The election of a new parliament, like the election of a new president, provides an opportunity for the nation to envision its future. One can trace the background to this election, link by link as it were, over a chain of circumstances. Each of us might choose a different ‘chain’, and make it go back as far or as near as we wish to. In my case, the chain is the issue of a Sri Lankan identity, and it stretches back to at least 1948.
There is no doubt in my mind that the ideology of identity played a role in the election just concluded – as it has in the past. Especially since the end of the separatist war, the spotlight has been thrown afresh on two strands of thought: one of ‘ethno-religious majoritarianism’, and the other, of ‘pluralism’. Since these terms can mean different things to different people, I need to define what I mean by each.
By majoritarianism I mean a “…political philosophy or agenda that asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language, social class, or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the society.” (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majoritarianism). And in the case of ethno-religious majoritarianism, its application is to the presumed primacy of the segment of society which identifies itself as ‘Sinhala-Buddhist’. In this view, those without this identity do not hold the same rights as Sinhala Buddhists, whether such differences are legislated or merely represent the de facto reality – if not at all times and situations, in SOME of them. Let me call this ‘Identity 1’ (or ID1 for short).
‘Pluralism’ is used in the sense that Sri Lankans are not only diverse across different dimensions such as ethnicity, mother tongue/first language, religion (and being areligious) and any other category; but that the particular label of identity one carries does not warrant special privileges (claimed on the grounds of being a bhoomi putthra) – therefore seeking to make all citizens equal partners in nation-building. It also includes a perception that we may carry a hybridity WITHIN our official categorization, given how our ancestors have intermingled across the centuries. I refer to pluralism as ‘Identity 2’ (or ID2).
If these two strands of thought, or ideologies, are considered to be two extremes, the realities of day-to-day life probably take place on a continuum between the two. However, they serve as useful signposts at the fork on the road we have now arrived at, to indicate the possible future which lies ahead for generations born and unborn.
Arguably, ID1 has risen to centre stage in both the presidential and the parliamentary election. If stressing on the importance of ethnicity, and in particular the religion of the majority garners votes (of the majority), then one can claim that that particular view represents the feelings and aspirations of the electorate. And it is possible, of course to build the future of the nation giving special privileges to the majority segment of the population, as different countries have done at different times in their histories; however disagreeable it may be to those who are not a part of this segment.
It is worthwhile briefly considering a question that can be asked – and HAS been asked from time to time, sometimes in sarcasm, which is, what is the evidence for the existence of ID1? The weary answer would be that it is too numerous to keep recounting, but would include the areas of language policy (and practice), land settlement, State recruitment including to the Armed Forces, and so on; and the experience with rhetoric, not only of the ‘lunatic fringe’, but also of the establishment. In recent years this has taken the form of Islamophobia, most evidently in the aftermath of the 2019 Easter Sunday attacks. This was evident in the run-up to the elections, with candidates keen to establish where they stood in relation to this identity. It has also been displayed after the presidential election, both in the nature of the swearing-in ceremony, and in the apparent advisory role assigned to the Sangha.
Those who view Sri Lankans in terms of ID2 may do so for one or both of two reasons. One is (the perception) that our failure to progress economically since independence is a result of our inability to accept pluralism and build our nation on it; and that therefore our future is doomed if we do not rectify this. The other is that even if we could charter a new course of economic and social development built on ID1 (including perhaps a new constitution), we should not do so on ethical or moral grounds.
For those of us who grew up with daily experiences inculcating pluralism – at home, in school and in the segments of society we moved in – the term ‘Sri Lankan’ connoted an embracing of this pluralism. Over time we have seen the voice of pluralism and inclusivity wax and wane – sometimes submerged, but never drowned. And to those fellow-citizens who were privileged to have been exposed to this nature of diversity and acceptance, life after the election brings a challenge, and a time of decision: Which do we choose – differentiation, domination, primacy; or equality, unity, and sharing?
The ‘othering’ of particular groups is not a uniquely Sri Lankan phenomenon of course. It is ironic that close to 57 years, since the Rev. Martin Luther King’s stirring words “I have a dream”, there is a need for a ‘Black Lives Matter’ movement. In that historic moment, King spelled out his dream:
“I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”…I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.” (https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm)
And it is this dream for the future of his children that we voters hold in our hands as we contemplate the future of OUR children and grandchildren; that it is the content of their character which matters, not what their ethnicity, or language or religion is; and not whether they are civilians or laity, or any other group.
