By DR L M K Tillekeratne
Chairman of the National Development Committee of the ACBC
It is a well-known fact that one the problems faced by Sri Lanka today is caused mainly by shortage of electricity for domestic purposes and industries. Three decades ago, only 20 % of houses had electricity for lighting. But, today over 95 % of houses in the whole country have electricity. Total electric power the country needs is about 2,750 MW a day. In order to generate 65% of it by using diesel and coal, the cost involved now is tremendous and that is the main reason for the creation of dollar shortage in the country. Besides, when Russia’s invasion in Ukraine six months ago equally attributed to the fuel shortage in the whole world thus creating enormous social and economic impacts, and petroleum prices in the Sri Lankan market increased by over 300%, which is bound to increase further at an alarming pace.However, while having enough bright sunlight all over Sri Lanka throughout the year to generate solar power and enough wind power particularly in areas like Mannar and Puttlam districts, only 40% of our electricity requirements are supplied by non-conventional renewable energy, while 65% of the balance need is produced by burning imported fuel oil and coal at a cost of Rs 80 to 100 per unit, thereby subjecting the environment of the country to a great threat by increasing the level of Green House gases to our atmosphere. Further, this conversion of generating electricity by burning oil and coal thereby lowering the liberation of Green House gases to the atmosphere will enable Sri Lanka to earn huge amount of Dollars by trading Carbon.
According to energy experts, it is expected to reduce this 65% of the energy requirement by burning fuel oil and coal down to 40% thus using more renewable energy by year 2030, thereby lowering the cost of producing a unit of electricity to about Rs 35.00.
Surprisingly, according to hydro power generating experts, there are over 400 streams and small waterfalls distributed all over the country without exploiting yet for setting up of mini hydro power generators. If these over 400 water sources are converted to hydro power generators producing not less than 1000 mega Watts of power are started, and by converting the wind power and solar power available in unlimited quantities, Sri Lankans can earn more foreign exchange by selling the extra electric power available to neighboring countries.
Hence, at present most of the dollars available are spent for importing diesel and coal to the tune of USD 6,000 million per annum. It should be mentioned here that out of this USD 6000 million, about 4,500 million is used for transport leaving a balance of USD 1,500 million to import fuel oil for power generation. According to energy experts, USD 1,500 million could easily be saved here for the other priority areas of the country, if mini hydro power generators are set up in those streams which are idling now. However, sadly no payments have been made for the power generated and supplied to the national grid by the few existing mini hydro power plants; they have supplied power to the tune of over Rs 20 billion for several months and hence some of them have been compelled to close their power plants.
Based on this objective, the ACBC, the premier Buddhist and Social organization in the country realized the need to create awareness of the options available and organized an exhibition of inventions last week on generating power utilizing those three natural sources and to display the public as to how they could conserve scarcely available electricity thereby saving extra money spent for generating power wasted due to lack of knowledge.
This event was not merely organized as an exhibition but to showcase the new inventions to the public, but as a workshop for the interested water source owners to select the appropriate invention suit to them best according to the conditions available in his source of water/ solar power/ or wind. Once the prospective investor identifies the suitable invention ideally needed to his needs, the power expert committee of the ACBC is planning to provide them with every technical support they need to do the feasibility study and even to the level of selecting machines etc. up to the level of setting up the complete power station. Further, the Bank of Ceylon has already agreed to provide them with a soft loan of Rs 3 million at 16% interest rate for setting up of the power unit.
It should be mentioned here with appreciation that the Ministry of Power and Energy has already decided to pay Rs 35 per unit of renewable energy produced from the 17.39 paid previously and also to pay all the back accumulated payments due to power generators. ACBC takes an innocent pride to place on record that the power generation project designed and launched by the expert panel members of the ACBC consists of renowned scientists and engineers who have earned distinctive reputation in their respective disciplines. This particular project perhaps is one of the key projects engineered by the ACBC in its proudest history of over 100 years with a view to finding solutions to the macro-economic issues whilst enhancing income generation at the peripheral level so that it would provide a helping hand to reduce the poverty level of the country.
With these important decisions taken by the government to encourage renewable energy production in all unexploited natural energy sources, it is not a difficult task to generate nearly 1000 MW of power within the next two to three years. Minimizing energy wastes by households and industries through the educational campaign initiate by the ACBC recently, another sizable saving of electrical energy saving could be achieved. Hence, the Development committee of the ACBC is optimistic in saving substantial portion of the dollars spent on Oil and Coal imports thereby making savings available in the country to help Sri Lanka to be the Wonder of Asia by year 2050.
