred way of killing.
The Killing Fields
In 2011, the DWC conducted a survey of wild elephants in Sri Lanka. They concluded that there were approximately 6, 000. Since then, the rate of attrition has been such that between 2010 and 2020 over 2, 800 elephants have officially fallen victim to Human – Elephant Conflict (HEC). The actual figure may be much higher. That is almost 50% of the number counted, in 2011, have perished since. Of course, new births would have replenished some of this number but a female elephant has a pregnancy of 22 months duration and, in the natural course of things, will not come into estrus again until her calf is around 2 – 3 years old and largely weaned. Therefore, some studies have shown that there is a gap of six or seven years before a female elephant in the wild can calve.
There is also a high mortality rate among calves, especially in recent times when their ancient elephant ranges have been encroached on, and there is a reduction in food available for them. With insufficient fodder, females produce less and less milk, and the younger calves, for whom this is essential nourishment, die of malnutrition and starvation. If a living example of this is required, observation of the elephants at the Yala National Park, and perusal of the research conducted on them by the Centre for Conservation and Research (CCR), will provide the heartrending evidence of this; babies with just skin draped over protruding bones, barely clinging to life. Data shows that 54% of baby elephants below the age of two years are dying in Yala. This is because an electric fence was erected between the National Park and the adjacent Forest Department lands, a traditional dry season range of these elephant herds. Why? By political directive!
On the day Revatha, the iconic tusker of Kala Wewa whose picture adorned many a social media page proudly portraying the natural wonders of Sri Lanka, was electrocuted, four other male elephants suffered the same fate. In commenting on their killings, Dr. Chandana Jayasinghe, a Veterinarian of the Department of Wildlife Conservation (DWC) who conducted the post mortem on Revatha commented, “All of them are fully grown males that would be carrying strong genes…” ().
Female elephants will mate with the biggest and fittest of the mature males. These bulls compete with each other from an early age, mostly in play fighting, and establish a hierarchy of breeding eligibility. This ensures that survival is to the fittest, and the next generation carry the strongest of genes; the basis for the evolution of species. It also results in less aggression between them, as they have already worked out their hierarchy of dominance. If the biggest and the strongest are removed from a population, then the weaker get to pass on their genes and extinction will prove the inevitable end result. That removal is now taking place, and no one is doing much to stop it.
These big bull elephants also perform another valuable function. They calm the others, the younger ones, whose flow of testosterone is inhibited as they know they cannot challenge the larger ones. In contrast, it has been found that when mature bulls are taken out of a population, the aggression levels in the remaining younger males increases rapidly. This leads to frustration which is taken out not just on each other, but on other species as well, including humans. In Sri Lanka, this will inevitably lead to even greater human – elephant conflict.
Is Sri Lanka culling its wild elephants?
It is reported that under the pretext of freeing new lands for poor farmers, that the real beneficiaries of the forest lands being cleared may be private enterprises; those who have political backing. Having populations of wild elephants inhabiting the area poses a developmental problem to these so-called entrepreneurs, even though the wild elephants may earn the country far more direct and sustainable revenue and potential income for the local communities, than the projects for which these areas have been stolen.
With one of the lowest rates of productivity in the region, farmers who are unable to gain much profit from the lands they already have, will now be burdened with even larger areas of poor productivity, thereby trapped in perpetual poverty, and be faced with having to sell their recently gifted properties to a commercial buyer. First, they should be taught how to make their existing farmlands more productive without cutting forests, for that will only result in a reduced rainfall and cause even less to grow.
In the meantime, elephants and humans are dying from HEC; yes, 44 humans have died so far this year too, and many more of both species will die if nothing is done to stop the killing. Revatha’s killer was found and bailed and will probably go free with a minimal penalty, despite killing a national asset, endangering the lives of other humans who may have inadvertently touched this ‘live’ wire, and having broken the Law by tapping the Nation’s main electricity supply.
