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Be Prepared

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The Scout Movement of Sri Lanka originated in Christ Church English school, Matale in 1913, but the real Pioneer College in the movement was Mahinda College Galle, where Gordon Pearce carried on successful work. From there it soon spread to Dharmaraja College, Kandy, Ananda College, Colombo and Sri Sumangala Collage, Panadura and thereafter throughout the Island.

In those colleges where the Scout Movement was thoroughly established, the masters soon realized its immense benefits. Below are some pioneers of the Scout Movement in Sri Lanka.

F.L Woodward

The principal of Mahinda College, Galle, took a keen interest in the Scout Movement. And, in 1916 he wrote a letter to Sir Baden Powell and received the following reply:

116, Victoria Street, London, S.W., October 10th, 1916.

Dear Mr. Woodward,

I was delighted to get your letter and the copy of your College Magazine, giving the interesting details of the progress of your Scouts. I am very glad to hear that they are getting on so well and have so readily grasped the spirit of the movement, which seems to be taking a hold on the rising generation all over the British Empire. This bond of the right spirit of adventure and good fellowship will, I am sure, make them all the stronger in their loyalty to the Crown and to each other, if only they have the strength of mind to stick to their promise as Scouts.

I only hope that some day I may be able to avail myself of your kind invitation and enjoy a visit to the Scouts in Ceylon.

As regards your question as to the origin of the motto “Be Prepared”, I must say that it was originally adopted by the South African Constabulary, of which I was the organiser, on their own initiative, as a good aim to act up to, and as being based on my own initials. Finding that it was a motto which actually conveyed a meaning, I carried it on in the Scouts.

It is of course quite right to alter the tests for the different subjects for badges, to suit the country and customs, since, so long as the spirit of Scouting is carried out, the actual letter and detail does not matter, but this is a matter for arrangement with the Boy Scouts Commissioner for Ceylon, F.G. Stevens Esq, P.W.D.

With cordial good wishes for your further success,

Believe me yours truly,

Robert Baden Powell

Gordon Pearce

On October 23, 1913, he reached Sri Lanka in the S.S. ‘Mate’ to assume duties as the vice-principal of Mahinda. He was a member of the Theosophical Society, a graduate in honours of London University, a young man of great keenness and ability, who was also a boy-scout officer and cricketer.

In 1916 he was a District Commissioner. In the same year he wrote a poem tiled “The path of heroes”. An extract of it is below:

Like royal Asoka, masterful but kind,

Ardent of heart and courage, meek of mind,

Who gaining by the arts of war his sway,

Held it in honour by a better way, –

Using his genius in the arts of peace,

To make his people glad, to bring release

From sickness and from poverty and pain,

Till through his lands, by city and by plain,

His name was bless’d by every son of toil

As Dharmasoka, King of Duty Royal.

Unto this path all heroes’ steps have lead,

This path the Scouts of Lanka too shall tread.

In 1918 he was called to India, to organize the Scout Movement there. And in 1921 he returned to Sri Lanka to assume duties as the principal.

Vincent Mendis

In the year 1916, Vincent Mendis the Scoutmaster of Richmond College, Galle and his Scout Troop visited Jaffna. What the Government Agent of Jaffna B. Horsburg told Mendis was reported in the Morning Leader thus:

“The visit of you and your Scouts to Jaffna has been most helpful. Most of our boys had never seen a Scout before and your appearance has made a great impression. The keen clever way, you and your Scouts went about the performance of the various examples of Scout duties, that you showed us will, I am sure have an excellent effect.”

The ‘Morning Leader’ added: The progress thus made in the work of the movement and the beneficial results attained are a clear manifestation of the value of the system of training devised by Sir Robert Baden-Powell and it is to be hoped that before long the Baden Powell Boy Scouts will become a recognized branch of Elementary and Secondary Education.

Mendis formed a Local Association in Jaffna and organized Scout Troops at St. Johns, Central, Jaffna, St. Patrick and Hindu Colleges.

He also functioned as a Colonial Commissioner in 1917. In later years he served as the Scout Commissioner in Madras. And, in still later years, he was the Chairman of the Dehiwala-Mt. Lavinia Urban Council.

 

J.H de Saram

J.H. de Saram, the Scoutmaster of the Dharmaraja College Troops and Secretary of the Kandy, Local Boy Scouts Association by his keenness and work had been largely responsible for the development of a very successful branch of the movement in the Central Province. He organized W Baden-Powell Troops at Trinity and St. Anthony’s Colleges, at St. Andrew’s School at Nawalapitiya and Galagedera School. In 1917 he functioned as a Colonial Commissioner.