Religious and philosophical aspects of Buddhism
By Dr. Justice Chandradasa Nanayakkara
Buddhism first originated in India in the 6th century BC. Today, Buddhism has become one of the most popular religions with over 507 million followers worldwide. It is a non-theistic religion, as it does not believe in a creator or God.
Some prefer to call it a religion, while others call it a philosophy, still others regard it as both a religion and philosophy, as it contains many characteristics which blur the lines between philosophy and religion. Different people view buddhism differently. Therefore, the question of whether Buddhism is a philosophy or a religion depends on how people define religion and its technicalities. Religion generally connotes idea of presence of powerful God who controls the entire world, Buddhism which is non-theistic cannot be classified as a religion. Term non-theistic religion would be a contradiction in terms.
Of course, it has to be admitted that there are plenty of religious and philosophical aspects to the Buddha’s doctrine.
Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha. He was born to a royal family in Kapilavastu, on the foot hills of the Himalaya in the 16th century B.C. When he was overcome by sights of disease, old age and death he realised that the world was full of suffering and misery and therefore renounced his worldly life in search of true happiness. After practicing great austerities, and going through intense meditation with a strong will and a mind free from all disturbing thoughts and passions, he attained enlightment.
The Buddha can also be regarded as one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced.
Buddhism is a pragmatic teaching, which starts from certain fundamental propositions about how we experience the world and how we act in it. It teaches that it is possible to transcend this sorrowful world and shows us the way of liberating ourselves from the sorrowful state.
Buddhism is not culture bound, nor bound to any particular society, race or ethnic group unlike certain religions that are culture bound. Buddhism believes in pragmatism and its practicality can be seen as one of its distinguishing features. Buddhism lays special emphasis on practice and realisation.
In a way Buddhism can be considered as a way of life. It is the righteous way of life which brings about peace and happiness to every living being. It is a method of ridding ourselves of miseries and to find liberation from samsaric cyclic life.
The teachings of the Buddha contain practical wisdom that is not limited to theory or to philosophy. Philosophy deals mainly with knowledge and it is not concerned with translating that knowledge into day to day practice. Philosophy is commonly defined as a rational investigation of principles and beliefs of knowledge and conduct. Philosophy can see the frustrations and disappointments of life but unlike in Buddhism it does not show any practical solution to overcome those problems which are part of the unsatisfactory nature of life.
The Buddha’s teachings are referred to as the Dhamma, which literally means “the ultimate truth” or the “truth about reality”. Buddhists are expected to live by it. The Buddha always encouraged his followers to investigate his teachings for themselves. His Dhamma is described as Ehipassikko which roughly means “Inviting his followers to come and see for themselves or “verify” or “to investigate”. He strongly encouraged his followers to engage in critical thinking and draw on their own personal experience to test what he was saying. This attitude differs entirely from other regions such as Christianity where followers are encouraged to accept its scriptures unquestioningly. This is exemplified by the Kalama Sutra.
When the Buddha on his wanderings arrived at Kesaputta, the town of the Kalamas’, the Kalamas went to the Buddha and said to the Buddha “Lord, there are some brahmans and ascetics who had come to Kesputta. They expound and glorify their own doctrines but as for the doctrines of others, they deprecate them, revile them show contempt for them and disparage them. Then again other brahmans and ascetics come to Kesputta they too expound and glorify their own doctrines, but as for the doctrines of others they deprecate them, revile them show contempt for them and disparage them. They leave us absolutely uncertain and in doubt. Which of these venerable brahmanas and ascetics are speaking the truth, and which ones are lying?”
Lord Buddha replying said “Yes, O Kalama’s, it is right for you to doubt, it is right for you to waver. In a doubtful matter, wavering has arisen.” And gave them the following advice. “Come, O Kalamas, do not accept anything on mere hearsay. Do not accept any thing by mere tradition thinking that it has been handed through many generations. Do not accept anything on account of rumors without investigations. Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures. Do not accept anything by mere supposition. Do not accept anything by mere inference. Do not accept anything by merely considering the appearances. Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your preconceived notions. Do not accept anything merely because it seems acceptable. Do not accept anything thinking that the master is respected or it is part of tradition”.
