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Educational reforms Sri Lanka demands today for a brighter tomorrow

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The 32nd Dr. C. W. W. Kannangara Memorial Lecture titled ‘For a country with a future’: Educational reforms Sri Lanka demands today’ delivered by Prof. Athula Sumathipala, Director, Institute for Research and Development, Sri Lanka and Chairman, National Institute of Fundemental Studies, Hanthana on Oct 13 at the National Institute of Education, Maharagama

Continued From Yesterday

Have these educational reforms from 1947 to date resulted in a sufficient number of citizens who are ready to face the 21st century, citizens who think beyond personal gain, and developed teachers, intellectuals, educationists and politicians, who have the capacity and the will to help develop such persons? The reality, however unpleasant, is that, no, it has not.

Has the Kannangara vision become a reality?

The aim of widening access to education was to help develop citizens, teachers, intellectuals, educationists and politicians, with the capacity and will to think beyond personal gain. Did such increased access achieve this aim? Or did it unexpectedly result in a process of converting the educated few among the poor into wealthy individuals and members of the elite? And in political power moving into the hands of a significant percentage of people who focus primarily on their rights and not on their duties and social responsibilities?

How did Israel which was established as a country in 1947 end up a developed country whereas Sri Lanka which established free education in 1947 end up a bankrupt nation? How did Sri Lanka which had the second strongest economy in Asia at the time of its independence in 1948, next to Japan alone at the time, fall so far? Can we escape this crisis without examining the factors for this fall? Why did progressive thinking not develop in line with widened access to education?

According to our conclusions based on behavioural science, economics, humanities, sociology, psychology and political science, the factors driving the current social, economic and political crisis are:

• Political leadership without a vision: the primary factor is the political leadership that governed the country post-independence, and particularly after 1977, and the narrow political vision

• Severe failures within political structures: most politicians are not honest representatives who hold themselves responsible to the public

• Corruption: politics has turned into a mechanism where wealth can be earned using the power and benefits available to politicians

• Wrong economic policies and management: failure to protect export income, import costs exceeding export income and unlimited borrowing to cover the discrepancy between dollar earnings and expenditure

• The decline of the quality of the government service: government service becoming inefficient, corrupt and suborned by political power

• Weakened moral fibre of the people: Perpetuating ignorance and poverty for political gain, failure to empower people and inculcating a mentality of dependence founded on a focus of rights alone and a disregard of duties and responsibilities

The common factor tying up all that is stated above is the lack of an education system that can engage and triumph over local and international challenges, that can ensure developing skilled and productive citizens. A key reason for this failure is the lack of a State Education Policy, which resulted in each successive government implementing disparate policies during their times. In the same vein, student organisations and trade unions carried out protests based on political motivation rather than societal needs. The solution to all issues can lie in high quality educational reforms which consider the Sri Lankan nation as a single entity.

Educational reforms Sri Lanka demands today for a brighter tomorrow

Educational reforms necessary today cannot be discussed in isolation from the global situation; they must be viewed within a broad framework of global economic crises as well as the Covid pandemic since the entire world has been turned on its head by the Covid-19 pandemic.

In 1950, Rene Dubois, a French microbiologist, environmentalist and humanitarian, who later became the Professor of Community Medicine and Tropical Medicine at the Harvard University, warned that nature would attack back at an unexpected time, in an unexpected manner. This is what we saw in 2019. The high-risk behaviour of humans, pollution, destruction of forests, use of anti-microbials, changing biomes, chemical pollution, urbanisation, rapid population increase, ultra-consumerist culture challenging sustainable limits have led to the destruction of the environment. Most people remain unaware that the floods, landslides that we call natural disasters are not in fact natural but are a result of human actions.

Faced with this unpleasant truth, education today should move towards an in-depth analysis of how we should educate ourselves to protect humanity by overcoming these challenges. It is necessary to re-examine our thoughts, feelings and behaviour in the face of the global challenges we need to overcome. Therefore, the aim of Sri Lankan education and educational reforms should be the development of a child, an adult and a citizen who looks at the world from a new perspective and is sensitive to humanity; who aims to leave a future that is better than our past to our unborn children. It is my duty to remind everyone that there is no other alternative left to us.

This country requires citizens, teachers, intellectuals, educationists and politicians who have the skill and the ability to support the development of children and people who can face and manage change, and have a vision beyond personal gain. This is therefore the best time to discuss broad educational reforms which can support the challenges of this generation. In this context, what is essential are educational reforms which go beyond expanding access to education and changing curricula, or reforms which consider development of dollar-earning, exportable human resources as their only objective. The demand today is for reforms that go beyond these basic aims and aim to enhance morality and human values.

