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English demands mustering our energy to master it

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By K. A. I. KALYANARATNE

Consultant, Publications
Postgraduate Institute of Management
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
Vice President
Hela Havula

Our mother tongue and our first language being either Sinhala or Tamil, depending on the particular community we belong to, English is invariably considered as our second language. Therefore, English is treated as a foreign language. It is an irony that although both Sinhala and Tamil should be our link languages, on the assumption that each major community should learn the language of the other major community, English is treated as our ‘link-language’; a language quite ‘foreign’ to us. However, the fact remains that we are expected to learn English as most of our academic and professional examinations at postgraduate levels are conducted in English.

Revelations at a Preliminary Survey

A few years ago, I conducted the Integrated English Course for four batches (two batches in each category) at the PIM, who followed the two programmes; (i) MBA – Inland Revenue and (ii) MBA Customs and International Trade, in the years 2016 and 2017. This special three-month-course was a recent introduced to the MBA programme, as the Institute observed that especially the younger students needed an extra backup if they were to be competent to meet the challenges of the post-graduate programmes. A survey conducted at the commencement of these courses revealed that a majority of the students had completed their primary and secondary education in their mother-tongue. Some of them had continued to follow their basic degree in their mother-tongue. It was, therefore, an uphill task for them to switch over to the medium of English. It would not have been an issue if they had had a sound-foundation in the English language especially in their primary and secondary levels of education.

The Challenges a Teacher of English had to Overcome

Therefore, as a teacher of English, the following basic framework was structured to launch the project. In fact, the project was aimed at bringing the language skills of the target groups to the level of providing an effective answer to their basic challenges, namely, (i) understanding what was taught, and (ii) expressing in their own words, through their writings and presentations, the knowledge they acquired.

Sticking to Basics and Fundamentals – The Surest Way to Achieve One’s Objectives

Many successful businessmen say that their winning strategy has been sticking to the basics — the simple principles that have stood the test of time. I remember how we learnt the language, sticking to this principle, in college. The methodology consisted of

(i) a lot of wide reading and coming to grips with new words and word-clusters,

(ii) a lot of writing by way of (a) essays (b) editorials, (c) reports,

(iii) comprehension, precise-writing and paraphrasing.

(iv) Detection of mistakes and correction of sentences

(v) Selecting a book of their choice aimed at cultivating the habit of reading, and, ultimately, getting each of them to make a short presentation on the book he/she read during the study-term.

(vi) In between, elements like prepositions, articles and idioms were taught in small doses, without making the study unpalatable.

To get a taste of the vast and varied storehouse of English literature, a few short and simple poems like James Leigh Hunt’s ‘The Plate of Gold’, and P. B. Shelly’s ‘Ozymandias’, were read with them highlighting the poetic expressions and how beautifully the language was used by such poets to accentuate interest in the reader.

In short, what was followed was choosing material that created an interest in the learning partners, while assigning a reasonable amount of homework. These exercises were not only marked promptly, highlighting the pluses and minuses, the shortcomings were also discussed among them in class. These discussions were a part of the knowledge-sharing process that followed.

Paraphrasing, Comprehension and Precis Writing – A Vintage Recipe that Worked Well

A basic measurement of learning is the level of one’s ability to express in his/her own words what he/she had learnt. If a person masters this craft of re-phrasing what has been learnt, cramming (studying intensively), and memorizing resorted to by many a student would sooner be realized as futile acts. These shorter methods while taxing one’s brain, is only short lived. Knowledge reproduced in this manner will vanish from them no sooner their immediate task is over. This ability to retell what one has learnt will make that knowledge one’s own. The teachers of English, or for that matter, of any language, had been resorting to these basic practices, to drive home the fact that once a person is able to repeat in his/her own words what has been said or written differently elsewhere, is the surest way to remember. These were the basics on which teachers of yesteryear taught languages to their students. However, the two prerequisites needed to perform this task depend on two abilities; (i) the ability to understand what was read or learnt, and ii) the ability to convert that knowledge into his/her own words. Of course, both these abilities depend on one prime factor, that is, to possess a rich diction/vocabulary. It is words in their clusters that convey ideas.