“But when you know for yourselves after investigation that these things are good, these things are not blameless, these things are praised by the wise, undertaken and observed, these things lead to the benefit and happiness, enter on and abide in them”
These wise utterances of the Buddha made more than 2500 years ago, still holds good and can be applied with equal force to our day to today life. In Janasara-sammuccaya he repeats the same counsel in different form. “tapac chedac canikasatsvarnamiva panditaih Parrikshya blikshavo grahyam madvaco na tu gaurvat” which means “As the wise test gold by burning, cutting and rubbing it on a piece of touchstone, so are you to accept my words after examining them and merely out of regard for me”.
The Buddha dealt with the problem of human suffering and approached it in a concrete way. This attitude of pragmatism of Buddhism is clearly evident from the Culamalukyasutta in which the Buddha made use of the example of the wounded man. A man wounded by an arrow wished to know who shot the arrow, from which direction it was shot, the material with which it was made, before it was removed from his body. This man is compared to a man who would like to know about the origin of the Universe, whether the world is eternal or not, finite or not before he practices the religion.
Just as the man in the parable will die before he has all the answers he wanted regarding the origin and the nature of the arrow, such people will die before they will ever have the answers to all their irrelevant questions. This Sutra exemplifies the practical attitude to Buddhism and question of priorities.
Buddha as a primarily ethical teacher and reformer discouraged metaphysical discussions devoid of ethical value and practical utility. Instead, he enlightened his followers on the most important questions of sorrow, its origin, its cessation and the path leading to its cessation, as adumbrated in the Four Noble Truths. To him the problem of human suffering was much more important than speculative discussions or reasoning.
Most people define religion as believing in some kind of omnipotent God or Creator, the view to which buddhism does not subscribe. Buddhism is not a religion based on faith, authority, dogmas or revelation, but based on facts as we experience them in our daily lives. Buddha declared “whether a tathagata (buddha) arises in the world or not all conditioned things are transient” Annica, unsatisfactory Dukkha and soulless Annatta. Buddha declared deliverance could be attained independent of any external agency such as a God or a savior. This is one of the fundamental differences which distinguish buddhism from other religions.
In the Dhammapada the Buddha says: “By oneself alone is evil done: by oneself is one defiled. By oneself alone is evil avoided: by oneself alone is one purified. (Purity and impurity depend on oneself. No one can purify another). A Buddhist does not think that he can gain purity or salvation merely by seeking refuge in the Buddha or by mere faith in him. Buddha as a teacher may be instrumental or show the path of purification to a person but he himself has to strive.
Although the Buddha discounted the concept of God he never denounced or denigrated it. Never in all his discourses did the buddha make a direct attack on the concept of God
Most people across the world consider buddhism as a religion. But it should be admitted that Buddhism has many religious and philosophical aspects in its doctrine, which has led many people to regard it so. Further, Buddhism also contains metaphysical aspects which are associated with religion. Similarly, discourses on rebirth and different realms of existence, in which a person can be reborn after his death are associated with religion. Moreover, reference to supernatural powers in many of Buddhist discourses and Karmic consequences which result from one’s actions makes it less of philosophy and more of religion
Further, he speaks of the law of karma which he uses to expound the unfairness and inequality that exits in society, the defilements, fetters and hindrances such as attachment, sensory desires, lust doubt and uncertainty and craving which prevents one from attaining liberation from samsaric life. All of the above go to prove the religious aspects of the doctrine. The five precepts by buddha are more like a set of guidelines people should follow for a good life on this and the next life.
Therefore, debate whether Buddhism is a religion or a philosophy is legitimate has both sides have reasonable argument to buttress their stand on the matter.
Dr. Mrs Malwattage Josephine Sarojini Perera
An embodiment of elegance, dedication, compassion and love
It is just three years on the 6th of December 2022, since you left this mortal world and were taken by a posse of God’s angels to your heavenly abode. That occurrence submerged all of us, in your immediate and extended family, as well as all your friends and your patients, in the intolerable gloom left by a dazzling light being extinguished forever. Even in death, you had that radiant smile that you were renowned for, the one which warmed the cockles of all our hearts, day in and day out.
The lady was always like the lovely moon that brings light to the darkest night. Indeed, for all of us her loved ones, she was like no other woman that you are ever likely to meet. In her life on planet earth, she had the temperament of a celestial being, together with the marvellous spirit of a very gentle and gorgeous member of humanity. She was also the absolute embodiment of what it was like to be a lady of uninhibited grandeur. To have and to hold a woman like that, one had to be tremendously lucky; in return, one simply had to try ever so hard to treat her like the precious treasure she was.