There are public voices of pluralism in Sri Lanka, too, of course, which are relatively rare except in some political campaigns, albeit in ‘cautious language’. A clear and unambiguous voice is that of the much maligned Mangala Samaraweera, whose words have been selectively quoted in sometimes sensational fashion. Addressing party members, on May 12, 2019, in an emotive period after the Easter massacres, from within a group identity of Sinhala Buddhists (Sinhala Bauddha api), he spoke on the premise that all of Sri Lanka’s citizens are equal. In that context he is recorded as saying: Lankawa kiyanne Sinhala Baudhayange ratak nevei, Lankawa kiyanne Sri Laankikayange ratak; Sri Laankikayange ratay bahutharaya Sinhala Bauddha (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=57kzyox1Lfs), which may be translated as:
“Lanka is not a country of the Sinhala Buddhists, Lanka is a country of Sri Lankans; the majority in the country of the Sri Lankans are Sinhala Buddhist”.
These are statesman-like words (wisdom our majority of politicians have failed to pursue)! And yet, they have been used primarily to vilify Samaraweera, and thereby to engender caution in others who would pursue similar reasoning.
The clearest multi-cultural placing of oneself within a Sri Lankan identity is perhaps found in Kumar Sangakkara’s much-acclaimed ‘MCC Spirit of Cricket Lecture’ on July 4, 2011 in England. He drew on this identity in the motivation it gave him to represent his country at cricket: “I will do that keeping paramount in my mind my Sri Lankan identity…My loyalty will be to the ordinary Sri Lankan fan, their 20 million hearts beating collectively as one….Fans of different races, castes, ethnicities and religions who together celebrate their diversity by uniting for a common national cause….” And he ended his speech with the extraordinarily inspiring sentiments: “I am Tamil, Sinhalese, Muslim and Burgher. I am a Buddhist, a Hindu, a follower of Islam and Christianity. I am today, and always, proudly Sri Lankan.” (http://www.espncricinfo.com/srilanka/content/story/522183.html).
And so I come back to the fork on our journey even as the dust of the election settles. Imagine the portrayal of a Sri Lankan identity in terms of the two extremes, ID1 – the ‘dominant ideology’ and ID2 – the ‘Sangakkara vision’. Where in the scale joining these extremes do each of us stand?
It is apt to conclude with lines from ‘The Call of Lanka’ by the Rev. W.S. Senior, whose remains were interred in his beloved Sri Lanka, at St. Andrew’s church, Haputale. (http://www.poetryatlas.com/poetry/poem/4354/the-call-of-lanka.html).
“But most shall he sing of Lanka in the brave new days that come,
When the races all have blended and the voice of strife is dumb;
When we leap to a single bugle, march to a single drum,
March to a mighty purpose, one Man from shore to shore….”
C. R. ABAYASEKARA
Venturing into health tourism and unlocking a world of benefits for Sri Lanka!
by Dr. Gotabhaya Ranasinghe
Sri Lanka is blessed with natural resources and scenic beauty. Famed for the hospitality of the friendly people, the country has a lot more to offer than just delicious food, comfortable lodgings, adventurous nature trails, and the green-blue seas.Sri Lanka is facing a grave financial crisis, of which the repercussions are viciously experienced by many citizens. Its inability to bring in enough foreign exchange has exacerbated its woes.
How can we as medical professionals help the country during a forex crisis? Besides the short and medium-term plans that encourage many foreign donations to the country, shouldn’t we also look for a long-term plan to revive the economy?
Sri Lanka has one of the best education systems in the world and produces skilled professionals to many industries. Sri Lanka’s medical professionals are considered to be highly skilled, and I, as a medical professional myself, feel that there are endless possibilities for us to serve the country if the right opportunities are created.Tourism is a major forex earner, but what about health tourism, which is one of the largest growing segments of wellness and medical tourism?
What is health tourism?
Health Tourism allows people to travel to different countries to receive health services to increase their quality of life, enabling them to improve their physical and mental well-being.