 

T.S Seliah

T.S. Seliah of Badulla, when at the Training College in Colombo, came in touch with the work of the Colombo Troops and on his return to Badulla, he soon set to work, with the result of Uva Colligate School and the Buddhist School there, both having promising troops at work.

 

Some early dates

1913 – The Boy Scout Association of Ceylon was formed on September 30.

1914 – The 1st Galle (Mahinda) Troop was formed. It was one of the oldest in Sri Lanka.

1915 – Produced the first King’s Scout of Mahinda – S. Tennyson de Silva.

1916 – (I). F.G Stevens the Scout Commissioner for Ceylon paid an official visit to Galle.

(A Scout of Dharmaraja College, Kandy served as his orderly).

(II). E.D Denham, the Director of Education inspected a Galled Troops Rally. And, he expressed himself as greatly in favour of the Baden-Powell system of Scout training, and was desirous of encouraging it in schools.

(III). P/L Bagot of 2 nd Colombo received the Silver Cross for Gallantry.

(IV). G.P. Ariyarathna, an old Mahinda Scout, started the 1st Troop of Indian Scouts in India,

(V). The Scout Troops were at work in about 20 schools in the Island.

(VI). Dharmaraja College had 19 King’s Scouts.

Its 1916 College Magazine had the following comment: “The tone of the school has been a decided improvement. A wave of energy, good discipline and a will to work have spread from class to class. It is clear that the Boy Scout Movement is in no small measure responsible for these results and it is time that the shirkers and grumblers realized their mistake and joined the Corps.”

1917 – Dr. S.A Wickramasingha the Communist leader who was a keen Scout of the 1St Galle (Mahinda) Troop won the following proficiency Badges: All Round Cord, First – Class Badge, Missioner, Basket – Worker and Fireman.

1919 – At the age of 13, Prof. Lyn Ludowyk, then a student of Richmond College, Galle, was the youngest King’s Scout in the British Empire.

1940 – A group Scouts of St. Aloysius College, Galle, scaled 14,700 feet of the Himalayan Mountain Range.

It was reported that not a single Scout, past or present, took part in the Youth Uprising in 1971.

The Scout Maxim ‘Once a Scout always a Scout’ had come to stay.

The last message of Lord Robert Baden Powell to the Scouts the world over, written just a few days before his demise, almost 80 years ago is:

“Dear Scouts, I believe God put us in this jolly world to be happy and enjoy life. Happiness doesn’t come from being rich nor merely from being successful in our career, nor by self-indulgence. One step towards happiness is to make yourself healthy and strong while you are a boy, so that you can be useful and so enjoy life when you are a man.

Nature Study will show you how full of beautiful and wonderful things God has made in the world for you to enjoy. Be contented with what you have got and make the best of it. Look at the bright said of things instead of the gloomy one. But the real way to get happiness is by giving out happiness to other people. Try and leave the world a little better than you found it when it comes to your turn to die. You can die happy in feeling that, at any rate, you have not wasted your time but that you have done your best.

“Be Prepared” in this way to live happy and to die happy. Stick to your Scout Promise always: even after you have ceased to be a boy. May God help you do it.”

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Traffic in Colombo and suburbs: Is it unsolvable?

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By Praying Mantis

People curse this phenomenon called traffic congestion in Colombo and the suburbs. However, it has to be unequivocally conceded that the populace has to get about on their daily chores and obligations. The result is traffic, with or without congestion, and we have to come to terms with the fact that it will be there, whether we like it or not. Many deem traffic congestion to be a spectacle that is an eyesore. But it can be solved and the current apparently impenetrable problem can be mitigated to a large extent. What is required is a little bit of intelligence, some meticulous planning, and strict implementation of the rule of law, irrespective of all other mundane considerations.

One important aspect of trying to sort out the problem is judicious timing and usage of traffic lights. These can be set to a computer-assisted or time-controlled operational mode. It needs careful study of the movement of traffic across these junctions where traffic lights are already installed. Steps also need to be taken to install these lights in areas where they are really required but are not installed as yet. All traffic lights should have digital clocks so that the drivers behind the wheels can get ready to move decisively once the colours change to green. All vehicles should move promptly when the traffic lights change from amber to green. At present there is a considerable delay in their starting off from the blocks. In the Western countries, you will be charged for unduly delaying your take off from the stationary position. At the same time, speed limits should be very strictly enforced. Road hogs, who block traffic on the outside fast lanes, should also be prosecuted.

