Connect with us

Opinion

Is religion to be at the service of humans?

Published

on

The above question may generate different reactions. Some may regard it as flippant as it appears to put religion in a subservient position to humans and reduce it to something with only a utility value. This may upset a significant number of people who regard religion as occupying the most elevated station in all human affairs. Thus, there is little wonder if an overwhelming majority would take exception to this rather ‘wicked’ and reductionist view, for religion has an inviolable place in our minds, manifestly, in theory. Surely, we would defend to the hilt our religion’s unique capacity for guiding us towards that ‘good life’ although we wouldn’t be too keen to play the game, as it were. Experience tells us that, frequently, the precepts are more useful “in the breach than the observance” (with apologies to Shakespeare).

The followers of every religion consider theirs to be the definitive path to ‘redemption’, although in no way does it mean the same to devotees of different religions. In day-to-day affairs, the term “redemption” may be used broadly to mean freeing, rescue, protection, restoration, recovery, liberation, emancipation, and the like. However, each religion gives its specific meaning to what it calls “redemption”, which may not see eye to eye with that of any other. In all honesty, depending on who looks at which religion, one’s response to the idea of ‘redemption’ may shift between two extremes: the sublime and the absurd.

Let’s come back to the rather contentious issue of the relative positions of religion and human beings in the hierarchical order of importance. Surely, we will have no problem thinking of education, ethics, philosophy, art, aesthetics, science, technology, etc., as systems that are, in a sense, at the service of humans and not vice versa. Of course, you may, agree or disagree on “art for art’s sake” based on a set of criteria, but whichever side you may belong to, you wouldn’t consider it sensible to take sides in a debate on “religion for religion’s sake”. How come? When it comes to art, you may argue, with justification, either for or against the idea that art has an intrinsic value devoid of any social, political or ethical innuendo. Yet, religion with its inextricable links with an afterlife is unanimously regarded as the fail-safe entry permit to that blissful afterlife. Thus, considering our deep-seated desire for a ‘blissful’, or at least an improved existence after death, “religion for man’s sake” will have more weight than “religion for religion’s sake”. In this light, thinking of religion as something to be put at the service of the humanity wouldn’t necessarily be construed as deserving hellfire.

The other reason which justifies our tendency to see religion as having a utility value is our deep conviction of its overt ‘ethical’ significance. Consequently, it may support the seemingly impious assertion that religion had little significance if it wouldn’t serve some purpose. The historian, Noah Harari who makes a distinction between religion and spirituality says that many would resent religion being shown as a “tool”. He says, “The assertion that religion is a tool for preserving social order and for organising a large-scale cooperation may vex those for whom it represents first and foremost a spiritual path”. In other words, depending on their devoutness, people may have their reservations about religion being seen as a discipline like education, philosophy, science, etc. Couldn’t this fervent regard of awe and reverence towards one’s own religion to the exclusion of all the others have contributed in some degree to triggering enmities between different religious communities, which have sullied our history time and time again?

Perhaps, peoples’ acquired feeling that religion is way above all sciences and arts, it being the supreme path to a ‘salvation’, which means different things to the followers of different religions, contributes in some measure to religion-based discrimination. How so?

Firstly, as all will agree, our religion, which contains the ‘ultimate truth’, eclipses all the other religions and we rarely stoop to look at them. As such, for those who place religion above all other human attainments aiming at ‘ultimate happiness’, the religion that occupies this grand position is only theirs. No other religion, notwithstanding what you would say about them in public, is fit to take its place. Will this bias leave any room for them to have any respect for the followers of other religions, who, by implication, appear to them to be pathetically misguided? Wouldn’t this partiality make the devotees of each religion feel ‘superior’ to all other ‘fellow sufferers in this temporary abode of earthly existence’?