Health tourism allows you to engage in activities, treatments, and therapies that benefit your health and contributes to a healthier physical, mental, and spiritual health.
Why is health tourism becoming a popular segment?
Professional health services
Long waiting lists in countries of residence
Insurance coverage-related matters
Benefits of native treatment
Combination of treatment with holiday
Faster recover in a different environment
Availability of best and professional care / personalised care
Better access to technology and specialists
Availability throughout year
What are the benefits of health tourism?
It’s the perfect gateway for tourists to receive high-quality healthcare at affordable prices.
Why should Sri Lanka contribute to creating a health tourism segment?
Health tourism is a growing industry. The global pandemic (covid-19) made people more cautious and aware of their health, and they are keen and make health and well-being a top priority. People are on the lookout for affordable holiday destinations and combine therapy, treatments, and access to medical procedures that may sometimes be unavailable in their residing country.Sri Lanka is a well-known holiday destination and it is easy to attract tourists who seek the bliss and comfort of health tourism.
Our country possesses skilled and specialised medical professionals who are:
Reliable and possess the required language skills
Empathetic and well-trained to care for patients
Comparatively cheap labour than European countries
Comparatively cheaper overhead costs and expenses
The ability to furnish patients with comfortable lodgings
Sri Lanka is a tropical country and the warm & sunny weather is known to be immensely beneficial for our health.
What treatments can we offer?
Dermatology / Cosmetic/plastic surgery
Native treatment, oil therapies, and access to alternative treatment
Medication and yoga centers
Weight loss or healthy eating retreats
What is stopping us?
I must frankly admit that to cater to the health tourism sector, the state-runt hospitals may need more time to undergo improvements such as patient-friendly lodgings and environment. This might seem a difficult task at a time like this due to lack of funds, but the private hospitals and treatment centers are equipped to engage in health tourism.With some innovative thinking, the private sector is capable of catering to professional health tourism industry.
What we are capable of offering!
Highly specialised medical professionals and well-trained staff
Internationally accredited, state-of-the-art medical facilities
Personalised care – The comfort and the convenience of a private room, interpreter & support staff while receiving treatment and other tailor-made services designed for the patient’s comfort.
Round-trip-travel-support. Teams can offer services from medical treatment to travel assistance to a hotel of the patient’s choice, reservation assistance, visa procedure, etc.,
Significant cost reductions for the international patients Immediate access to treatment – no waiting lists
A change of attitude will make us ready to serve a wider community!
No matter how skilled or specialised our professionals are, there are a few obstacles we are yet to overcome for us to open the country to health tourism. We need to get together as a team and turn a new leaf.
1. The country should introduce a simple visa procedure and allow hassle-free entry for the visitors.
2. Over the years as a medical practitioner, I have noticed that the private hospitals in Sri Lanka don’t quite meet the required standards and quality of patient care. I sometimes wonder if the private sector is far too commercialised and concerned only about earning money and not patients’ welfare. Are the medical support staff trained and experienced enough to care for patients, and to assist with their wants and needs? Are the patient rooms comfortable and clean? Does a patient have complaints about the available facilities even after paying money to obtain services? The specialised skilled services surely require to be more structured and organized.
3. Of course, I understand that private hospitals are profit-oriented commercial ventures. But, are they utilising their profits for the benefit of the patients? Some private hospitals are not equipped with modern or advanced technology on par with standard treatments, especially when it comes to cardiology and perhaps in other areas too. Shouldn’t we address this issue as a national priority? Our private hospitals need improvement in comparison with neighboring countries like the Maldives, India, Singapore, etc., engaged in health tourism.Dr. Gotabhaya Ranasinghe, Consultant Cardiologist, Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka
I kindly urge relevant tourism authorities, the Ministry of Health, medical professionals, and private health caregivers to consider these views and create opportunities to implement a growing and nourishing health tourism sector in Sri Lanka to enhance the inflow of foreign exchange.Dr. Gotabhaya Ranasinghe, Consultant Cardiologist, Institute of Cardiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka.