Gaveshana Magazine, of which I am a member of the editorial board, recently published its 39th special edition on the theme of ‘Educational reforms the country demands to develop a productive citizen adaptable to the modern world’. Professor Gominda Ponnamperuma, Head of the Department of Medical Education of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo stated as follows in writing an article on ‘Student-focused education and traditional education in Sri Lanka’ for this edition:

“The education system that exists in Sri Lanka today is not one that has identified the needs specific to Sri Lanka, develops human resources to match those needs, nor one that has been enriched by the positive aspects of global trends in education. What exists today is the education system developed by British colonials. This system is not currently practiced even in Western countries. Those countries too have given priority to student-centred education. The student-centred education system we believe in is closer to the education system we originally had in Sri Lanka rather than to the system that was forced on us by the British, that they themselves reject today, but that we continue to maintain.

What is the student-centred education system we believe in? This concept is based on the definition of the word ‘education’. Currently, education is defined as skills to be developed through understanding, experimentation and experience, rather than material that can be transmitted from one person to another.

If education is a resource that flows inertly from a teacher to a student, then, education can be limited to confining a group of students to a room, and a teacher providing a series of lecture notes according to a set timetable. Yet, education is not thus defined. In that case, what defines student-centred education? True education, as previously defined, should be a process where a student, together with other students and a teacher, engages in effective conversation, allied student experiments, experiences and activities, leading to the acquisition of mental and physical skills as well as conceptual and spiritual change. It is however questionable if this is feasible in a school classroom of today?

For this to be feasible, there needs to be an environment where students can form small groups in a classroom to carry out experiments and discuss experiences under the guidance of a teacher, leading to intellectual, physical and conceptual development in the children. However, the classrooms of today are only suitable for information transmission from the teacher to the student, and not for conceptual and intellectual development through discussion between the student and the teacher. Continuing in this vein will prolong a ‘memorising education culture’ that dulls critical thinking. For future Sri Lanka to have an intelligent, skilled work force with strong values, the current classroom structure needs to change.

A counterpoint to this claim is that a teacher is weakened in student-centred education. That is completely false. In teacher-centric education, the teacher prepares notes and passes it on to the students. The teacher then explains anything the students do not understand. Students then learn the teacher-provided notes and reproduce such learnings at an exam. In student-centred education, the teacher develops ‘learning stimulants’ that need to be discussed and experimented on with students, for example, documents, reports of practical applications, activities to engage in. Students explore the stimulants the teacher developed, in small groups. The teacher directly participates in such discussions and experiments and explains any confusing or difficult points. The teacher consistently assesses if the students have reached the educational targets and objectives.”

The explanation above indicates how student-centred learning can further strengthen the role of the teacher rather than weaken it, and how it can lead to greater creativity and enjoyment in the profession of teaching.Pre-colonial Sri Lanka had an education system which is the polar opposite of teacher-centric education. In this system, the teacher would identify the skill set best aligned with the student and would teach the student either fencing, or archery, or irrigation methods, or agriculture and so on. It is quite student-centric since the teaching content and method is modified to suit the needs of each student, rather than a ‘one size fits all’ education methodology that assumes a single teaching and learning methodology meets the requirements of all students.

As we pointed out previously, education is well-known in this country as something that should have, but has not, evolved. Last year, this task of educational reforms was assigned to the Educational Reforms and Distance Education State Ministry. Dr. Upali Sedere, Secretary to this Ministry, disclosed in a special article for Gaveshana magazine the proposed reforms, which are due to be enacted under the current Minister as well.

The reforms are based on six key objectives:

i) active contribution to national development

ii) effective and efficient work-oriented person

iii) person with entrepreneurship mind

iv) patriotic person

v) good human being

vi) happy family

The curriculum that is based on these factors consists of four separate parts:

i) scholarship

ii) productive citizen and activity-based education

iii) teamwork

iv) emotional development

This will be structured on a modular method, on a student-centred basis. The curriculum is divided into three parts:

i) essential learning

ii) self-learning

iii) extra curriculum

Accordingly, the objective is to guide students towards a vocational education based on extra activities. It is mainly intended for years 1-11, or general education, according to Dr. Sedere, however, simultaneous change is necessary in both years 12-13 and in the university education system.