Her heart was as soft as the wings of a butterfly and it beat ever so serenely in a way in which she would try her best to give even the world to her loved ones. She has occasionally been through moments gloomier than midnight but she always, and ever so quickly too, came out of them, to end up that much stronger, richer in spirit, and even more resilient than ever before. Her only weakness was that she cared so much for others. In everything she did, she hardly ever, if not never, put herself first. One of the kindest of souls that walked the earth, she was ever ready to forgive even some lapses on the part of those around her and the people she loved.
In her chosen vocation in healthcare, in a career spanning 45 years, which involved operative surgery, paediatrics, out-patient stints, blood bank work, rheumatology, sexually transmitted diseases, and finally working with those afflicted and affected by HIV/AIDS, she was just like a beacon of hope and succour to a flock of suffering mankind, who had the good fortune to come under her empathetic radar. Sitting and watching her dealing with a woman who had caught HIV through no fault on the part of the patient, was an abject lesson in medical professionalism. Sarojini did her very best for her patients, even more than anybody could ever have asked for. She would go even further than that legendary extra mile for them, as much as she did for those who needed her attention and care, and for those whom she loved in this world. I consider myself to have been ever so fortunate to have been one on whom her love was showered; in abundance at that.
The Good Lord above, in his perpetual wisdom, had elected to spare her the ravages of the COVID-19 pandemic and the current economic crisis by taking her into his bosom in 2019. Yet for all that, if she was with us, she most certainly would have been in her element and would have taken all those problems in her stride. She would have given her all to those suffering in the pandemic and the economic crisis. That would have been her response; one that anyone could have counted on, and one which would have been implemented with no strings attached.
I knew her for over half a century, from the time she entered the Faculty of Medicine, Colombo in my immediate junior batch and for 44 years 7 months and 11 days I had been tied to her with the golden thread of wedlock. Those were most definitely the happiest days of my existence. The rewards were unbelievable. She was the absolute epitome of a model wife and a splendid mother.
We do uncontrollably grieve at our loss, day in and day out. Our tears of desolation see no bounds whatsoever. However, we also try ever so hard, to take solace in the immortal words of Her Majesty, the late Queen Elizabeth the second “Grief is the price we pay for love.” In Sarojini, even in our worst hours of despair, we remember the sterling and fabulous memories of a unique woman for whom the word ‘love’ was ever so special. She was indeed the pure essence of love.
I am quite certain that if my late wife Dr Sarojini Perera was to reply to our lamentations, the following would be her characteristic, abiding and natural response.
So……, live your life
As I sit in heaven and watch you every day,
I try to let you know with signs, that I never went away.
I hear you laughing, and watch you as you sleep,
I even place my arms around you, to calm you as you weep.
I see you wish the days away, longing to have me home,
So, I send you signs, so you know that you are not alone.
Do not feel guilty, that you have a life, that was denied to me,
Heaven is truly beautiful, just wait and see.
So……, live your life, laugh again; enjoy yourself, be free,
Then I know, that with every breath you take, you will be taking one for me as well.
We try ever so hard to console ourselves with the words of the religion that we believe in, as written in Isaiah 57:1 “The righteous pass away; the godly often die before their time. No one seems to understand that God is protecting them from the evil to come”. We earnestly believe that she was taken to heaven, way before her time, just to fulfil that axiom.
Rest in everlasting peace in your spiritual dwelling my beautiful angel, till we meet again in heaven. You may have left us three years ago, but you will never ever be forgotten. Darling Sara, even though we are going through the unbearable agony of missing you in person, we treasure the wonderful memories of you, which will continue to resonate and live in our hearts, forever more.
by Dr B. J. C. Perera
On behalf of the family
Power tariff hikes and need to revamp CEB
By Ordinary citizen
Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) has again requested for an increase of 70% in electricity tariffs to settle its past losses. What are these losses and how can the CEB be run as a profit-making Institution? Recently, the Chairman of Public Utilities Commission (PUCSL) has claimed that the CEB had a net profit of Rs. 1 billion last month owing to the increase in rates a few months ago. Is it fair to burden an already economically oppressed public with a 70% increase in rates? While the CEB is making these unfair claims, the minister is silent on solving the problem which is the CEB itself. He even claimed that half the employees of CEB are redundant and what has he done to remedy this situation? CEB and Ceypetco are the biggest loss-making state-owned enterprises (SOE). In spite of losses they continue to pay bonuses and huge salary increases to its employees. They get a 25% salary increase every three years and recently CEB paid Rs. 3679 million to its employees under various ruses. In spite of that CEB employees recently demanded a 36% salary increase and the management has agreed to pay the usual 25% increase and this is at a cost of Rs. 9 billion! A meter reader in the CEB gets a salary of Rs. 120,000, about twice paid to a graduate teacher. General Manager of CEB gets a salary of Rs. 655,310 and a Grade 1 engineer gets a monthly salary of 533, 895 according to their own circulars. In addition, they get additional remuneration for site inspection, overtime, fuel allowance, telephone bill reimbursement etc.