Ex-Prez’s hotel bills; modesty of Indian PM; opinion on MPs by an expat Sri Lankan
There are many who feel sorry for him as the least evil when in absolute power in his family of power men. But we the people recollect the past. Pity he had to suffer, while others who did worse by Sri Lanka are living free, easy and in comfort. The master mind of his presidential bid and the previous spendthrift are well away. They are even coming out but highly protected and not yet in public.Unanimously, we admire Mrs Gotabaya R. She has been true and faithful and followed her husband in his travails. For her sake, we hope they can return to safety here or in the US.
Poor Mr Gotabaya Rajapaksa becoming quite the wandering ex-Prez. He is far from homeless having a large home here down Pangiriwatte way and, reportedly, a truly palatial mansion in LA or California with two or three more owned large houses to select from over there. Now, where is he? Living off a suitcase in hotels, the governments of foreign countries he takes refuge in giving him limited time within their borders. Can you imagine a worse fate for a proud person who wielded such power since our civil war began and later, the power increased with him being the sole occupant of the pinnacle of Sri Lankan authority? But his stubbornness and wanting his own way even in matters governmental, aided and sycophantically encouraged by foolish/incompetent/self seeking advisors, he dug his own hapless future. The shame of it all, slinking from one country to another. The worst is the fear he has been imbued with, and home meaning Sri Lanka taboo as of now and the US not giving him a visa to return to that home.
There are many who feel sorry for him as the least evil when in absolute power in his family of power men. But we the people recollect the past. Pity he had to suffer, while others who did worse by Sri Lanka are living free, easy and in comfort. The master mind of his presidential bid and the previous spendthrift are well away. They are even coming out but highly protected and not yet in public.
Unanimously, we admire Mrs Gotabaya R. She has been true and faithful and followed her husband in his travails. For her sake, we hope they can return to safety here or in the US.But one certainty is that people with hubris and shot through with power and consider themselves above all else and invincible, should look at this ex-prez; there lies a warning example. Act foolish, you suffer; disregard, belittle others and lack humanity, you fall from a great height; act vile, evil comes to you as sure as the sun rises in the east or night follows day.
A question tossed around with fair fear is: who pays Gota‘s bills of suite occupation in ultra luxury star hotels? Not the government we hope, accompanied in the second breath by a vehement – why should we pay after all the damage done, especially to the entire agricultural sector, including tea, and beggaring farmers? He must pay his bills as the country pays ex-Prez’s and widowed spouses and offers them a home and security if and when they are resident on home turf. Incidentally this and pensions for MPs after just five years in Parliament are two very extravagant expenses that must be eliminated in the new constitution being drawn up.
India and its PM to be admired
India and Pakistan celebrated their 75th anniversaries of Independence from British rule and birth as a free nation respectively, on 15 August. India has progressed streets ahead in all spheres of a country’s wellbeing and for the benefit of its people. Battered, bruised and badly bloodied during partition, carrying a very heavy load of poverty and disease, ignorance and growing population, India is now so advanced that even the US approaches her seeking good relations with the power balancing sub-continent.
I invariably look forward to 15 August to relive memories of a sound and light show enjoyed at the Red Fort in Delhi and to watch Prime Minister Modi arriving to deliver his Republic Day speech. Ever since his first delivery of this momentous speech, I wait to see his headgear, remembering the elaborate red with mixed colours turban he wore that first time, a style representative of one indigenous culture of the vast country. This year he looked extra elegant in a white turban streaked in red and green patterned entirely different on one side where the turban was pleated. It had a long trailing scarf at the back, making Modi look plenty royal.
He has acted majestically magnanimous in donating the only bit of land he owned, No other assets except a mite of money. He has declared his assets and thus other MPs will have to follow suit. When ever will our 225 do this, and the R brothers, son and nephew?