Dr. Sunil Jayantha Nawarathne, Director General of the National Institute of Education, writing in the same magazine, discusses the basis of the proposed amendments as follows:

“Our country has an education system that dates back two thousand five hundred years. This excellent education system was subjugated and lost with the expansion of the education system the British imposed upon us, leaving us with this British system by 1948. We have still been unable to establish a home-grown education system seventy -four years later, leading to multiple issues in the citizens who follow this education system. We need a new generation suited to the 21st century. To achieve this objective, the National Education Institute is introducing these new 2022 educational reforms with a national objective in mind. Creativity, innovation and entrepreneurial mindset are what we aim to achieve with this new education system.”

Let us examine what a productive citizen, fitting the 21st century looks like.

21st Century and 4th IR ready human capital

21 CHC = 3R + 3L + 2C + SDL

21 CHC – 21st Century-ready Human Capital

3R – Reading

wRiting

aRithmetic

3L – Learning skills

Literacy skills

Life skills

2C – Character development

Citizenship

SDL – Self-directed learner

He terms the current education system in Sri Lanka as a 3R system – (Reading, wRiting, aRithmetic). This does not include innovation or questioning the status quo. He accepts that advancement is not possible using the old system, when the reality is that we are now 22 years into the 21st century. “Even an old mobile phone does not meet the requirements of today. A Smart phone is now a necessity – for using the internet, photography, banking and many other activities are now carried out using the smart phone. To change the system to meet today’s needs, the 3R system needs further additions: 3L, 2C and SDL.

3L – Learning skills, Literacy skills, Life skills

2C – Character development, Citizenship

SDL – Self-directed learner



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Opinion

Fork in the road: Will we protect medicines that protect us or deal with incurable diseases?

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By SHOBHA SHUKLA – CNS

The spotlight is once again on preventing antimicrobial resistance that is not only devastating human health but also threatening the sustainability of our planet earth. Will we protect the medicines that protect us or lose them, resulting in diseases that become difficult or impossible to treat? “The answer my friend is blowing in the wind” as the legendary lyrics go.

What is antimicrobial resistance?

Antimicrobial resistance occurs when bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites become resistant to, and hence no longer respond to the antimicrobials or drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, fungicides and parasiticides) used to treat the diseases caused by them. While antimicrobials are the backbone of modern medicine, their misuse and overuse in humans, animals and plants is driving the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, making it difficult or even impossible to treat infections, increasing the risk of disease spread, severe illness and death.

Progress on all SDGs threatened by antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance is not only causing a huge loss of human life (contributing to over 6 million deaths every year directly and indirectly) but also posing a crippling mountainous economic burden, said Dr Haileyesus Getahun, who is the Director, Global Coordination and Partnership on antimicrobial resistance, and also the Director, Quadripartite Joint Secretariat on antimicrobial resistance at the World Health Organization (WHO). Dr Getahun was the inaugural speaker at a recently concluded 2nd Annual Global Media Forum in lead up to 2022 World Antimicrobial Awareness Week.

According to a 2017 World Bank report, if no action is taken now, antimicrobial resistance is likely to cause an USD 1.2 trillion additional health expenditure per year by 2050, and push up to 24 million additional people (particularly in low-income countries) into extreme poverty by 2030. Dr Getahun warned that antimicrobial resistance can directly affect progress on at least 6 of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals and can be linked indirectly to the remaining 11 as well.

Inequity also ails antimicrobial resistance

As the burden of antimicrobial resistance is greatest in low-resource settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia, it is not only a global public health problem, but also an issue of health equity and socioeconomic development, says Thomas Joseph, Head, Antimicrobial Stewardship and Awareness Unit at the World Health Organization (WHO). Along with ensuring a rational use of antibiotics “having access to clean water, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as good infection prevention and control measures, such as hand washing and vaccination, are vital in the fight against antimicrobial resistance,” he emphasises.

One Health approach is vital to address antimicrobial resistance

Humans, animals, plants and environment are continuously interacting and sharing with each other the microbials that have become resistant to drugs. So curbing antimicrobial resistance to protect human lives is not possible without protecting the health of our plants, animals and environment.

Jacqueline Álvarez, Chief, Chemicals and Health Branch, Economy Division, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), rightly points out that “Antimicrobial resistance is both, a cause and a consequence of the triple planetary crisis of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution and chemicals.”