We are quite sure that our excellent engineers, especially those in the Moratuwa University, can set up a system or some devices that would allow the green to come on at consecutive colour lights, suitably timed to enable the traffic to move steadily and reasonably fast right across all traffic lights on a main highway. We are quite sure that this would not be such a problem for our excellent engineers. We do not need to get down foreign experts for this.

A directive from the political hierarchy should go out immediately to the police that they SHOULD NOT switch off traffic lights under any circumstance. This will solve a lot of problems. ALL TRAFFIC LIGHT INTERSECTIONS should have yellow criss-crossed ‘no waiting’ areas. Those who wait on these lines, blocking the smooth flow of traffic, should be instantly fined or charged. The traffic policemen could intervene appropriately, even with the traffic lights functioning, to prevent grid blocks and unnecessary lawless blockages. The police are so trigger happy to switch on constantly blinking amber lights at the drop of a hat and take over directing traffic. Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The policemen love to take ‘absolute power’ over the motorists into their own hands by switching off the traffic lights, and make a complete mess of it all by themselves. The computerised traffic lights would do a much better job than the brains of stupid traffic policemen with IQs about 10 below plant life. They seem to have one-track minds and most of the time they think that in the mornings, only the traffic going towards the centre of Colombo should be allowed and, in the evening, only the traffic going away from Colombo need to be given preference. The police patrol (four- and two-wheelers) should be used to apprehend road traffic rule violators. At present they are parked on our roads, sometimes blocking traffic, all by themselves, with all the officers engaged in chats, in person, or through mobile phones. Our traffic police should take examples from the Highway Patrol Vehicles of the Western countries, particularly the California Highway Patrol fleet. Catch the offenders and punish them, irrespective of their political connections. Our traffic policemen are “PAVEMENT POLICEMEN.” They should catch and deal with all the traffic rule violators, notwithstanding any of their powerful connections. These include motor bicycles that weave in and out of traffic, those on two-wheelers who go on the pavements, those that overtake on the left, three-wheelers and buses which are a law unto themselves, lane jumpers of all types who could not care less for the other road users, the speedsters that weave in and out of lines of traffic, those who wilfully cross centre double and single lines just to get a micro-second advantage in time, just to mention only a few.

All two-wheeler motor bicycles, three-wheeler tuk-tuks, and buses of all types, should be strictly reined in. The maniacs that ride and drive these contraptions need to be disciplined remorselessly. They cause more traffic jams and accidents than all other vehicles put together. When confronted for their mistakes by other road users they even turn aggressive or make lewd gestures, especially to female drivers of other vehicles. The currently prevalent lane allocation operative during the rush hours in Colombo is doing a little bit to ease the problem. Yet for all that, at all other times it becomes an even deadlier free-for-all, totally ignoring lane-discipline. It is also laughable that a certain controlling big-wig of the Private Bus Mafia has threatened to strike if the three-wheelers and two-wheelers are not taken out of the inside lane. The government should call his bluff and see how they will all come back with their tails between the two rear legs when their income drops down to zero. It has been said that the private buses are generally allowed the freedom of the ass by the police because most of such buses are owned by either policemen or politicians. We have of course not checked the veracity of this contention.

All container carriers, large lorries and other bulky vehicles, except passenger transport buses, should be allowed to get onto the roads only from 9.00 pm to 6.00 am. They should be banned from all our roads from 6.00 in the morning to 9.00 at night. They cause more traffic jams than all other vehicles on our roads.

The DIGs, SSPs, SPs, ASPs, CIs and IPs of traffic police should come out of their air-conditioned cocoons, called offices, and get on to the roads to supervise the way traffic is controlled by the lesser ranked policemen. At present these worthies generally come out only when the so-called top politicians move around in Colombo. Then they crawl back into their own holes, so to speak. Some years ago, a Senior DIG of Traffic with the initials of RML, used to get on to the roads to see how things were. He did a fantastic job and was responsible for creating some of the one-way streets in Colombo. Definitely an officer to be emulated.

NO PREFERENCE WHATSOEVER SHOULD BE GIVEN AT ANY COST TO VVIPs, VIPs AND OTHER ASSORTED POLITICAL ELEMENTS ON OUR ROADS. The violation of all traffic rules by large platoons of support vehicles just to enable one political nincompoop to travel a distance of a couple of kilometres at break-neck speed is a real crime and a crying shame. This is a particular menace down Parliament Road. After all, they are supposed to be servants of the people. If they need to get somewhere in time, they should start off early enough. In other countries, even Kings, Queens, Presidents, Prime Ministers and Ministers, do not enjoy preferential treatment on their roads. Their vehicles obey their own rules and laws.