Gaining Comprehension Skills – A Sure Answer to Plagiarism

Comprehension skills and language fluency go hand in hand, and in fact comprehension is an inseparable part of every subject. Frequent practising of comprehension skills make students gain confidence and feel comfortable in what they read. This is a skill that would become part and parcel of every study, and at every level of their education, and also an effective answer to plagiarism.

Plagiarism, that has crept into academic and professional studies at higher levels, has reached alarmingly proportions in recent time. Therefore, all seats of higher learning are ‘fighting tooth and nail’ to arrest this deceitful trend, as it is paramount to ensure ethical practices among students to conduct their studies honestly, and in accordance with the accepted academic standards. These seats of learning have continued to deliberate on measures to arrest this unhealthy trend. In fact, these institutions have now put in place their own ‘Plagiarism Policies’, recommending deterrent action against those committing this offence.

Duality of English

The biggest challenge faced by both teachers and students of English is the significant duality posed by the two ‘Englishes’, British English and American English. The issue has been created by the two streams going ‘on their own’ without reaching commonality or striking at a common approach. The very fact that these two streams of the language are termed as British and American, it makes pretty obvious that the said duality exists. Even a cursory glance through the two approaches, the following differences as shown in theFigures appearing here, would become quite evident.

It is due to this basic difference that some institutes of higher learning meekly say that what is recommended in the writings of students is ‘the use of English (United Kingdom) and spelling’. This is not an instruction or a rule that should be stuck to. This itself is evidence of the penetration of American English, and its influence over the English language. The saddest part is that students are unaware of this duality, and they are helpless in knowing these differences unless/until they are guided. Teaching of English at school-level also does not delve into these ‘tricky and controversial areas’. In fact, there’s hardly a publication that brings out these differences in the contemporary use of English.

Merriam-Webster English Dictionary (WMD) Vs. Oxford English Dictionary (OED)

The prevailing language-controversy began with the publishing of the initial Webster’s Dictionary by Noah Webster in 1806. He was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and author. The Merriam-Webster English Dictionary (MWD) which is now a popular volume in our libraries, is a revised and edited version of Noah Webster’s original publication. In fact, MWD had undergone a series of revisions to make it sufficiently comprehensive for use. Basically, MWD is considered a liberal dictionary, updating its definitions and entries with the time. Due to this quality of constant revisions and expansions MWD has now been accepted as a premier dictionary of English.

In the process of assessing the merits and demerits of the two dictionaries the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) has now been considered as ‘conservative’ in its approach. It tantamount to say that the OED is oblivious to the constantly occurring changes to the language, by way of pronunciation, grammar, definitions and admission of words/terms. It thus connotes that OED is more concerned with documenting the language as it has progressed. It is very much a lexicographical history book for the English language. Thus WMD progressively gaining sway over its acceptance, would further erode the position held by both OED and British English.

Duality in the Use of Prepositions and Basic Grammar-Rules

Prepositions may be considered as mortar that is used to fix bricks in their proper places. Hence, prepositions, often called the ‘biggest small words in English’ fix solid words together by showing relationship in space or time or a logical relationship between two or more people, places or things. In a language like English where nouns cannot be declined flexibility is brought in by the use of propositions. These are thus a part of the foundation of the English language. Therefore, a misused preposition can make a big difference between a clearly stated sentence and a confusing mix of words. Sinhala differs vastly in this aspect as its nouns can be declined.

Therefore, if there is a duality / difference in the use of many a preposition in the two Englishes as seen below, it is obvious that the learner will be bemused!

Apart from spellings, vocabulary and the use of prepositions, there are some major grammar differences between the two Englishes. For instance, collective nouns are considered singular in American English, as ‘the band is playing’. In contrast they can be considered as either singular or plural in British English, the commonest being the plural form, i.e, ‘the band are playing’. The British are also more likely to use ‘shall’ with ‘I’, while the Americans are bent on using ‘will’ with ‘I’. Further, while Americans, continue to use ‘gotten’ as the past participle of ‘get’, the British have long since dropped ‘gotten’ in favour of ‘got’.