Delayed Chinese ship received with aplomb
Wonder who ordered that the Yuan Wang 5 be rapturously welcomed to the Hambantota Port. Stupid, Cassandra labels the reception offered the controversial ship that almost launched a diplomatic row of offending either India or China and little Sri Lanka wedged uncomfortably between the two trying to maintain peace, show non-partisanship and act non-aligned. Orders were sent out delaying the ship’s arrival from 11 August to 15. And then the welcome reception by Chinese Embassy Staff and Lankan politicians. Of course, the former are to be expected on land in Hambantota to welcome its prime spying and intercepting –oops sorry – scientific ship, but what were our politicos doing in the reception line? For publicity? To gather benefit in whatever way? Mentioned in the newspaper is that MPs Dr G Weerasinghe, Vasudeva N, Sarath Weerasekera, Atureliye Rathana Thera and Wimal Weerawanse were present and WW even made a speech of welcome, no less. It must be mentioned however, that he made a very important point: “We hope China will help Sri Lanka in the form of investments and not loans.” Wimal W extended no begging bowl, rather a request for a helping hand and very wisely not charity but investment. He has promised plenty cheap petroleum fuels from Russia which will not be jeopardized by rendering honours to the Chinese.
A must read for all: the public, politicians and particularly MPs, is a strong opinion vehemently expressed in The Island of Wednesday August 17 by Channaka Gooneratne of LA, Calif. He titles his opinion: Shame on today’s Opportunistic Politicians! echoing the sentiments we constantly expressed and now, after the initial Aragalaya, have hope that the shamelessness of politicians to grab opportunities for gathering illicit wealth, power, or currying favour with leaders or parties for self promotion, will be reduced. People are no longer abjectly fearful of shouting stop thief; you cannot get away with that crime; your powerful leader will not be able to extricate you from due punishment.
Channaka takes Harin Fernando as his example to explain his thoughts and opinions. No better choice than this time server and loud mouth. Channaka ends his excellent expose thus: “They (the public) see you as unintelligent, opportunistic, third rate politicians. Please do not forget that, EVER.” We totally agree and can get an entire thesaurus of words to depict their stupidity, venality and selfishness.Cassandra says no more, until she comes out with more crit next Friday. Bye for now!
Muslims’ contribution to Sri Lanka and the world: Some little known facts
by Ifham Nizam
The Island spoke to Asiff Hussein, Vice-President, Outreach of the Centre for Islamic Studies (CIS) about cultural contribution of Muslims and misconceptions about the Islamic faith.
You have lectured extensively on Muslim Cultural Contribution. So, how would you describe such contribution both locally and internationally?
Islam has throughout history been a very dynamic force, extensively borrowing from cultures and contributing to them. In the early years of Islam, the influence of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Rome of the East was considerable. Thence came the domes of our mosques and the crescent symbol which was originally the symbol of Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium. When the Ottoman Turks took it in 1453, it became the symbol of Islam. The Muslims in turn improved on the architecture and so we have the onion domes of the Kremlin and the pointed towers of Castle Neuschwanstein in Bavaria resembling Islamic minarets as you see in the great mosque in Medina and the Blue Mosque in Istanbul.
In medicine, the early Muslims borrowed from Greece and the medical tradition known as Unani (literally Greek) was born. The Muslims in turn improved on it and passed it on to Europe, so much so that Ibn Sina’s (Avicenna’s) Qanoon Fit Tibb or Canon of Medicine was a standard textbook in European universities until as recently as the eighteenth century.
Even in Sri Lanka, we find Muslims have made a very meaningful contribution in terms of food, dress and pastimes. Sinhala sweetmeats such as aluva, dodol and bibikkan, accharu pickles, savoury sambols, articles of dress like sarong and karabu and pastimes such as the rabana and kite flying all owe their origins to the country’s Moor and Malay communities. Nose ornaments widely worn by Tamil women were also introduced by the Muslims. Arab and Muslim women widely wore such ornaments in the good old days.
Has Islamic fundamentalism taken hold of the local Muslim community and if so what can be done about it?
Fundamentalism might be the wrong word to use in this context since a Fundamentalist is literally one who sticks to the fundamentals of the faith. The proper word to use might be extremist rather than fundamentalist. There have been some extremist interpretations of Islam by Saudi-inspired Salafi scholars locally, especially where matters such as niqab (face covering) are concerned. However even in Saudi Arabia, these extremist attitudes are no longer being tolerated and that’s a good thing. In Islam what is required is to dress modestly and cover all except the face and hands. To say that the faith requires covering more than that is going beyond Islamic teachings and no doubt an expression of extremism. Nevertheless I still believe it should be a choice for the woman herself if she opts for niqab. Individual freedoms are also important, so long as it is not forced or coerced using religion among other things.