Turning up the power
It is rumoured that some in power have advised those in conflict areas to ‘turn up the power’ to deter elephant encroachment on to their lands. Whether true or not, the power certainly has been turned up, and Sri Lanka is heading for another record year of elephant deaths.
The tragedy is that true power can really be turned up to reduce the deaths of humans and elephants by using the experience of decades of science and research, along with a determination to preserve the natural heritage of this country for the future. There is a National Policy for the Management of the Wild Elephant in Sri Lanka, as passed by Cabinet. There is an Action Plan, based on the National Policy presented to H. E. the President by a Presidential Committee appointed specifically for this task. The implementation of both will not only result in a reduction in the killing, but a move from conflict to co-existence, where both humans and elephants, and the country, can prosper. This, however, will take leadership and hard work, by those who believe that there is a tomorrow, and that all should not be squandered by the end of today.
Rohan Wijesinha, Member of the Wildlife and Nature Protection
Society subcommittee on Human Elephant coexistence
Why Small Farms will be the backbone of food security
The ecological axiom that: ‘Energy flow through a system tends to organise and simplify that system’, is abundantly clear in agriculture. As farms moved from small interdependent units, bounded by fences and hedgerows, to large cropping fields to accommodate machine management, we lose the biodiversity that once existed on that landscape and the biomass that provided the Ecosystem Services. This sacrifice was rationalised through the invocation of economic profit. The economic ‘profit’ gained by subsidies on fossil fuel and uncontrolled extraction from the Global Commons. The ‘development’ of agriculture has become a race to control the commodity market. The farmer ceased to be a feature of the farm. In a telling statement, the farmers of Sri Lanka sent the following statement to the CGIAR in 1998 :
‘We, the farmers of Sri Lanka would like to further thank the CGIAR, for taking an interest in us. We believe that we speak for all of our brothers and sisters the world over when we identify ourselves as a community who are integrally tied to the success of ensuring global food security. In fact it is our community who have contributed to the possibility of food security in every country since mankind evolved from a hunter-gather existence. We have watched for many years, as the progression of experts, scientists and development agents passed through our communities with some or another facet of the modern scientific world. We confess that at the start we were unsophisticated in matters of the outside world and welcomed this input. We followed advice and we planted as we were instructed. The result was a loss of the varieties of seeds that we carried with us through history, often spanning three or more millennia. The result was the complete dependence of high input crops that robbed us of crop independence. In addition, we farmers producers of food, respected for our ability to feed populations, were turned into the poisoners of land and living things, including fellow human beings. The result in Sri Lanka is that we suffer from social and cultural dislocation and suffer the highest pesticide- related death toll on the planet. Was this the legacy that you the agricultural scientists wanted to bring to us ? We think not. We think that you had good motives and intentions, but left things in the hands of narrowly educated, insensitive people.’
The diverse farm had to yield to production monoculture, which was made possible through the burning of fossil fuels. Ironically the burning of fossil fuels is the major reason for the current destabilised climate and threat to agriculture. One consequence of climate change is the predicted rise in global temperatures. If ambient temperatures exceed 40 degrees , which has become the reality in many places even today, food production will be compromised. All the food we eat originates with plants and plants produce using photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, or the capture of solar energy by plants, is done with chlorophyll, the thing that makes plants green and chlorophyll begins to break down after 40 degrees. Landscapes whose summer temperatures go beyond this limit will have smaller and smaller crops as the temperatures increase. The only solution to this oncoming crisis, is to begin introducing trees at strategic points on the landscape.
Trees and all other forms of vegetation cool the environment around them through the transpiration process, which takes place in the leaves. The water absorbed by the roots is sent up to the leaves which release it as vapor, cooling the air around it. Measurements on trees done by research institutions worldwide, indicate that an average large tree produces the cooling equivalent of eight room sized air conditioners running for 10 hours, a cooling yield 0f 1,250,000 Bthu per day. Plantations of trees have been recoded to have daytime temperatures at least 3 degrees below the ambient. This is an important aspect of Ecosystem Services that needs to be considered for adaptive agriculture.