The flashing red and blue lights on the windscreens of vehicles should be completely banned. The donkeys behind the steering wheels of vehicles with these rapidly flashing lights seem to think that they have carte blanche to do as they wish. They will have those blinking lights on and come at you even on the wrong side of the road. The ONLY vehicles allowed to use these flashing red and blue lights should be ambulances and police patrol vehicles. Incidentally, ALL police officers should be instructed to intervene and provide right of way and a clean fast run to all ambulances with lights flashing and sirens blaring. The really valid reason for this is the fact that it may mean life or death for a patient. As is done in the United Kingdom, that should be the only overriding concession made to vehicles on our roads.

You might say that all this is wishful thinking!!! The powers that be have turned a Nelsonian blind eye to this problem so far. They have certainly acted as if they could not care less. The politicians would not want to give up their exalted positions on our roads. Why should they worry? Their steamrolling juggernauts would get them there in time. Even if they get a bit late, the stupid organisers will wait for them to start the proceedings. The unimportant masses can spend all their time on our roads for all they care.

We hope these suggestions catch the attention of the powers that be in government, the police, people in positions of forward planning and traffic control. More than anything, we hope that the Executive President of our country would read this and act on at least some of these suggestions. He is perhaps the only one who can control this menace on our roads. If he so decides, like many other things he has done so far, this problem could be solved virtually overnight. It can only be done by reading the riot act to the police which would then percolate down to all the miscreants on our roads.

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How to transform conflict into co-existence

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Humans and elephants killing one another

Eng. Mahinda Panapitiya

M Sc, (Department of Irrigation Engineering) Utah State University, Utah, USA – 1982 , B Sc (Civil Engineering), University of Peradeniya, Sri lanka – 1974

Introduction

I thought of writing the following note after reading a recent news item about the interest of President Gotabaya Rajapaksa to solve the human-elephant conflict. By the way I am an Irrigation engineer who has worked for Mahaweli Projects since the 1970s while developing the dry zone forests areas for irrigated agriculture. The main purpose of this note is to put forth a proposal to solve this conflict, from a different perspective based on my field experience.

Background

Sri Lanka has been truly blessed with the presence of the largest mammal on earth; it has contributed tremendously to our culture, economy, environment, leisure industry and natural beauty. Elephants are quite closer to humans than to other mammals. According to the article (referred to in the end note) for most of the mammals, brain mass is already developed at more than 90% when they are born. But elephants and humans are different, because brain mass development at birth is 35% for elephants and 28% for humansi. Therefore, unlike other animals they can’t survive during their infant age without the support of their parents. For an example if a human baby grew up in a jungle among the animals from child stage, he or she could not learn the normal human behaviour. This holds true for elephants.

Elephants are also intelligent like humans and have the ability to make rational choices and judgements. They don’t attack people without a good reason. When people increase their aggression towards them, they also increase their aggression. They also remember well, and therefore they can be increasingly aggressive and violent with the passage of time. As a result the ‘human-elephant conflict’ would transform to a never ending battle until elephants are driven to extinction in this country.

 

Human-Elephant conflict based on

my living experience

As an engineer who closely watched behavioural patterns of elephants while working on the Mahaweli Project since the 1970s, (before the forests were cleared for “development”), I still remember how they were freely roaming in harmony with the farming communities dependent on village irrigation tanks. For an example, elephants used to drink from a domestic tank built behind our Mahaweli quarters to meet our daily water needs before we chased them away to lay the modern canal network. Villagers also never considered elephants as threat to their lives unlike leopards because there were no elephant attacks. Grass growing in the village tank beds in valleys and secondary growths in chenas in the highland areas after their harvesting periods were their favourite food items. Even for birds, an area was allocated under village tanks known as kurulu panguwa. In addition, the villagers had also built forest tanks (kulu wewa) exclusively for wildlife and also to replenish ground water aquifer with rains. However, according to modern commercial-oriented western-based farming methods, we have destroyed thousands of those storage tanks and pitted ourselves against nature. We have been fighting a losing battle. An article published in the Economic Review magazine in 2010 explained in detail how this happened under irrigation projects developed during the last 2 centuryii.