Perhaps, religion, as a social institution, would be a much less discordant topic if we could become aware of its uncommon hold on us and feel less self-righteous and complacent about our own religion’s ‘superiority’. After all, in religious conflicts, like in all other conflicts based on race, ethnicity, wealth, political power etc., the “first casualty” (also the last) is human life and not “religion” as such. Above all, what is most pathetic is that emotionally volatile issues like religion, race and ethnicity, can easily become the handiest weapon in political maneuvering. If religions, which were meant to morally elevate people, were to be an irritant and a convenient divide-and-rule tactic, it is a cause for concern. Disconcertingly, the more fervent you get about your religion, the more indifferent it makes you view other religions and the more easily you become putty in the hands of shrewd tacticians. It’s not so infrequently that such strong ‘identities’ have been used to deflect people’s opposition against the status quo.

Thus, it would be good for the sanity of society and the common wellbeing of all to not shy away from looking at the different ways in which religion influences us and, particularly, is made to influence us. Perhaps, the first step towards such a constructive scheme is to look impartially at how religion can serve us. Because, the idea that humans are “at the service of religion”, however mystical or uplifting it may sound, may entail more minuses than pluses in a multi-religious milieu. Human concerns have to take primacy over everything else, secular or religious.

Susantha Hewa



Continue Reading
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Opinion

Our long-forgotten friend can help mitigate impact of fuel shortage

Published

on

The importance of the bicycle as a mode of transportation is seemingly re-emerging in Sri Lanka. This sudden drive is mainly attributable to the ongoing economic crisis the country is faced with. The forex crisis, together with ever increasing fuel prices, has made the Sri Lankans remember their long-forgotten friend––the bicycle.

We see more and more people taking to cycling today for their daily activities out of desperation more than anything else. However, this trend needs to be encouraged not only for its economic benefits but also for its health, environmental, social (and many other) advantages.

The benefits of promoting cycling

Economic

– The economics of transportation has become a major woe. The main energy source used today in transportation in Sri Lanka is fossil fuel. This amounts to 2,081 Mn USD (or 64 % of the total fuel cost of the country) a year. In terms of percentage spending of the total foreign imports, this amounts to a whopping 10.3 %. (Source: Kumarage AS, Repositioning Sri Lanka’s Transport and Logistics Sector to lead the Economic Recovery in Sri Lanka, Organization of Professionals’ Association Journal, April 2022). By promoting the use of bicycles, we can expect to reduce a sizable amount of this colossal expenditure.

Cycling is also known to be conducive to the small-scale trader, as he comes in contact with the cyclists more often than the motorists. Thus, cycling will positively influence the small-scale economy of the country as well.

Health

– A number of studies have shown that cycling reduces the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as Acute Myocardial Infarction, Coronary Heart Disease, Cerebro Vascular Disease, Type 2 Diabetes, stress and many psychological diseases. Cycling, while improving the overall health of the people, will also reduce the healthcare costs, appreciably in the long term.

Environmental

– Increased use of fossil fuels for transportation has in turn become one of the leading causes of environmental pollution, global warming and climate change, the world over, three of the major calamities the world has come to be plagued with today. By cycling we can reduce air pollution by reducing the noxious gases, such as carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, benzene and particulate matter. It also reduces noise pollution, and helps in mitigating global warming and climate change.

Social

– Cycling is also known to promote social interactions among people by encouraging networking and collaborations between them. This will influence the social health of the community positively.

The activities proposed

– The programme to promote cycling should be implemented, as a pilot project, with the participation of the state sector employees in some selected districts. Depending on the success thereof, it could be extended to the other sectors and districts.

1. As the first step towards promoting cycling nationwide, we propose that it be promoted among the state employees as their main mode of travel (to work). In this regard, we propose that they be paid an incentive in keeping with the distance they cover.

2. Bicycles could also be used by those who live far away from their workplace; they can cycle to the main bus or railway station. In both these situations, the cyclists should be paid accordingly.

3. Cyclists should be provided with facilities for bathing and changing at workplaces.

4. The government should take all measures aimed at making travel, safe and hassle free for cyclists. New laws should be made for this purpose, if necessary.

5. To lessen traffic congestion and increase safety of the cyclists, one-way traffic for the motorists in parallel roads should be encouraged wherever possible.