Small farms which produce food with low external energy and maintain high biomass and biodiversity, are the models of food production that can face the climate compromised future before us. Capital, resource and energy expensive agricultural systems could fail in a high temperature future and threaten global food security, we need options. One would be to encourage a consumption and distribution system that facilitates small farmers to enter the market. Another would be to realise the value of the ecosystem services of a farm and develop systems to measure and reward. We are all aware of the future before us. Now is not the time to stand blinking like a deer facing the headlights.
But placing trees in and around cropping areas becomes a problem in large cropping fields designed to accommodate machine management. The management of such trees and hedgerows requires needs that cannot be provided without human management. Agricultural landscapes will need management that will be adaptive to the changing climate. An example would be; small interdependent units bounded by fences and that increase biodiversity and the biomass while providing Ecosystem Services.
Investment in food security, should take climate change seriously. All new agricultural projects should address the heat thresholds of the planned crops. The Sri Lankan country statement at COP 21 stated that :
“We are aware that the optimum operating temperature of chlorophyll is at 37 deg C. In a warming world where temperatures will soar well above that, food production will be severely impacted.”
And that :
“We are aware that the critical Ecosystem services such as; production of Oxygen, sequestering of Carbon, water cycling and ambient cooling is carried out by the photosynthetic component of biomass. This is being lost at an exponential rate, due to the fact that these Ecosystem Services have not been valued, nor economically recognised.”
These statements cry out for the recognition of the role that small farms will have to play in the future. In a temperature compromised future, small farms with high standing biomass, through their cooler temperatures will continue to produce food in heat stressed periods. If such Ecosystem Services can be given a value, it will strengthen the economy of small farms and ensure local, sustainable food production into the future.
Small farms which produce food with low external energy and maintain high biomass and biodiversity, are the models of food production that can face the climate compromised future before us. Capital, resource and energy expensive agricultural systems could fail in a high temperature future and threaten global food security, we need options. One would be to encourage a consumption and distribution system that facilitates small farmers to enter the market. Another would be to realize the value of the ecosystem services of a farm and develop systems to measure and reward. We are all aware of the future before us. Now is not the time to stand blinking like a deer in sheadlights.
Encouraging signs, indeed!
Local entertainers can now breathe a sigh of relief…as the showbiz scene is showing signs of improving
Yes, it’s good to see Manilal Perera, the legendary singer, and Derek Wikramanayake, teaming up, as a duo, to oblige music lovers…during this pandemic era.
They will be seen in action, every Friday, at the Irish Pub, and on Sundays at the Cinnamon Grand Lobby.
The Irish Pub scene will be from 7.00 pm onwards, while at the Cinnamon Grand Lobby, action will also be from 7.00 pm onwards.
On November 1st, they are scheduled to do the roof top (25th floor) of the Movenpik hotel, in Colpetty, and, thereafter, at the same venue, every Saturday evening.
Constructive dialogue beyond international community
by Jehan Perera
Even as the country appears to be getting embroiled in more and more conflict, internally, where dialogue has broken down or not taken place at all, there has been the appearance of success, internationally. President Gotabaya Rajapaksa will be leading a delegation this week to Scotland to attend the UN Climate Change Conference (COP26). Both the President, at the UN General Assembly in New York, and Foreign Minister Prof G L Peiris, at the UN Human Rights Council, in Geneva seem to have made positive impacts on their audiences and, especially amongst the diplomatic community, with speeches that gave importance to national reconciliation, based on dialogue and international norms.
In a recent interview to the media Prof Peiris affirmed the value of dialogue in rebuilding international relations that have soured. He said, “The core message is that we believe in engagement at all times. There may be areas of disagreement from time to time. That is natural in bilateral relations, but our effort should always be to ascertain the areas of consensus and agreement. There are always areas where we could collaborate to the mutual advantage of both countries. And even if there are reservations with regard to particular methods, there are still abundant opportunities that are available for the enhancement of trade relations for investment opportunities, tourism, all of this. And I think this is succeeding because we are establishing a rapport and there is reciprocity. Countries are reaching out to us.”
