The pandemic has brought enormous disruption to the education of our youth during these two years. However, this may be a good opportunity for the academia and the educational authorities to consider a transformational shift in the delivery of the education, taking into consideration the need for children to learn the 21st century skills and practices that go beyond traditional content to include multidisciplinary skills such as problem-solving, critical thinking and creativity.
As we all know, ‘why’ is a regularly used word by small children, as they are constantly engaged with observation and wonder. Inquiry is part of their natural evolution. Educational experts are of the view that ‘Inquiry based learning’ is a highly effective method of learning as it is about triggering curiosity and thereby genuine engagement. Activating curiosity is a far more important goal than information delivery which can be considered as the traditional form of teaching. In the inquiry-based learning process, students themselves are the drivers of the learning process which ultimately results in the deeper understanding of a concept. This allows them to take responsibility for their own learning which enhances their commitment towards further exploration and knowledge.
Another tested method of learning is problem-based learning or context-based learning. Here, students solve, or try to solve, an authentic real-world problem through investigation, discovery, and engagement. Because of its meaningfulness and relevance, the students experience the value of their contributions and therefore it becomes an excellent form of learning. Problem-based learning motivates course content and maximizes learning through investigation, explanation and resolution and thereby encourages the development of practical skills and higher-order thinking. Problem-based learning and inquiry-based learning are both student-centered teaching pedagogies that encourage active learning and critical thinking through investigation. In fact, problem-based learning can be classified as guided inquiry and therefore it is also a type of inquiry-based learning.
Common elements of inquiry and problem-solving include:
Asking questions or defining problems
Exploring solutions or explanations
Analyzing or testing solutions or explanations
Communicating possible solutions or explanations
As an example, in mathematics when teaching about statistical graphs, the inquiry questions can be:
How can different graphical analysis tools be utilised to address matters such as how many, how much, at what time and how to compare?
Is one type of graphical analysis better than another? If cannot measure it, does it really exist?
To enable such comprehensive skill learning, educational authorities need to invest in professional development to provide educators with the tools for its effective implementation. The groundwork that needs to be done include the following:
1. Identification of the aims and objectives of each subject
2. Developing and structuring courses to provide opportunities to meet the defined aims and objectives
3. Providing ideas and proposals to promote interdisciplinary learning
4. Preparation of guides and teacher support material to help teachers to plan the lessons according to the teaching and learning model to be followed
5. Preparation of clear assessment frameworks that can be followed by the teachers along with well-defined grade descriptors.
Assessment is another important aspect that needs to be upgraded. The modern education trends inspire us to move towards criterion-based assessment instead of normative assessment. In normative assessment, the students are compared in relation to one another while in criterion-based assessment the students are assessed according to identified learning criteria. The dependence of a final grade wholly on a public examination has caused many difficulties to the students and examination boards during this pandemic. This might be the time to think about a hybrid assessment model comprising of internal and external evaluation of student work. The internal assessment can be in the form of a project or an exploration to be marked by the teachers according to identified criteria, while the external assessment is the common public examination that we are accustomed to.
If the will and determination are there, I feel that an inquiry-based learning model can be implemented in our local schools by the beginning of the year 2024. If all the material that are needed can be organized by the end of 2022, providing the much-needed professional development to the teachers can be completed in 2023. The success of the model depends primarily on the teachers.
The popular educational consultant Kath Murdoch said “Inquiry is not just knowing how to plan – it’s about how we teach. It’s about what we say to kids and how we say it. It’s about the way we listen and the way we feel about what our kids are saying. It’s about knowing when to step back and when to step in. It’s about the language we use and the silences we deliberately leave. It’s about what we are thinking about what we are doing”.
R.N.A. de Silva
The writer is a senior examiner of the International Baccalaureate organization and member of the faculty of the Overseas School of Colombo.
KNDU: MBBS for the rich, crumbs for the poor
By RAMYA KUMAR
A regular day at work. A medical student, Niluka (not her real name), comes to my office to discuss the presentation she is due to make at a research symposium. In the middle of our meeting she is in tears. Her mother, a single mother, who works as a security guard in remote Polonnaruwa, cannot afford her boarding fees as she has to cover her sister’s A/L tuition classes, as well as her brother’s medicines for a recent health issue. Niluka is unable to focus on her presentation because she is worried about her financial situation. She has a year and half to go.
This is the picture of Free Education that many do not see, of students struggling to make ends meet. Such stories are commonplace at our non-fee levying state universities; as Sumathy Sivamohan wrote recently, “free education does not serve everybody equally, but over the years and across decades, it has come to represent the hope of a vast majority for a better place in society.” However, this aspect of Free Education is obscured by images of protesting students “wasting tax-payers’ money,” constructed by the media in the service of the state. While Colombo-based elites (and others) may be duped into seeing the Kotelawala National Defence University (KNDU) Bill and military repression as solutions to the problems in higher education, this article explores what the Bill really means, especially its implications for medical education.