These disproportionate salaries have arisen owing to the high handedness of the Board of Management which has taken decisions against court orders, cabinet decisions and Management services decisions. Since the whole country is dependent on the electricity supply, all Governments in the past have conveniently sidestepped confronting the CEB employees and given all what they ask for.
The Auditor General has pointed out that CEB has paid 1712 million in 2018 and 1873 million in 2019 going against cabinet decisions made in 2007 and Management services circular of 2009. In 2014, CEB Board proposed a 100% salary increase to only Engineers (circular no. 2014/GM/46/Pers dated 27 November 2014 and according to a Court decision (CA/WRIT/193/2015) this circular is illegal, null and void and any payments based on this circular is illegal. However, flexing its muscle, CEB granted a 85% of the salary as an allowance to engineers through Presidential decision on the advice of the attorney general which tantamount to contempt of court. Our politicians have been intimidated with the threat of strikes so as to cripple the entire country and they have no spine to oppose such exorbitant salaries and allowances of CEB employees. They have openly flouted the Government rule that limits all allowances to a maximum of 65%. If we consider other allowances on top of this 85% salary it comes to a whopping 138% of the basic salary! Furthermore, even the PAYE tax of its employees is paid by the CEB in clear violation of the Inland Revenue Act which specifically says that the income tax of an employee has to be paid by the individual and not the employer. These matters have been questioned by the COPE on several occasions but no corrective actions have been taken.
This reminds me of the courage Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew had in dealing with a work to rule campaign of the Singapore airline pilots union in 1980. He summoned the pilot’s union representatives and gave them a choice. In his legendary remarks, he told them, “If you continue this I will by every means at my disposal teach you and get the people of Singapore to help me to teach you a lesson you won’t forget. And I’m prepared to start all over again or stop it,” Lee said. He further said, “They know that I’m prepared to ground the airline. They know that I can get the airline going again without them. And let there be no mistakes about it. Whoever governs Singapore must have that iron in him. Or give it up. This is not a game of cards. This is your life and mine. I spent a whole lifetime building this. And as long as I’m in charge, nobody’s going to knock it down.” And with that, the matter with the Pilots union was resolved. We do not have leaders of Lee Kuan Yew’s calibre and put the country first leaving aside politics. They meekly surrender to unfair demands of strong unions such as those of the CEB who hold the whole country to ransom with strike actions.
Other actions of the CEB have contributed to the losses incurred by the CEB. They have continuously scuttled cheaper energy options such as solar and buy power from private power plants at exorbitant rates. The powerful Engineers union has blocked new power generating projects such as the 300 MW LNG plant Sobodhanavi. According to them it is cheaper to purchase emergency power from private power plants which is far from the truth. Also, some of these plants could have been absorbed by the CEB through the initial agreement, yet they continue to pay not only the unit cost but also their investment expenditure. CEB has procrastinated actions on at least eleven low cost renewable energy projects in the Long Term Generation Expansion Plan (LCLTGEP) for reasons best known to them and although former President Gotabhaya in his election manifesto promised to get 70% of our energy from renewable sources, the high handed CEB Engineers: union has continuously opposed the implementation of any of the renewable energy projects. Some examples are the 100 MW solar projects at Siyambalanduwa and Pooneryn and the 100 MW wind power project at Pooneryn.
It is grossly unfair to burden ordinary consumers with high electricity tariffs when a complete overhaul of the CEB is what is needed. If the engineers’ union completely blocks such low-cost projects, it is better to go for a 100% privatisation of the CEB, which appears to be the only solution. No politician either present or past have the courage to face the unfair practices at the CEB and this requires the action of the Government at the highest levels and the parliament should debate this crucial issue in parliament and come out with a long-term strategy to provide for our energy needs. Our President appears tough on hapless student leaders and what actions he proposes to take against them. However, he has been silent on this crucial issue while the treasury is pumping around Rs. 500 billion annually to sustain the corrupt CEB and this amount has not even been included in his budget speech. No wonder why we are in such a precarious position where our economy is crumbling.
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