However, this extremist thinking has not made much headway in Sri Lankan society and is rejected by the vast majority of Muslims. In fact, the Easter Sunday bombings of churches and hotels shook and shocked the community as we never imagined even in our worst nightmares that such a thing could ever happen. As things are turning out now, there were other sinister interests behind these terrorist attacks. What these terrorists did went against every teaching of Islam including striking religious places of worship and killing innocents among other things.
You focus a lot on the Past as an Inspiration for Co-existence between Muslims and people of other faiths. Why do you do that?
Muslims have co-existed with the other communities of this island for well over a thousand years. They never arrived here as invaders but as peaceful merchants who made an immense contribution to our country by way of supplying essentials to isolated communities such as the Veddas and the landlocked Kandyan kingdom for centuries at a time when it was surrounded and at times blockaded by the colonial powers. They also intermarried with both Sinhalese and to a lesser extent Tamils. This is probably why you find Kandyan Muslims still bearing Sinhala ge-names. It has also been established by genetic studies that Sri Lankan Muslims are the least exclusive of all of the island’s races.
This means they have been the most inclusive and have DNA that closely resembles the Sinhalese. This is mostly true of maternal lineages which proves that the early Moors settled here intermarried with local women. However there are Sinhalese paternal linages of Moors as well which shows how close these two communities were in the past. So how do we create awareness of this fact? Simple, by publicizing it in every possible way, that we are one with the rest of the communities that have made this beautiful island our home.
There is a misconception that in Islam women are not treated as equals. How far is this true?
This is a common misconception, mainly because of the way Islam is interpreted in certain countries like Saudi Arabia. In Islam, women are free to own and manage property and transact business in their own right; they are free to marry partners whom they choose and may do so even sans the consent of male guardians such as father or brother. Unfortunately many of these rights given in both the Qur’an and in the ahadith or traditions of our Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) are trampled in countries like Saudi Arabia which are more concerned about maintaining their tribal traditions than the true laws of Islam.
In some cases, the West deliberately complicates the picture, especially when it comes to matters like Female Genital Mutilation. True, Islam has nothing to do with FGM, but we do have something called female circumcision, which like male circumcision involves the removal of a little bit of skin, the prepuce covering the clitoris and ensures a lifetime of genital hygiene and enhanced sexual pleasure. But the West perpetuates this myth equating it to FGM as happens in certain African countries. Fortunately Islamic organisations and publications have now begun addressing these topics. A case in point is the leading international Islamic magazine Al Jumuah carrying its cover story on Islamic Female Circumcision, making a very good case why it ought to be obligatory and outlining its many health and sexual benefits. Thus, it is not only the manner in which Islam is interpreted in certain societies that is the problem, but also how the West portrays it to be.
Sharia Law is commonly thought to be a very harsh set of laws and unsuited for the modern world. What is your take on this?
Shariah Law is not at all what it is commonly understood to be. You wouldn’t believe me if I were to tell you that it was until recently, one of the most, perhaps the most lenient of legal systems the world had known. But that’s the fact. Take amputation of the hand for theft. Do you know that to cut off a thief’s hand that at least thirteen conditions should be met and that if any one of these conditions are not met, the penalty cannot be applied. In fact, in Ottoman Turkey where the Shariah was applied for well over three centuries, there were only a handful of cases where thieves had their hands cut off.
Why, because the legal conditions that required the penalty to be carried out were so difficult to establish. The stolen item should have had a certain value, something like forty dollars or more in the present context, it should have been kept in a place of safekeeping like a safe, it should have not been in a public place or in the sight of the public, etc., and when all these conditions have expired, it is still possible to save the thief from the penalty if the victim comes forward to gift it to him or her. In contrast until as recently as the early 1800s thieves in Britain could be sent to the gallows without any of the attenuating conditions that Islamdom imposed.
Then take adultery. True, stoning to death may well be the punishment, but the fact remains that to prove adultery as many as four witnesses are necessary, and these four should have seen penetration taking place by the offending couple. The purpose of Shariah is not to humiliate or mutilate, but to impress on potential offenders the seriousness of their offence and to prevent the evil from being broadcast in public so that it becomes the order of the day.
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