Dr Getahun calls for increased financing, political advocacy and coordinated global action to better respond to the converging threats of antimicrobial resistance and the climate crisis before it is too late.Scott Newman, Senior Animal Health and Production Officer for Asia and the Pacific at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), stresses upon preserving antimicrobial efficacy while we sustain food and agriculture production.

“Loss of biodiversity and ecosystems, as well as of natural habitats for agriculture, has also led to an increase in antimicrobial use, and pathogen spread. We have to ensure that emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is slowed down across all food sectors (animal husbandry and agriculture). We need to switch to sustainable food production, by promoting climate-smart agriculture, agro-ecological approaches, nature-based solutions, and efficient and safe production methods biosecurity and disease prevention and control,” added Scott Newman.

Antimicrobials cannot compensate animal husbandry practices

“Antimicrobials are also used to prevent infections in animals apart from their use in treating animal diseases. But we must note that antimicrobials used in animals to prevent infections, must not be done to compensate poor animal husbandry practices. Rather antimicrobials should only be used for infection prevention in animals, who are at risk of acquiring a specific infection or in a specific situation where infectious disease is likely to occur, if the drug is not administered,” cautioned Delfy Gochez, Data Management Officer, antimicrobial resistance, and Veterinary Products Department, World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH).

Jane Lwoyero, Technical Officer on antimicrobial resistance at the WOAH shared that in Africa, and globally, WOAH (World Organisation for Animal Health)’s strategy is followed by them to promote prudent use of antimicrobials. “We have also disseminated farm biosecurity guidelines in Kenya and Ethiopia to curb antimicrobial resistance. We also helped pilot the information and alert system for substandard and falsified veterinary products (during October – December 2021)” said Jane. “WOAH is also promoting the use of vaccines as an alternative to irrational use of antibiotics for Theileriosis in cattle and Typhoid in humans.”

Improve the basics to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship

“To contain antimicrobial resistance, we need better evidence, and evidence-backed actions; we need to improve diagnostic stewardship; we need to have good infection control practices in the hospitals and the community; and without these pillars – we cannot truly practice antimicrobial stewardship,” said Dr Kamini Walia, Senior scientist, Indian Council of Medical Research.

“Diagnostic stewardship and infection control – both are significant challenges in our country because we have sub-optimal investment in the healthcare system, and we do not have good diagnostic laboratories in secondary and primary healthcare services (and good laboratories are essentially limited to tertiary care health services). Being a tropical country, we have a significant burden of infectious diseases. This further leads to sanitation and hygiene problems, and most of the antimicrobials which are prescribed are to compensate for poor sanitation and hygiene – both in communities and in hospitals. So, if we really want to make progress on antimicrobial stewardship we have to improve the basics, such as improving diagnostics, infection control, and other necessary actions,” rightly added Dr Walia.

“Studies done in India show that almost half of all prescriptions audited in the study, were of antibiotics, and over 55% of antibiotic use was prescribed for uncomplicated respiratory symptoms. More alarmingly, less than 1% of these patients had any microbiological diagnosis done. Many of these prescriptions show the levels of inappropriate use or higher use of antibiotics. Also, over two-third of these drugs are available over the counter. We need to prevent over-the-counter dispensing of antimicrobials,” said Dr Prapti Gilada-Toshniwal, senior microbiologist and founder head of UniLabs.

“We need stronger and practical antimicrobial stewardship programme for our context and ground realities so that we can effectively promote the appropriate use of antimicrobials (including antibiotics), improve treatment outcomes, reduce antimicrobial resistance, and decrease the spread of infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms,” added Dr Prapti Gilada-Toshniwal. “We need to boost diagnostic capacities at all levels. Access to accurate, rapid, and point-of-care diagnostic facilities for different diseases and conditions, should be scaled up.”

Clock is ticking

All this points towards the urgency of tackling antimicrobial resistance through an integrated and comprehensive response involving all the sectors, what is now referred to as the One Health approach. In the words of Dr Getahun, “One Health approach is an integrated, unifying approach that aims to sustainably balance and optimize the health of people, animals, and ecosystems. It recognizes that the health of humans, domestic and wild animals, plants, and the wider environment (including ecosystems) are closely linked and interdependent.”Collaborative efforts are needed that involve public health, agriculture, animal husbandry and environment sectors, as well as whole of society approach, to effectively address the challenge of AMR and make economies resilient to its impacts.