6. Cyclists should be provided with facilities to purchase bicycles, spare parts and accessories at discount rates.

7. Encourage production of bicycles, spare parts and accessories in Sri Lanka. Promote bicycle repair services countrywide.

8. Plant and maintain trees on the roadside for the benefit of cyclists. This will also help reduce air pollution and ambient temperature.

9. Liaise with major cycling associations in the world like the World Cycling Association, the Dutch Cycling Embassy, etc, in order to update knowledge and skills relating to promoting cycling in the country.

10. In keeping with the principle of “polluter pays” a dedicated tax could be imposed on motor vehicles, and the revenue therefrom used to promote cycling.

Dr. PRASANNA COORAY

President

Consumers & Customers Union

Continue Reading

Opinion

Catastrophe that has hit Ukraine

Published

on

The coup, or revolution, in Ukraine in 2014, as a result of the Maidan Square uprising, enabled extremist forces to take control of Ukraine. Many of them have Fascist ideology even to this day. In 1945, Russia had chased the German Nazis back to Berlin at a terrible cost in Russian lives. Now, people with this same mentality have taken power in Kiev with the devilish help of the American CIA – and they are hostile to Russians in Russia and even Russian-speaking Ukrainians, who number about a third of the total population of 60 million Ukrainians.

This minority of Russian-speaking people are mostly located towards the East of the country, with many centred in the towns and cities known as the Donbas. These people did not want to be subjected to Nazi, Fascist unpleasant treatment, so they agitated to be independent. They formed their own militias, men from the army defected and brought weapons from the army! The army and the militias fought each other to a standstill. In response, the Ukrainian army-built lines of trenches and other defences along the Donbas, especially near towns with important or vital industries.

Over time, relations deteriorated and the army started indiscriminately shelling the Donbas – they were killing their own people! This tragedy occurred for a period of eight years. About 14,000 civilians were killed by illegal random fire. No reporting on this in the “morally correct” west, and this story was ignored. Fascist thugs made Mariupol steelworks their headquarters in the Donbas. Early this year, 2022, the Ukrainian army was seen massing nearby for a full-scale attack on the rebels of the Donbas. Around 200, 000 of the best fighting men of all the Ukrainian army were to be used to finally crush the Russian-speaking rebels of the Donbas.

At the same time, the US was gearing up to take some land in the Donbas area – possibly in Crimea. The US considered Ukraine as their backyard, and they wanted to control the Black Sea and pin down Russian access to the sea – more devilish ideas to undermine and weaken Russia!

Russian ‘Special Military Operation

’:

But Russia was watching, and on 24 February, it launched its ‘Special Military Operation’ to counter the hostile actions in the Donbas. The first thing they did was to destroy all the ground radars, rendering the Ukrainian air force incapable of targeting accurately. Then came a great parade of propaganda and lies about Russian failures and losses, all fictions and distortions which were untrue, but were misleading to those without access to the facts. President Putin had so many ailments he alone could fill a hospital! All fiction. The west’s propaganda war is a remarkable feature of this military excursion.

At the outset of the Special Military Operation there were many similarities between the Russian and Ukrainian forces, and their equipment. But there were some glaring differences, too.

Russian forces were full time, professional soldiers, well trained in the specific tasks they were responsible for: they were a fully professional, competent army operating advanced equipment. They had high-tech equipment and knew how to handle it and use it to its fullest, to its best.

Each aircraft, battle tank, drone or radar station carries electronic equipment. This creates a node forming part of a computer network which exchanges information. The information fed into this network is processed by powerful computers. The result is that the targeting of enemy positions is exact, resulting in highly efficient warfare. It is efficient, not least because the Russian army wants to avoid targeting civilians. In the Donbas, all the people were related kinsfolk, being Russian speakers.

This required much caution in targeting, as the Ukrainian army was hiding among the civilians. The Russian army was obliged to advance slowly, so as to do as little damage as possible. This targeting efficiency also had the benefit of using ammunition economically. It was a progressive, brutal de-militarization of the Ukrainian army in Donbas using the combined military forces of Russia.