The English Teacher’s Travails and Dilemma

In fact, my precise objective of penning this short essay is to highlight the trying and challenging circumstances under which our teachers of English are performing their task of guiding the younger generations to impart knowledge and enhance their language-competencies. Unlike most eastern languages, English is a hybrid product, depending much on German and other major European languages for its growth and enrichment. It is because of this fact that Walt Whitman, American poet (1819-1892) said that

‘Viewed freely, the English language is the accretion and growth of

every dialect, race, and range of time, and is both the

free and compacted composition of all.’

Its complexity has been further aggravated by its illogicalities in its grammar; and some extremists say that it’s a jumble of contradictions.

The battle between the forces of correctness and the forces of usage is still being waged. The controversy on ‘it is me’ versus ‘it is I’ is a case in point. The complexities that have been created by the independent growth of the two Englishes, has resulted in more exceptions than the rules of its grammar. Some critics have even gone to the extent of commenting on how nonsensical its word-formations are. They bring in to say that if ‘office leads to officer’ and ‘commission leads to commissioner’ ‘prison should lead to ‘prisoner who is in-charge of the prison, and not the person who is imprisoned for committing a crime.

This chaotic situation has been further aggravated by the absence of an updated / current book of grammar that provides answers to all the above complexities and controversies. English grammar books that are available are those that have been published several decades ago, and further, none of these deals with the language’s latest developments, especially American English.



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Features

Getting it right on human rights

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By Jehan Perera

Twice every year, the situation in the North and East of the country resembles that which existed during the three decades of war. One occasion is during 18-19 May, which is the anniversary of the end of the war in 2009. The other is 26-27 November, which used to be celebrated by the LTTE as Heroes Day, when they remember their war dead. Even though the war ended 12 years ago, these two days have the capacity to mobilise the sentiments of the Tamil people, particularly in the North and East and to generate an equivalent opposite reaction in the government, which leads to a heightened military presence. The period 2015-19, in which the government actively sought to promote a reconciliation process that gave more leeway to Tamil sentiment was one of de-escalation.

The wounds of war remain unhealed as the events of the past week have shown. The week leading up to 27 November saw people and organised groups in the North and East preparing to commemorate the war dead and the government preparing to forestall it. Police sought to get prohibition orders from the courts in the hope that the law would prevent the commemoration events from taking place. However, most of the courts did not oblige, and reaffirmed the basic rights to freedom of association and to remember the dead. They also ordered that no LTTE symbols could be displayed and refused to place further limits on the right to memorialise, except to the need to keep within Covid health guidelines. The right to remember is a human right, which the JVP practices faithfully every year, and the law setting up the Office of Reparations offers support to memorialisation.

Despite the presence of a large contingents of security forces in public places, and checkpoints and partrolling, remembrance events took place in most areas in public places and cemeteries, with people lighting lamps and candles. In some places memorials took place in the face of soldiers standing near to them with guns in hand. In other places the large numbers who gathered were not permitted to enter the area they wished to go to, and only a few were permitted in with the rest of them standing out. In many other parts of the North and East more low-key commemorations took place. Due to the heavy security presence and the fear of harassment, intimidation and detention, many opted to hold memorial events in their homes. A journalist was hospitalised after he was allegedly assaulted for taking a photograph of the name-board of the site where the last battle of the war was fought. This suggests the use of arbitrary power.

INTERNATIONAL CENSURE

The heavy-handed actions in the North and East take place at a time when the government is also trying hard to impress the international community that it is serious about improving the human rights situation in the country. The international perception that the human rights situation in the country is deteriorating is very strong. Recently the famous Scotland Yard, which had been training the Sri Lankan police said that they will not renew their training contract with the country’s police force during the remainder of the agreed period, which ends in March 2022. They cited human rights concerns. In recent days, the Bar Association of Sri Lanka and human rights organisations have protested against the deaths in police custody of those accused of drug and other criminal offences. The cessation of training by Scotland Yard is liable to make a bad situation even worse.