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Opinion

Addressing loss and damage finance: It’s more than money

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BY Ashish Barua

The main objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration in Earth’s atmosphere. Over the last three decades, it has achieved the opposite because of our indifference and disregard for the millions of climate-vulnerable people in Global South, now extended to the North as well, who are suffering the adverse impacts of climate change. The UNFCCC started with a focus on mitigation and gradually moved on to adaptation. It is evident that those are not enough, and tackling “loss and damage” is a must-do now.

The 19th climate conference, held in Warsaw, Poland in 2013, established the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM), which works as a policy framework on the issue of loss and damage. Then the Santiago Network on Loss and Damage (SNLD) at COP25 started as a technical assistance provider in addition to knowledge and resources. However, the financial mechanism has remained a big question for a long time.

The good news came ahead of COP27 when issues related to funding arrangements to respond to loss and damage caused by human-induced climate change were incorporated as a sub-agenda under finance-related matters. After having different opinions, debates, and negotiations throughout the two-week-long climate conference in Egypt this year, the parties found a common ground and agreed on the finance mechanism for loss and damage during the extended period.

So COP27 decided to establish a new funding arrangement to assist developing countries regarding loss and damage, which is “new and additional.” It also decided to establish a fund and a Transitional Committee to operationalise the new funding arrangement. The committee has been suggested to make recommendations to operationalise the funding arrangement at COP28 due to be held in Dubai next year, which will be a critical outline for how the funds are mobilised and utilised.

To make the fund operational, the parties also agreed to establish institutional arrangements, modalities, structure, governance, and terms of reference; define the elements of the new funding arrangements; identify and expand funding sources; and ensure coordination and complementarity with the existing arrangements.

There will be critical challenges for the Transitional Committee, such as who will provide the fund or how the new fund will be generated, and how it will be utilised. etc.

Beyond the UNFCCC process, there has been good news. The Scottish government, the pioneer in loss and damage funding, has come forward with its enhanced pledges. The Wallonia province of Belgium and Denmark were also there with their commitment; Austria and New Zealand also came forward, creating peer pressure on Global North to come out of their backsliding mindset.

They came forward with their actions on two fundamental principles. The first one is climate justice, challenging the unjust impact on climate-vulnerable nations who are not responsible for the crisis. The second one is moral obligations, and the responsibility of the developed countries.

The solidarity of the global community must be at the centre of the loss and damage finance facility. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented enormous scientific evidence, enough data and information on the table. The gravity, scope, and frequency of loss and damage are growing all over the world. Hence, the parties to the climate change convention must take an informed political position and enhanced pledges. The developed and developing countries’ accountability now is to keep the positive spirit up so that the empty promise of USD 100 billion every year for adaptation is not repeated.

Most importantly, climate-vulnerable nations and communities live amid the effects of climate change; they act, respond, and know how to address loss and damage on the ground. They do it with their best efforts and the least resources – they need support to do it right. And here comes the question of solidarity and empathy, which is more valuable than money.

As the loss and damage funding arrangement is already agreed upon, the fund mechanisms are critical as community needs are urgent and need to be grounded. For developing countries, this will work only if the fund is accessible, flexible, and fast to deliver to the affected communities, unlike other funding facilities such as the Green Climate Fund and Global Environment Facility. It is essential to determine how much funding is reaching the affected communities and, with this, how fast they can address the loss and damage issues in their lives and livelihoods.

Climate-vulnerable countries can take a proactive role in feeding the Transitional Committee with their actions on the ground so that the committee can go ahead with the right information and inputs. For example, Bangladesh has earmarked its fund from the Climate Change Trust Fund, which can put real-life learning to use. Helvetas Bangladesh, Young Power in Social Action, and the International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD) are partnering with the Scottish government and Climate Justice Resilience Fund, which can help put actions forward in both economic and non-economic sectors of loss and damage.

(The Daily Star/ANN)

Ashish Barua is programme manager for the Climate Change and Sustainable Development programme of Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation in Bangladesh.

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Opinion

Savings bombshell – 93% of Sri Lankans are beyond means

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By Saliya Weerakoon

The recent research by PepperCube, led by Atheek Marikar, reported that only 7% of the respondents are within means. A whopping 93% spend more than their earnings. The all-island sample indicates where the country is heading. This is understandable, given the difficult economic conditions we are in. However, 93% is a fascinating figure. 90% of the top-tier banks had negative profitability growth compared to the nine months of 2021. The cost of living and high inflation is taking a toll on the public.