 

Confrontation Vs Negotiation

Since the introduction of the so-called modern development strategies increase food production, we have been chasing out elephants and putting up electrified fences to ward them off. However, according to my first-hand experience, we could transform this conflict and co-exist with elephants if we handle the eco system for food production in an environment friendly manner. According to the recent observations on brain development behaviour of elephants, if we adopt what is dubbed the negotiation mode, I am sure, elephants will treat humans not as enemies to attack but as another species they have to coexist with. Instead of electrified fencing, live fence using plants such as lemon, palmyra and bamboo could be introduced.

Also, in some countries, bee keepingiv is also used to prevent elephants from roaming in residential areas.

 

New Proposal

Against this background, it is possible to test out the ancient development model at least at pilot scale in a selected area which has not yet been “developed” under the Mahaweli Master Plan. In the proposed approach, there are no artificial fences separating eco systems according to conventional EIAs recommended by various international funding sources. This is a very low cost method which could be implemented with local private sector involved in Organic Agriculture and Eco Tourism. The best pilot area I can recommend to test that negotiation approach is the Right Bank area of Maduru Oya. I also recommend that the Project be managed by a multidisciplinary team comprising wildlife and agriculture experts, irrigation engineers and archaeologists.

 

Confrontation verses Negotiation

Conclusion

According to my past experience no innovative ideas could be implemented on ground without political involvement. The main purpose of this note is to interest the political authority in this project. I hope my effort is a success. It should be implemented immediately because the Mahaweli Authority has already planned to follow the conventional confrontation approach for developing the Right Bank area of Maduru Oya.

 

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http://www.sundaytimes.lk/200906/business-times/human-elephant-clash-over-land-415060.html

http://dl.nsf.ac.lk/bitstream/handle/1/14114/ER-36-%281-2%29_16.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

Human Elephant Conflict (HEC) in Sri Lanka

Beehive fences can help mitigate human-elephant conflict

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Lane discipline then and now

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By Eng. Anton Nanayakkara

Chartered Civil Engineer

At a time a valiant top heavy effort ( police plus army ++) is being made to enforce lane discipline , it is relevant to recall how a similar attempt was made by a small group of professionals, with foreign driving experience, to introduce the concept of lane discipline as practised in the countries like Singapore, the UK, the US, etc.. It was during 2000 and 2003 that two exhibitions were organised at the OPA for the first time, under the theme, ‘Introduction to the Basics of Lane Discipline’.

It took the form of a seminar- cum- exhibition with a 16’x 8″ physical model to explain all details of correct lane markings, their meanings, etc., to help a person drive any type of vehicle in a disciplined manner without any external assistance or excessive police presence.

At the first exhibition (2000), the Chief Guest was the Minister of Health and the Guest of Honour the Resident Representative WHO, at that time one Dr Peter Hybsier. Dr Hybsier said it was ‘exactly the way to set about solving the existing traffic problem’. In the second case, too, the same model was used with improvements, such as operating traffic lights using led bulbs. The Chief Guests were the Minister of Health and the Minister of Transport. Yet another special feature of the second exhibition was the inclusion of a pilot project on Parliament Road from the parliament roundabout to the Devi Balika roundabout with minimum police presence and no traffic fines so as to secure motorists’ fullest cooperation; only advice and warnings were given.

The most important feature of the pilot project was the prior training of all categories of road users. Specially prepared leaflets were to be distributed to all drivers two weeks ahead of the implementation of the pilot project. For this purpose five different categories of drivers were identified and the leaflets contained material applicable to each type of vehicle he/she will be driving at the time. (See below)

At the second exhibition immediate orders were given by the Minister of Transport to the only RDA engineer present at that time to take action to implement the pilot project without delay. So as usual everything ended there! The following pictures give some idea of the model.

 

 

While all the efforts being made under the present conditions are to be appreciated, it must be said that the use of public roads for training instead of a scaled down model dilutes all the good efforts, not to mention the need for a massive manpower input (police and army). It is difficult to believe that all drivers from one end of the road to the other end of the road and drivers in different lanes get the same message. It is also not fair to delegate any lane to one particular type of vehicle. All vehicle owners pay ‘road taxes’ that are used to build and maintain roads. So, the roads belong to all road users.

In Singapore, many more vehicles move much faster and much safer than in Sri Lanka. Where driver training is imparted is called the Singapore Safe Driving Centre, which is run by the private sector in Singapore and Honda Company of Japan.

The method proposed in the years 2000 and 2003 here applied to all roads, at all times, irrespective of weather conditions. Fines were the last resort. It is a pity that the present effort is being made 13 years after year 2003, and during that period thousands of lives have been lost on our roads not to mention many thousands of new vehicles getting smashed up, causing millions of damage to public and private property.

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