However, the Scotland Yard decision is in keeping with the overall international assessment of human rights in Sri Lanka. In its latest report on the global human rights situation, the UK’s Annual Human Rights and Democracy Report issued in July 2021 stated Sri Lanka is among the 31 Human Rights Priority Countries. The January 2021 report on Sri Lanka by the Office of the UN’s High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) expressed deep concern over “trends emerging over the past year, which represent clear early warning signs of a deteriorating human rights situation and a significantly heightened risk of future violations”. The report further stated that “Security forces increased their surveillance and intimidation of human rights activists and their use of the Prevention of Terrorism Act, with a number of arbitrary arrests. The government proposed new regulations with powers to arrest and send individuals to rehabilitation centres to be ‘de-radicalised’ with no judicial oversight or requirement for further process.”

In June this year the EU parliament gave an early warning that its GSP Plus duty free tax privilege would be withdrawn as a last resort unless Sri Lanka demonstrated that it was serious about keeping to its commitment to uphold human rights. This is an economic benefit that the Sri Lankan economy cannot afford to lose when foreign exchange earnings are much lower than the demand for it and there is a shortage of dollars in the market and new strains of the Covid virus threaten to strike. While the EU resolution states that 12 years on from the end of the war, domestic initiatives for accountability and reconciliation have repeatedly failed to produce results, thus more deeply entrenching impunity and exacerbating victims’ distrust in the system, the EU has indicated that the Prevention of Terrorism Act (PTA) as it currently stands is central to what is unacceptable to them.

INDEPENDENT MONITORING

The government is currently in the process of amending the PTA. It appointed both a committee consisting of senior government officials headed by Defence Secretary General Kamal Gunaratne to submit a report on the PTA, which they have done. Now that report is being vetted by a ministerial subcommittee headed by Foreign Minister Professor G L Peiris who are seeking the views of other sections of society. This past weekend they met with civil society members in the form of the Sri Lankan Collective for Consensus (SLCC), which consists of individuals drawn from civil society organisations that have reconciliation, human rights and peace building aims in their work. Prof Peiris explained that there was no draft legislation as yet to share but only a set of proposals which they wished to discuss with civil society and other groups.

Prof Peiris explained that the changes to PTA proposed were a result of consensus between the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Justice and Defence and the Attorney General’s Department; these changes are not conceived as one time ones, but as a part of a continuum, there being other changes contemplated that will be agreed on later. He also assured the members of SLCC that changes in legislation will be rapid, and take place early next year. The changes proposed will fall short of expectations of those whose primary concern is human rights, but are an improvement over the present formulation of the PTA. The salient amendments described in the verbal presentation made by Prof Peiris was the shortening of the maximum period of the detention order, restriction in the use of PTA, judicial oversight, supervision by magistrates of detainees, access to lawyers by those detained, speedy trials and repeal of Section 14 with regard to publication. Prof Peiris promised that this was only the start.

The question, and the challenge, will be in the implementation. The present spate of killings in police custody is distressing. In one instance, the lawyers for the person under arrest had warned beforehand that their client will be killed in the next day or days in a shootout, and appealed to the Bar Association and to the police IGP to protect that person’s life but to no avail. All systems collapse and no perpetrator is identified and so there is impunity. In a statement the Bar Association said “Once again, the Sri Lanka Police is involved in an incident which has the hallmarks of an extra judicial killing. This killing comes at a time that Sri Lanka’s human rights record is under scrutiny and there are threats of consequences to the country and its economy as a result of the deteriorating human rights situation…Responsibility for these killings must lie not only with the persons who carried out the killings but also all those who command them and those who failed to ensure the safety and security of the suspect. The BASL calls upon the IGP to explain his failure to protect the suspect who was in Police custody.” There are other changes that need to be made, the most important of which is the need for a system of checks and balances that works and the Sri Lankan state to consider all its citizens to be precious.

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Generic system failure or inherent deficiencies in corporate ethics?