No vision, no imagination
Free Education, despite its marginalisations and exclusions, is etched in our nation’s consciousness, so much so that governments have been reluctant to overtly dismantle the public education system. Instead, they have stealthily underfunded the system, while incentivising expansion of private education. With inadequate public investment, the state universities under the UGC are floundering to service demand, while the fee-levying Kotelawala Defence University (KDU) and non-state fee-levying higher educational institutions, such as SLIIT, receive state subsidies to finance infrastructure as well as student loans.
Fee-levying universities are simply not affordable for the vast majority in this country. To flourish, they require public-financing, both for their establishment and for student loans, to make them accessible to the masses. While escalating investment in KDU and private fee-levying universities through public funds, the government has adopted a zero-investment policy for state universities under the UGC and increased admissions by a third, this year. The fallout of increasing admissions without budgetary allocations is most felt by universities in peripheral districts, already running on meagre resources.
A government’s vision for education is inextricably linked with its economic policy. While lacking a credible vision for education, successive governments have been equally unimaginative in attempts to improve the economy. Sri Lanka relies on imports for day-to-day essentials, such as lentils, pulses, and milk, with little investment in agriculture or agro-industries for value addition. Meanwhile, billions of rupees are lost in tax incentives to attract (elusive) foreign direct investment, including in education. The Board of Investment expanded its purview to include the social sector in the 1990s, essentially opening education to the global market. The latter has changed the landscape of education in the country with international schools, private colleges and other higher education institutions proliferating in the decades since, and creating parallel systems of education for students from rich and poor families.
Faced by mounting debt, the government is desperately looking for avenues to build up its foreign reserves. In 2019, the incumbent government proposed a “free education investment zone” to attract investment from “top international universities,” with accompanying tax exemptions, yet another scheme to subsidise the private sector through public funding. With COVID-19, the plans for the investment zone fell by the wayside. However, just a few years after the SAITM debacle, the government is once again looking to expand private medical education, this time through the KDU.
In 2019, the incumbent President’s manifesto, which is the government’s policy framework, stated that “steps will be taken to expand the Kotelawala Defence University” (p.22). Why KDU? Because the majority of its students are enrolled on a fee-levying basis through mechanisms outside the UGC’s Z score-based system. Although seemingly catering to the military, a closer look at the statistics presented on the website of KDU’s Faculty of Medicine, indicate that the number of medical students recruited doubled, and then tripled, once the faculty began to enroll “non-military foreign students.” As recruitment was limited to foreign students, albeit loosely defined, KDU did not encounter too much controversy.
The KNDU Bill proposes to build a parallel militarised university system, and alternatively, a change to the Universities Act of 1978 aims to bring KDU under the purview of the UGC, as a university for a “specific purpose.” Clearly, the appeal of KDU and other “specific purpose” universities is not their potential to strengthen Free Education. That these reforms will increase the military’s involvement in higher education has been the focus of debate in recent weeks, but less attention has been paid to their implications for education opportunities for students like Niluka, and their potential impact on medical education.
Both the proposed KNDU Bill and the amendment to the Universities Act can be viewed as attempts to create the conditions for the expansion of fee-levying MBBS degree programmes, which have been resisted since the days of NCMC. The KNDU Bill will give legal authority for KNDU to recognise and affiliate other institutions to KNDU, bypassing the UGC as well as the Sri Lanka Medical Council’s minimum standards. The Bill will ultimately result in the proliferation of poorly regulated ‘MBBS kada,’ and a decline in the overall standards of medical education.
Even the Association of Medical Specialists (AMS), a body not averse to private education, has made the following statement regarding the KNDU Bill: “On principle, the AMS is not against quality fee levying medical education…if it is regulated and monitored by the UGC and the Sri Lanka Medical Council. However, lack of proper process and transparency will prevent the establishment of such fee levying institutions in Sri Lanka.”
Could expanding medical education in this manner present opportunities to address problems in the health sector, such as the regional maldistribution of physicians?
First, if KNDU and its affiliates aim to attract international medical students, it is unlikely that these graduates would serve in Sri Lanka.
Second, as the Bill will enable KNDU to admit local students, if we assume the current fee structure of upwards of Rs. 1 million per year for the MBBS programme, the KNDU medical students would represent the elite who are more likely to immigrate to greener pastures.