No-body knows when peace will arrive in Ukraine. It seems likely that, after going to all this effort, Russia will continue on and conquer the port of Odessa, and may even continue onwards to link up with Transnistria.

Note that this death and destruction could all have been avoided if Ukraine had implemented the Minsk Accords. They acted in bad faith and now suffer the consequences of that dishonesty.

Wild speculations are made in the West about the dangers of nuclear war. But these generals, colonels and western elites should know, as a matter of personal professional pride, that the official “Russian Military Doctrine” spells out in sections 26 and 27 the criteria for the use of nuclear weapons. This will happen only when outside actions pose an existential (real) threat to Russia. Russia will react with Nukes either: if Russia is hit by a nuclear explosion or if an army invades and approaches the centre, say, Moscow.

A Professional Army using High–tech Equipment:

For this success, Russian soldiers had to be well educated in maths and physics, and because of the extreme complexity of modern war, they must have a serious attitude. They had to know all about military science: operational art and planning, informational nodes, and net centric warfare. The Russian army engages in reconnaissance, intelligence gathering, surveillance, and targeting. Radar can give targeting information in 23 seconds, requiring defence alertness and readiness.

It is unlikely the Ukrainian army is so well educated and trained. Firing indiscriminately on the Donbas and killing people and the use of prohibited cassette munitions as seen on world news sites, does indicate a lack of discipline. This unprofessionalism has cost them dearly.

The Ukrainian army gives losses at approximately: 20,000 killed, 64,000 missing in action, and perhaps 30,000 men wounded. Russians give about: 5,000 men in special Russian holding camps and 2,500 men in Donbas holding camps.

Legal experts in Russia, and Donbas experts, are, even now sifting through all the cases of the detained men. Normal soldiers will be given trials and sentencing for any wrongdoing, but those with a background of supporting Fascism will be shipped to Siberia for further investigation. One of the stated aims of the Russian establishment is to de-Nazify the Ukrainian army.

The Role of Education in Development of a Country

: Throughout their lives Russian children get much more science, physics and mathematics (STEM) than schools in the west. The standard set by the best Russian college entrance examinations is high, putting the American schools and colleges in the shade. There are no multiple-choice questions, answers are either right or wrong. These best Russian schools are attended by many bright, thirsty minds, each waiting to drink up the education offered.

This careful selection and development of bright scientific minds has enabled Russia to develop really advanced weapons and rockets, way ahead of the USA. For example, it launched the orbiting Sputnik into space well before the Americans. This act alone sent the US administration into a panic. They, in response, developed the high altitude U2 spy plane to go and see what the Russians were up to! Recently, because the US Shuttle was out of service, Russia was providing the Americans with a shuttle service to the international space station. A group of young engineers, all under 30 years, designed the SU 57, a highly successful fighter. Russia has designed and successfully tested hypersonic weapons – which the USA is struggling to catch up with.

In truth, the main war between East and West is being played out at the school desk, and Russia is winning!

See Larry Johnson’s film on YouTube – in English

PRIYANTHA HETTIGE

Continue Reading

Opinion

Save us from our govt.!

Published

on

When watching daily news bulletins, on several local TV channels, one could observe two significant matters.

One is how Gotabaya Rajapaksa shamelessly meets foreign diplomats and officers of international organizations, who are well aware of the grave situation of the country, and also the prime reason for it.

Remember, as kids, how we hide from our parents, or teachers, when some small mistake happens – that is because we were ashamed, and afraid of punishment. And ther, too, it would have been only our own mistake, not by the whole family of ours!

Next is how the Police and armed forces are let loose on the men, women and children who have been waiting in queues for hours or days. The authorities are not finding ways to stop queuing or at least maintain some order at those places, but chastise the people, for electing as Basil Rajapaksa had said, a stupid, clueless president and an incompetent government.

The greatest disasters we have faced since Independence are the JVP insurrection, the LTTE war and the tsunami in 2004, and during those times the people were protected by then governments; now Sri Lankans have to struggle against the government, which is steadily throttling them to death.

BUDDHI PERERA

Continue Reading

Trending