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SLIIT controversy in the context of establishing private sector higher education institutions in Sri Lanka

By Prof Susirith Mendis
(susmend2610@gmail.com)

Having been a regular contributor to ‘The Island’, I have ventured again into expressing my opinion in public spaces after an extended period of silence, as I felt compelled to, after I read the excellently argued piece by Prof R.P. Gunawardane titled ‘SLIIT should remain non-state and non-profit institution’ in The Island of November 23.

Prof. Gunawardane explains why Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology (SLIIT) should remain non-state and non-profit. He also discusses dispassionately the ‘issues and concerns’ that have come up in recent times about the unsavoury circumstances under which SLIIT ended up completely under private ownership divesting itself from what they might have seen as ‘the restraining clutches’ of the Mahapola Trust Fund (MTF). Prof Gunawardane’s recommendations finally, as well, are mostly acceptable and valuable.

But there are a few places where I beg to disagree and also wish to extend comment on the two topics he has touched upon.

Leaving the comments about the restraints of the University Grants Commission (UGC) on the state universities for later, let me first take issues about SLIIT.

SLIIT and MTF

Things have ‘hit the fan’ since the COPE report on SLIIT became public. Minister Bandula Gunawardane has assured at a meeting chaired by the President, that in his capacity as Minister of Trade, “action would be taken to take over SLIIT divested through fraudulent means”. The Minister used the words “fraudulent means”. The Island of August 10, 2021 headlined its story on the COPE revelations on SLIIT, ‘COPE tells govt. to undo SLIIT swindle’. So, it has been named fraudulent and a swindle.

The Second Report of the Committee on Public Enterprises tabled in Parliament on April 6, 2021, was a Special Report on SLIIT. The report prepared on the basis of an investigation by the Auditor General’s Department has recommended that “the SLIIT be recognised as a non-governmental institution and that the decision taken by the Cabinet of Ministers on 24.05.2017 not to include the said institution under any purview of the Ministry be reconsidered.” It also recommends that “the institution be taken over by the Mahapola Fund.”

Furthermore, the COPE recommended that action be taken under the Public Property Act against ‘all parties involved’ (my emphasis) in the action taken to deprive the government of its ownership of SLIIT and its control by an agreement signed on May 12, 2015 without any formal authority.

Therein lies the crux of this issue, that Prof Gunawardane failed to emphasise. But Prof Gunawardane rightly questions the bona fides of SLIIT in not responding to the summons of COPE to appear before it, using a technicality and informing, through their law firm, that it is ‘not legally obligated’ to do so. If all the actions of SLIIT in the process of the MTF divesting itself of SLIIT were above board, and there was nothing to hide, this would have been the best opportunity that the management of SLIIT had of publicly declaring that it had clean hands. Their refusal to do so is suspicious to say the least. A subsequent full-page advertisement (for which they must have spent a few cool millions) in The Daily Mirror of October 29, 2021, titled ‘The True Story of SLIIT’ was a varnished narrative signed, sealed and delivered to a gullible public. What was curiously revealing was, therein, they relate in passing, “the great risks and sacrifices made by the pioneers of SLIIT,” in particular those of Prof Lalith Gamage. It is a good advertisement. As good an advertisement as all advertisements are and expected to be, where critical information is suppressed, and high-points are emphasised and overblown. Like advertisements for milk foods or table margarines, for instance.

The refusal of SLIIT to appear before COPE may have prompted Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe to move the Supreme Court in terms of article 126 and Article 17 of the Constitution of Sri Lanka to request the cancellation of agreements between the MTF and SLIIT. The former Minister of Justice as well as Minister of Higher Education under the Yahapalana government, has named Cabinet of ministers including the Prime Minister, Members of the Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery or Corruption, the IGP, Attorney General, members of SLIIT and the Mahapola Higher Education Scholarship Trust Fund as respondents, and asked for issuing of notices to them and most importantly an order directing the Attorney-General to charge and indict Gamini Jayawickrama Perera, Dr. Wickrama Weerasooriya (deceased), Anil Rajakaruna, Prof Lalith R. Gamage and Prof Luxman Rathnayaka, among others.

Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe alleged that though he made a complaint to the CIABOC on February 25, 2019 that the loss caused to SLIIT as a result of the corrupt transaction at that time was about Rs. 23,000,000,000. (Rs. 23 billion), the outfit did nothing except recording statements from him twice.

As the Minister of Justice and of Higher Education, Wijeyadasa Rajapakshe was privy to all the sordid details of what happened at a particular MTF Board of Governors meeting when the Board was coerced into consenting to the divesting of SLIIT from the MTF.

Now, it is in the hands of the Supreme Court. We shall wait with bated breath. But in the meantime, a debate in Parliament is on the offing, which may bring to the public domain what is still not fully revealed.

Considering all of the above, I cannot but disagree with Prof. Gunawardane that the Vice-Chancellor/CEO of SLIIT should be retained in that position. He has apparently compromised himself, having started splendidly well in bringing SLIIT initially up to what it became later. Here was a golden opportunity for MTF and SLIIT to jointly set up a model for public-private partnership in the provision of higher education to an ‘education-hungry’ generation of Sri Lankan youth. But unfortunately, SLIIT has not conducted itself to be above reproach. Greed has, perhaps, taken over the early ideals of treading new paths in establishing a new kind of higher educational institution, as often as it happens in the conduct of most human affairs. In the end, it seems to have gone the same way as did North Colombo Medical College (NCMC) and South Asian Institute of Technology and Management/Medicine (SAITM) – manipulated by vested interests, for different ends, under different circumstances and different political regimes. Hence, my question in the title. Is it a system failure or corporate greed that creates an environment that attempts at private higher education, as in the three cases mentioned above, have failed our expectations? Failed to show that education, even in the hands of the private sector, is not wholly a ‘tradable commodity, but it is also a public good’.

We, the public also would wish, if it is at all possible, to know the answers to the following:

(i) Why has SLIIT not named the ‘company’ to which the SLIIT Board of Directors transferred the assets of SLIIT in 2015?

(ii) Who owns SLIIT now?

(iii) Why is there deliberate secrecy about ‘company’ that owns SLIIT?

(iv) Who are the shareholders of the above ‘company’?

(v) Does the Chancellor or the Vice-Chancellor/CEO or any other member of the Board of Management of SLIIT have any financial interest or any ownership or shareholding of the said unnamed ‘company’?

Until these questions have unambiguous answers, the truth about SLIIT will not be known.

I believe that a Presidential Commission has to be appointed to probe the allegations of a ‘fraudulent’ ‘swindle’ sullied by corruption at the highest levels of the SLIIT management.

State universities and the UGC

Prof R. P. Gunawardane argues that ‘UGC interference’ in State universities has retarded or restrained their growth and development as universities. I fully agree.

He quotes as examples Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford and all ‘Ivy League’ universities in the US and to a lesser extent the British universities, such as Oxford and Cambridge, that are free from the fetters of government control. I believe that we need to look at their origins and the context in which they were established. Oxbridge were established as religious institutions of learning. The origins of Oxford are lost in the mists of time and legend, but the influence of the Christian Church in these two institutions is well-known. Harvard was founded to train clergy as a ‘church in the wilderness’. Hence, we cannot compare our state universities with the hoary traditions and culture that are behind those institutions that have developed through millennia and centuries. As a result, neither their governance structures nor their ethos can be replicated to our contexts.

Having said that, I agree that we need to strive for higher goals and greater futures for our universities. But, having been in the system for four decades, I have many misgivings about the self-governance of our universities. We have not shown that we have the distinct capabilities of ensuring quality and standards of higher education without state overview. I wish it were otherwise. To illustrate this absence of educational as well as fiduciary or financial responsibility and accountability within our universities, let me quote these two examples.