Prof Peiris also said that upon his return from London, the President would engage in talks locally with opposition parties, the TNA and NGOs. He spoke positively about this dialogue, saying “The NGOs can certainly make a contribution. We like to benefit from their ideas. We will speak to opposition political parties. President Gotabaya Rajapaksa is going to meet the Tamil National Alliance on his return from COP26, which we will attend at the invitation of the British Prime Minister. So be it the NGO community or the foreign diaspora or the parliamentary opposition in Sri Lanka. We want to engage with all of them and that is very much the way forward”
The concept of a whole-of-government approach is indicative of a more cohesive approach to governance by government ministries, the public administration and state apparatus in general to deal with problems. It suggests that the government should not be acting in one way with the international community and another way with the national community when it seeks to resolve problems. It is consistency that builds trust and the international community will trust the government to the extent that the national community trusts it. Dialogue may slow down decision making at a time when the country is facing major problems and is in a hurry to overcome them. However, the failure to engage in dialogue can cause further delays due to misunderstanding and a refusal to cooperate by those who are being sidelined.
There are signs of fragmentation within the government as a result of failure to dialogue within it. A senior minister, Susil Premajayantha, has been openly critical of the ongoing constitutional reform process. He has compared it to the past process undertaken by the previous government in which there was consultations at multiple levels. There is a need to change the present constitutional framework which is overly centralised and unsuitable to a multi ethnic, multi religious and plural society. More than four decades have passed since the present constitution was enacted. But the two major attempts that were made in the period 1997-2000 and again in 2016-2019 failed.
President Rajapaksa, who has confidence in his ability to stick to his goals despite all obstacles, has announced that a new constitution will be in place next year. The President is well situated to obtain success in his endeavours but he needs to be take the rest of his government along with him. Apart from being determined to achieve his goals, the President has won the trust of most people, and continues to have it, though it is getting eroded by the multiple problems that are facing the country and not seeing a resolution. The teachers’ strike, which is affecting hundreds of thousands of schoolchildren, is now in its fourth month, with no sign of resolution. The crisis over the halting of the import of chemical fertiliser is undermining the position of farmers and consumers at the present time.
An immediate cause for the complaints against the government is the lack of dialogue and consultation on all the burning issues that confront the country. This problem is accentuated by the appointment of persons with military experience to decision-making positions. The ethos of the military is to take decisions fast and to issue orders which have to be carried out by subordinates. The President’s early assertion that his spoken words should be taken as written circulars reflects this ethos. However, democratic governance is about getting the views of the people who are not subordinates but equals. When Minister Premajayantha lamented that he did not know about the direction of constitutional change, he was not alone as neither does the general public or academicians which is evidenced by the complete absence of discussion on the subject in the mass media.
The past two attempts at constitutional reform focused on the resolution of the ethnic conflict and assuaging the discontent of the ethnic and religious minorities. The constitutional change of 1997-2000 was for the purpose of providing a political solution that could end the war. The constitutional change of 2016-19 was to ensure that a war should not happen again. Constitutional reform is important to people as they believe that it will impact on how they are governed, their place within society and their equality as citizens. The ethnic and religious minorities will tend to prefer decentralised government as it will give them more power in those parts of the country in which they are predominant. On the other hand, that very fact can cause apprehension in the minds of the ethnic and religious majority that their place in the country will be undermined.
Unless the general public is brought aboard on the issue of constitutional change, it is unlikely they will support it. We all need to know what the main purpose of the proposed constitutional reform is. If the confidence of the different ethnic and religious communities is not obtained, the political support for constitutional change will also not be forthcoming as politicians tend to stand for causes that win them votes. Minister Premajayantha has usefully lit an early warning light when he said that politicians are not like lamp posts to agree to anything that the government puts before them. Even though the government has a 2/3 majority, this cannot be taken for granted. There needs to be buy in for constitutional reform from elected politicians and the general public, both from the majority community and minorities, if President Rajapaksa is to succeed where previous leaders failed.
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