Third, if the government intends to broad-base MBBS degree programmes, they would need to offer hefty student loans to our students. Evidence from other countries suggests that medical graduates with student loans are more likely to opt for higher paying specialties rather than work in primary care, and less likely to serve in rural areas.
It is therefore unlikely that the KNDU Bill would contribute towards advancing the health sector, except perhaps through its military cadets, who would most likely work for the Ministry of Defence and not the Ministry of Health.
Student loans may have other unintended consequences. Despite private practice being widespread, many doctors, especially women non-specialist doctors, do not engage in private practice. In fact, general doctors from peripheral districts often do return to their districts, although they may remain in urban centres owing to the poor education facilities available to children in remote rural areas. These doctors make up the physician workforce in base hospitals and above, as well as in the preventive sector, in all parts of the country. Having to repay a student loan may drive such doctors to remain in districts, where private practice is more available and lucrative, intensifying the regional maldistribution of physicians.
Crumbs for the poor
What of students like Niluka in the non-fee levying state university system? A quick perusal of the website of KDU’s Faculty of Medicine indicates that brain drain may have already commenced. Imagine the fate of our non-fee levying state medical faculties with the mushrooming of ‘MBBS kada’ across the country? They will inevitably offer higher salaries, as does KDU, attracting without any outlay teachers whose training was subsidised by state universities. Furthermore, as reported in the media, KDU has already seen massive state investment, much of it in its teaching hospital, far beyond investments in any single university or faculty of medicine under the UGC. The fate of medical education at non-fee levying state universities does not need to be spelled out here. With their weakening, the demographics of students who enter medicine are sure to change, with fewer and fewer opportunities for students like Niluka, not to mention the broader implications for medical education and the healthcare system.
Let’s stand together to protect Free Education and Free Medical Education!
(The writer is attached to the Department of Community and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jaffna).
The Prophet discouraged employing domestic servants
After reading in the newspapers that according to Police Media Spokesperson SDIG Ajith Rohana, 11 women have previously served as domestic servants at ex- Minister Rishad Bathiudeen’s residence, I thought of sharing the following authentic hadith (tradition) of our Prophet (pbuh) with regard to employing domestic servants. Given below is the gist of it.
When the Prophet’s beloved daughter Fathima complained about the unpleasant traces that making dough and kneading it had left on her hands and requested for a servant, his response was “Shall I not direct you to what is more beneficial for you than having a servant?”
Every night when you go to bed recite 33 times the phrase -‘Subhanallah’ (i.e. ‘Allah is Exalted and clear of imperfection’), 33 times – ‘Al-Hamdu lillah’ ( ‘All praise is due to Allah) and 34 times – ‘Allahu Akbar’ (Allah is the Greatest). —- Source – Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim and Bayhaqi
According to Islamic scholars, a servant is a worldly benefit, but to praise and glorify God in the manner described above will bring the person a greater and everlasting benefit in the Hereafter, and moreover, that by constant recitation one will experience a physical power that will enable him or her to fulfill the household chores more efficiently than a domestic aide.
Now that we have so many “electrical aides” – electric kitchen appliances: blenders/grinders/mixers, fryers, toasters, dish-washers, washing machines, microwave ovens and the list is endless, and with the barrage of allegations (which is now sub judice ) against the ex-Minister, wife and his in laws, isn’t it better that we follow the above prophetic tradition of not employing domestic aides?
Benefits of rhythmic gymnastics for girls
To master this sport, a gymnast needs to master the skills and the artistry necessary to win at competitions and attain recognition, even fame. But why do parents in some countries enthusiastically support this activity, but others, for example Sri Lanka, do not? The exponents of this art are mostly girls, who, when dressed up in costume and make up, can look really fabulous, having photogenic artistry, posture and style. Such photos make wonderful family heirlooms, recalling memories of a youth well spent!
To be successful at competitions, great agility and flexibility of the limbs is required. Therefore, it helps greatly if exercises are started from an early age, perhaps when a girl is four or five. However, she should be warned in advance that stretching leg muscles is painful, because this stretching is essential to move fully and easily and perform well. Training coaches will do this gently, in stages until complete.
Older gymnasts need to master a programme of moves, including pirouettes, rolls and backward flip and so on, usually working with hoops, ribbons, hand clubs and balls, all according to age and progress. If she takes part in circus gymnastics, this also can be a lot of fun.
What are the benefits arising from all this effort in training? The first and most obvious benefit is that the person gains a high level of fitness, which she may keep for years and it will help her keep a youthful shape into middle age. But the one unspoken benefit, and perhaps the greatest of all, is that she will develop an ability to concentrate. This is absolutely needed to enable her to perform the various routines to a high standard. Then, with improved concentration, she has a very valuable asset which renders her a capable, competent human being, which is of great benefit to the society she lives in.
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