(1) External Degree Programmes: Several state universities conducted external degree programmes. Sri Jayewardenepura, Kelaniya, Peradeniya and Ruhuna universities were prominent amongst them. As I estimate, 15,000 to 35,000 students were registered annually by each of them. Almost all of them, if not all, were degrees in the Arts and Humanities. The monitoring of quality and standards was poor, and often non-existent. Many academic staff of these universities were external lecturers at mushrooming tutories countrywide, that conducted classes. Though they were expected to make a declaration to their respective universities about their involvement as external teaching staff, to avoid conflict of interest when examiners were appointed, this was practised more in the breach. Corruption became rampant. Examiners were correcting over 5,000 answer scripts. I was not surprised that the Minister of Higher Education, S.B. Dissanayake said publicly that ‘examiners throw answer scripts in the air and give marks according to when and where they fall’. He must have had some inside information. One of them told me that he built his three-storey house from the external degree examination payments he received. The Director of the External Examinations Branch was a much sought-after position. And once in, few left willingly. No control was possible due to pressures of vested interests within universities until the UGC stepped in and limited numbers that could be registered for external degrees by a special circular.

(2) Master’s degree, postgraduate diploma and certificate programmes: Though Bachelor’s degrees are non-fee levying, all other programmes conducted by state universities are fee-levying. Such programmes began to mushroom in all state universities. Academic staff delivering lectures and examining answer scripts were paid handsomely. Therefore, such courses began to proliferate. Master’s programmes were the most lucrative. Some professors and senior staff in universities neglected their undergraduate lectures and concentrated on postgraduate lectures. Examinations were delayed and results were not released for months, if not years. Having paid large sums of money, postgraduate students languished without being awarded their degrees. Some newly established universities with a severe dearth of academic staff even to effectively conduct their undergraduate bachelor’s programmes, were commencing and conducting Master’s programmes. Some even commenced such programmes in Colombo in rented premises with minimal involvement of their academics in the teaching programmes. The quality of these Master’s programmes was much in question. Since the situation was going out of control, the UGC had to bring in stricter criteria for universities to establish postgraduate courses. This had to be done by the UGC because the powerful vested interests within the universities overwhelmed any attempt at internal reform. But, even now, the proliferation of Master’s degree programmes in our state universities are a matter of much concern and debate.

The above are just two examples of the lack of educational and fiduciary or financial governance of the state university system in Sri Lanka.

After all, we are currently debating the deficiencies of governance at the highest levels of government. It is my considered view that neither systems nor persons of adequate integrity are in place for us to entrust self-governance to our universities at present. Corruption will become rampant from student selection to awarding of degrees. This is despite a myriad of UGC circulars. What would the playing fields be, without such an independent referee, and if none of those restraints by circulars (rules) were in existence? I may be a pessimist. But I fear to envisage such a scenario.

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Negombo in the spotlight…

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DJ Ishan: ‘Negombo’ his first production

DJ Ishan, who has also done his thing, internationally, behind the console, has released his very first single, as producer, titled ‘Negombo.’

The song, written by Sampath Fernandopulle, with Pramul Elica on lead vocals, mastering by Ashan, and Vikith Perera with the baseline, is all about the vibe and colours surrounding the coastal town, and everyone featured on the song, and its production, hails from Negombo. The song and video were released online last week.

Ishan started out with Curzon Entertainers and then, 13 years later, formed his own unit, Entertainment ID, and has been seen in action, as a DJ, at top notch local and international events.

‘Retro Revival,’ one of the country’s most anticipated ‘90s parties, is the brainchild of Ishan. He was a regular feature at the immensely popular ‘9 Days of 90s’ party, ‘Dream Music Fest’ and the ‘Negombo Music Fest.’

He has also played at the VLV Lounge Singapore, Stock Resort Austria, Kristallehutte Austria, JW Marriott Malaysia, Dighali Maldives and was a support artiste for globally-renowned DJ Selectro, in Belgium.

With the release of the single ‘Negombo,’ Ishan is opening up a new chapter in music production, together with DJ MASS, in commercial pop music.

“Negombo is where I grew up, went to school, played cricket and represented the country with various teams, started DJing, and now started producing music. So, I always wanted to show my gratitude to my hometown and for the people of Negombo who have helped me right throughout. This song is about the city of Negombo, the people, the beaches and everything about this wonderful place I call home,” Ishan says.

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