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Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima: 6th August Seventy-five years ago

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By Kirthi Tennakone

The dwellers of the Japanese city Hiroshima resorted to their routine on 6th August 1945. That day the morning sky had been clear – people observed three air planes and descending parachutes. These are happenings to be expected at the time of a war and largely ignored.

Around 8.15 am a flash of light intensely brighter than the sun and a burning sense of heat terrified the population. The noiseless instant effect reacted more severely over a circular area of radius approximately 1 kilometer. Men, women and children exposed to the flash were incinerated to ash or fatally burnt. Cloths crumbled to pieces or spontaneously ignited – particularly if the shade is darker. A man dressed in white was burnt lightly, but his wife in black beside him died as a result of harsh burning. Most people within the range succumbed immediately- very few shielded by thick concrete survived. After fraction of a second a blast wave flattened almost every building in an area of nearly 40 square kilometers. A fireball formed created in the atmosphere expanded rapidly blowing a horrendously hot wind – setting fires everywhere up to a distance of about 4.5 kilometers from the centre. The pressure of the blast wave and heat of the rushing wind killed or wounded many more people. Expanding and a rising fireball created a white plume extending to the atmosphere up to a height of 6100 meters darkening the city as if night has befallen. Around 9 am a black toxic rain poured over a large area, sickening those who got wet. The death toll in the day of the incident exceeded 40,000 and subsequent mortality resulting from injuries was estimated to be more than 100,000.

ATOMIC BOMB

The Japanese government and most of the world at large could not immediately fathom how a ferocious calamity unheard previously was inflicted. A devastation of such magnitude would require dropping thousands of most powerful conventional bombs simultaneously – a technical impossibility. On August 7th, the American President Harry Truman announced ‘It is an atomic bomb. It is a harnessing of the basic power of the universe. The force from which the sun draws its power has been loosed against those who brought war to the Far East’. He further stated that the bomb had more power than 20000 tons TNT- more than 2000 times the blast power of British Grand Slam which is the largest bomb ever used in history of warfare.

The bombs based on detonators such as tri-nitro toluene (TNT) derive energy by breaking of the molecules of this substance into lighter more stable fragments. In contrast atomic energy is released when the nucleus of the uranium atom disintegrates into lighter nuclei – a process referred to as nuclear fission. A calculation based on Einstein’s theory of relativity revealed that the energy liberated in fission of uranium is about one million times the equivalent weight of ordinary explosives. Fission is triggered by hitting the uranium nucleus with a neutron. When the nucleus breaks-up several additional neutrons are emitted. Hungarian-American physicist Leo Szilard speculated extra neutrons might disrupt other uranium nuclei causing an explosive chain reaction–a possibility of making a dangerous weapon. In 1939 he persuaded Albert Einstein to write a letter to President Franklin Roosevelt pointing out the urgency of the United States engaging in this effort – otherwise the consequences could be disastrous if Adolf Hitler develop a nuclear weapon. United States Intelligence found Germany had already started to work on the problem, hastening President Roosevelt to appoint a committee replying Albert Einstein. Soon the research work aimed to develop a nuclear bomb was commissioned as the Manhattan Project – under scientific leadership of the Robert Oppenheimer and a team of several other eminent physicists excluding Einstein. Perhaps Einstein was considered too much even for a project of this nature because of his extreme radicalism and pacifist views.

Leo Szilard with Albert Einstein

Despite theoretical soundness of the argument of achieving an explosive nuclear chain reaction, the Manhattan project encountered many astounding practical challenges. Natural uranium occurs in two forms named as isotopes U(238) and U(235). A chain reaction is feasible only with U(235) occurring as 0.7 percent of the metal found in the uranium ores. Furthermore to initiate a chain reaction at least a critical mass of about 60 kilograms of U(235) is required. Refining the ore to obtain this amount was an arduous costly task. Another option explored has been to use plutonium instead of uranium. The advantage of the latter is the smaller critical mass 5-10 kilograms. Plutonium is not found in nature can be synthesized – again a time consuming costly affair. Expenses of the project ran to 100 million dollars a month!

The other hurdle was assembling of the critical mass.

The requisite amount of uranium or plutonium cannot be simply cast as an ingot. Moment the critical mass which depend on shape and density of the sample is reached. The chain reaction propagate emitting radiation, because even one neutron is sufficient for triggering. Some neutrons always exist in the environment and also produced by spontaneous fission uranium. A method planned was to collide two pieces of uranium in a gun-like device using dynamite so that their union creates the critical mass. Another method considered was casting uranium or plutonium into a sphere of calculated size and implode it to increase the density by firing an appendage ordinary explosives. These methods needed to be secured foolproof and tested.