Atheek and I have worked on public opinion research for many years, and he was spot on and had near-perfect accuracy in insights and findings. I have no reason to doubt the above figure, given my first-hand experience with him.I have been talking to various business stakeholders in the country, and all are unanimous that we are probably in the worst economic crisis post-independence. The PepperCube research shows that most of the public does not think economic conditions will improve in the next 12 months. The citizenry is rapidly losing hope, and specially educated youth have high hopes of leaving the country for greener pastures.

The officially reported food inflation is a killer. When you add inflation in transportation, educational expenses, medicines, rent, and other miscellaneous expenses puts the citizen of Sri Lanka on difficult ground. The credit card lending rates at 36% per annum and home loans, personal loans and vehicle loans also have a steep increase in interest rates. On top of it, the country’s highest-income earners will have an increased tax payment.

The cost is unbearable for the absolute majority of the country. The 93% of Sri Lankans living beyond their means no longer surprises me. We are a ticking bomb that can be exploded anytime, and the country’s leaders must understand the gravity of the situation.

The current peril will have an impact on all businesses in the country. Despite higher interest rates for bank deposits, financial institutions will struggle for deposit mobilisation. The FMCGs will find it hard to sell their products in the market. Also, the research data, I witnessed, shows people are less patronising modern trade/supermarkets vis a vis last year same period.

The Central Bank of Sri Lanka reported that in the first eight months of 2022, the nominal wages of the informal private sector increased substantially (Roughly about 25%), primarily due to the demand-based for daily wagers due to high inflation. Some private sector employees received pay hikes, but anyone can argue that the wage increase is in no way relatable to the rising cost of living.

In Q2 2022, credit cards had a transaction value of LKR 100.5 billion. This is a 63% increase in to the corresponding period of 2021. We must remember that credit cards have a rolling over 36% per annum interest rate; I am aware from personal business experience that most credit cardholders are paying the minimum payment and rolling the balance, sometimes through the years. The increase in credit card usage indicates that all is not good in the top bracket of the country. As per CBSL reports, they are over 2 million credit cards in circulation, and many possess multiple cards. I estimate that we have approx. 1.2 million unique cardholders in the country.

Where are we heading as a country? No one seems to have a clue. The government looks at a one-person show where everyone is looking to President Wickremesinghe to give solutions. It’s hardly visible that cabinet and state ministers are doing anything productive. The Opposition is in disarray and I doubt they can do much other than making statements. The President’s budget was politically safe and brutally honest about the situation of the country. The SOE’s must be restructured, and the government should not be in business of making money, which they are bad at it. The public-private partnerships are the way but there should be credibility in restructuring SOEs and optimising their potential. We have a bad history of restructuring and privatisation of state assets, which should not be the case this time. I am of the view that we should recruit experts to do the job, and they should be paid handsomely to avoid any malpractices.

The public is helpless. According to research, 93% of people will have anger, disappointment and frustration. The easiest thing is to leave the country but there should be an opportunity in another country to get an employment. Given that fact most of the countries are now giving preference to their own citizens when it comes to employment it will be hard task to get a slot. However, there are many Sri Lankan youth in Dubai on visit visa to find employment. My 23-year-old nephew found a job after trying for eight months in Dubai and he left the country to support his family. He was working for LKR 20,000 salary in Sri Lanka, and I did not have the heart to stop him leaving the country because I knew the salary he was getting here was not enough for transportation and miscellaneous expenses.

As of 30th June 2022, 190,000 credit cardholders have defaulted card issuing institutions. In the coming months, we will see an increase of this as, unless someone change their lives completely, one will not be able to withstand the external pressure. My friends in the banking system are worried that the non-performing assets may increase sharply and that will erode the profitability. Even during the 30-year-old war, banks kept on increasing profits every year, and what we have now is an unprecedented situation.

The leaders are still busy playing politics and ineffective governance is nothing new. Let it sink 93% of Sri Lankans are beyond their means and human mind only can take limited pressure. The financial freedom is not everything but its healthy to have the means. For 74 years we have been seeing the decline of our coffers and almost all countries in the region have passed us for prosperity. The problem we are facing is grave in nature and we should not look for politician to give us solutions. Simply, because they can’t and they won’t. One person will not be able to get us out of this trouble unless we all get together. I hope that sanity prevails.

The writer, an entrepreneur, alumnus of Harvard Kennedy School in Public Leadership with 27 years’ experience in the business world with international experience. Saliya can be reached on

saliya@eqwtay.com

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