TESTING THE BOMB

After three years of intensive activity, scientists and engineers at the Los Alamos Laboratory assembled an atom bomb on 13th July 1945. It was a plutonium device containing around 6 kilograms of this metal in the form of a sphere. Why was a plutonium bomb instead of uranium chosen for testing? The amount of weapons grade uranium available at that time was sufficient to make just one bomb, planned to be fired by the gun mechanism. Plutonium of much lower critical mass, adequate for several bombs was ready in the processing line. Furthermore, the implosion firing mechanism worked out for plutonium bombs demanded experimental confirmation.

Including accessories the bomb nicknamed ‘Gadget’ weighed nearly 5 metric tons. Gadget was transported to the testing site in the New Mexico desert and hoisted to a 100 m high steel tower. The bomb was scheduled to be exploded at 4 am 16th July 1945. However because of bad weather the time was pushed forward to 5.30 am. Scientists stationed 10 km away eagerly awaiting to watch the test were concerned. Some doubted whether the bomb would turnout to be a dud. Other pointed its power might exceed the expectation and pose danger to observers and community in the neighbourhood. Emphasizing this point, Edward Teller who later came to be known as the father of the hydrogen bomb distributed suntan cream.

When the trigger was switched-on at 5.30 am, the whole landscape was instantly lighted many times brighter than sunlight and a rising vividly coloured fireball appeared in the sky. The test was a success and a moment that changed the world forever. Seconds later the bang was felt, following a gush of wind. Physicist Enrico Fermi floated pieces of paper, timed their motion and quickly calculated the strength of the bomb, saying it is equivalent to 10 kilotons of TNT. More precise calculations carried out later revealed that strength was 22 kilotons.

BOMBING HIROSHIMA

The success of the atom bomb test was conveyed to President Truman but not publicly announced. general public inquisitive of the blinding flash and the bang were told an explosion occurred in an ammunition storage. President was planning to visit Germany to attend Potsdam conference – the famous big three Truman–Stalin–Churchill meeting. At the proceedings he hinted new development but did not elaborate. On 24th July Truman met Stalin casually and told him the United States has developed a weapon of unprecedented strength. Stalin did not react with excitement or interest and said ‘I hope the United States would make good use of it ‘. The reason for Stalin’s indifference became clear later. Soviet intelligence had been aware of the achievements in the Manhattan project.

Potsdam deceleration warned Japan to surrender unconditionally or suffer utter destruction – which Japan did not accept. Immediately the decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan was confirmed. The directive was said to be – hit Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata or Nagasaki after 3rd August as weather permitted.

The bombing operation was assigned to Colonel Tibbets of the US Air Force. On August 6th early morning he took-off from Tinian Island air base in the Pacific carrying the bomb. Two other planes accompanied the B-29 bomber to monitor weather and parachute instruments to record the physical effects of the explosion. At about 8.15 am the pilot released the bomb from an altitude of 9.5 kilometers. The bomb fell down for 47 seconds and exploded at a height 600 meters above the ground – the triggering mechanism designed to explode the bomb in mid-air for the purpose of maximizing the destructive power. Tibbets who hurried away was at a safe distance of 18 kilometers when he observed the flash and the fireball.

The bomb aimed to the Aioi Bridge missed the target by 250 meters and detonated overhead Shima Hospital flattening it instantly. Amazingly the structure of the Hiroshima Industrial Promotion Hall almost at the epicenter did not collapse. A temperature exceeding 4,000 degrees Celsius burnt the roof killing everybody inside, but the peculiar way in which the shockwave approached, left the structural shell largely intact. This landmark ruin named Atomic Bomb Dome serve as a memorial for lives lost and a reminder for peace.

I (the author of this article) visited Hiroshima in the year 2000. My daughter then a high school student posed in front of the dome for a photograph and smiled. When I said this not a place to smile. A group of Japanese visitors at the site understood what I meant and emotionally expressed appreciation of my remark.

WORLD AFTERMATH HIROSHIMA

Even after Hiroshima attack, Japan did not surrender but vowed to fight. Soviet Union declaring war on Japan 8th August 1945 and United States dropping of a second atomic bomb on Nagasaki next day changed the situation. On 15th August 1945 the Emperor Hirohito agreed unconditional surrender effectively ending Second World War. Some celebrated the bombings implicating it’s a lesson to warmongering and crimes committed, but those died were innocent civilians. The horror atomic bombings particularly the late effects of radiation continued to uncover as days and months passed. Nevertheless there were glorifications of nuclear weapons. Many nations strived hard acquire them, boost their destructive power and develop strategic methods of delivery. Human desire for increasing power of self-destructive weapons did not end with atom bomb. In 1952 United States tested first hydrogen bomb or the thermonuclear device based on nuclear fusion – the opposite of fission where lighter nuclei similar to hydrogen fuse together to yield heavier nuclei liberating extra-large quantity of energy – thousands of times stronger than the Hiroshima bomb. In the following year, the Soviet Union exploded a similar weapon. Between 1950 -1962 the competition of super powers in detonating nuclear bombs polluted the atmosphere- increasing the incidence of cancer.

The Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 forbid atmospheric tests. However, underground tests continued and the 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of the United Nations could not be strictly enforced as some nations avoided the agreement. On July 2017, United Nations proposed the resolution – The Treaty on the Prohibitions of Nuclear Weapons. The enforcement of the agreement require signature and ratification of 50 states. To date of the 82 countries, who have signed the treaty, only 40 have ratified it. Some countries seem to abstain from signing and ratifying the accord on the presumption that those who might not agree will pose a threat – vicious circle contradicting attitudes. Global citizens worldwide and a number organisations advocating peace, campaign to prohibit nuclear weapons. Most vociferous among them are the survived victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki- popularly known as ‘hibakusha’. Their pledge is ‘so that the people of future generations will not have to experience hell on earth, we want to realise a world free of nuclear weapons while we are still alive’.

The first sitting US President to visit Hiroshima was Barak Obama. On May 26th , 2016, talking to a gathering there, Obama said ‘Technological progress without an equivalent progress in human institutions can doom us. The scientific revolution that led to the splitting of an atom require moral revolution as well ’.

Human greed – the limitless urge to acquire material possessions – is blind to dangers ensuing in the horizon, threatening their own existence. Nuclear weapons and excessive burning of fossil fuels are two examples.

The author Prof.Kirthi Tennakone, National Institute of Fundamental Studies can be reached via ktenna@yahoo.co.uk

 

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Disturbing Sinharaja’s natural  balance: a layperson’s viewpoint

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by Gnana Moonesinghe

This is written as a tribute to my friend Dr Upen de Zylva who passed away a few days ago and who throughout his life had an abiding interest in nature – in all things related to flora and fauna. He was greatly disturbed by the human invasion into the natural habitat of heritage sites such as the Sinharaja forest reserve.

There have lately been several references to elephant attacks and those of other wild animals such as packs of wild fox on villagers as well as the unpredictable climate changes   making life difficult in the rural countryside. In long gone times, though within the recall of older people,  nature played out her course unhampered by human interference.  

The recent revival of interest  in  eco balance  in  Sri Lanka arose as a consequence of the government’s move to construct a  road through the Sinharaja  Forest Reserve. Back in 2013 the then Government began to construct a road inside the protected area. This was short lived consequent to legal action by the Centre for Environmental and Nature Protection.  However, in August 2020 the project was recommenced by the newly installed government and the construction assigned to the military.   Environmentalists and lay people  are greatly disturbed by this project which entails the movement of heavy machinery and the felling of trees within the Reserve for construction of the road which would both disturb the environment.  

The unique position of the Sinharaja is that UNESCO  has declared it to be the ‘last viable primary rain forest’ here while it is also referred to as the ‘icon of biodiversity conservation’ in Sri Lanka. The Sinharaja forest is located in the south west in the district of Sabaragamuwa and the Southern Province. Around 60% of the trees found here are endemic and many of them are considered rare. Many species of wildlife is endemic to this place. It gains its unique position among forest reserves as it is home to over half of Sri Lanka’s endemic species of mammals and butterflies and many kinds of insects, reptiles and amphibians. Many endangered and rare species are found here including leopard, Indian elephant, endemic purple faced langur, wood pigeon, green billed coucal, SL white headed starling, SL blue magpie, ash headed baller and SL’s broad  billed roller.

It is essential that encroachment of the forest for cultivation like tea plantations, settlements and disturbance to the environment due to road construction should not be permitted because it will affect its unique situation as a forest reserve. Does not this Reserve require protection from the authorities  in order to secure its bio diversity?

At present, the consternation is over the road  construction from Lankagama to Neluwa, expected to be completed in 90 days without ‘harming the environment.’ Is this a realistic expectation? Experts claim that there is no way that this road can be constructed  without disturbing much of the environment in the reserve. That it is necessary to preserve the biodiversity in the reserve for healthy development and for dealing with climate change is a given and beyond question.  The government should consider alternatives  to help those living on the fringe of the reserve without affecting its balance which benefits the entire region as well as the rest of the world. Is it possible or feasible to seek alternatives to support the villages already in the Reserve?

These issues are raised not on a confrontational note but to elicit information on what is considered a matter of great concern to the mass of people living in this country (and planet) for reasons I hope have been convincingly presented above. May the Right to Information Act be invoked to the maximum to elicit information on this invasive action that is popularly considered  a disturbance to the peace of the Reserve.  

We expect no less than a frank response from this popularly elected government which will clear the air between the UNESCO authorities and the Lankan government as well as respond to the numerous  rumors that are circulating at the moment.  An urgent response from the Presidential Secretariat is in order.

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National Skills Passport spurs long term skills planning

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– A gateway to find suitable jobs, the newly launched National Skills Passport facilitates easier matching of skills for future employment while promoting Sri Lanka as a skills destination.

By Randima Attygalle

A project between the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) and the Employers’ Federation of Ceylon (EFC) supported by the International Labour Organization (ILO) Colombo Office, the ‘National Skills Passport’ (NSP) was launched recently. It is a new and a progressive concept introduced locally by means of a smart card (similar to a passport) issued to a skilled person having NVQ (The National Vocational Qualifications) along with at least one year of confirmed related employment experience.

The card is connected to a dedicated online portal (www.nsp.gov.lk ) which links up multiple stakeholders including employees, employers, qualification body and labour market intermediaries by collating the passport holder’s skills, expertise and experience. The NSP is expected to serve a long standing issue of recognition of skilled workmanship with certified experience through a central web-based online database.  The NSP smart card carries a QR code for convenient search online.

Essentially a ‘gateway’ to find suitable jobs, accessing reskilling and upskilling opportunities locally and internationally, NSP is an extension of the NVQ qualification awarded by NAITA, (National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority) says the Director General (Actg.), TVEC, Ministry of Skills Development, Employment and Labour Relations, Janaka Jayalath.

“Those who are already holding NVQ, returning migrants and those who have been serving various industries with no formal paper qualifications can reap benefits of the NSP. Those seeking what is known as the ‘mature candidate route’ (people with ten or more years of work/industry experience without formal qualification) can also access NSP,” explains Jayalath.

While candidates who are already equipped with NVQ, irrespective of the level of NVQ can directly apply for NSP, other categories are required to first obtain NVQ through Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) pathway.

“A candidate can apply to obtain relevant NVQ from a basket of around 500 National Competency Standards (NCS) packages listed in the TVEC website (www.tvec.gov.lk) and we are currently working towards introducing NCS for traditional Sri Lankan industries which do not fall within this basket as means of giving more muscle to the rural economy by recognizing the traditional Sri Lankan skills,” he notes.

A ‘virtual document’ which records the knowledge, skills and attitudes of a worker through the TVEC’s online portal (www.nsp.gov.lk) , the system enables the job seekers to create a comprehensive portfolio of skills and qualifications, along with their references and experience, ensuring compatibility with various skills assessment frameworks. It also serves the purpose of creating an online standard CV which is a more detailed synopsis than a normal resume giving clear, concise and up-to-date information with current employment and educational information.  The CV system in the NSP is benchmarked with the ‘Euro Pass’, an online CV tool for EU countries. The local initiative of the NSP is a trendsetter in the region which we can take pride in.

Recognizing the informally acquired knowledge, skills and competencies, the NSP also becomes a catalyst in helping the retuning migrants to reintegrate themselves to the local work force. The returning migrants, as Jayalath explains, can seek recognition of their prior learning and obtain NVQ through NAITA which is the prerequisite for NSP.

“The NSP is a vehicle to serve the needs of migrant returnee jobseekers such as construction workers, auto-mechanics, beauticians, cooks etc. This initiative will also help attract migrant returnee workers to industries such as construction, which are currently facing a high demand, with inadequate local workers to bridge the gap.”

Other categories of migrant workers such as automobile mechanics who wish to start their own small/micro enterprises can also benefit by NSP as valid proof of their competencies and thereby help obtain bank loans and build credibility among the customers. Self-employed persons in different skill related occupations can prove their qualifications and experience by producing this smart card and employers or the service recipients could verify those competencies through this system.

The NSP also spares the employers of the hassle of searching for a talent pool with certified skills and authenticated experience which in turn saves the time and cost spent on recruitment. Moreover, it unlocks access to workers with international exposure as well. “Employers could eventually identify the up-skilling and re-skilling requirements of an employee which will help career progression and also labour mobility,” says Jayalath who notes that TVEC takes the full responsibility for the candidates registered with them via the NSP.

The initiative also supports the Government’s long-term skills planning for the economy and facilitates easier matching of skills base for future employment creation.  The system also supports to track the employability of the NVQ holders with up-to-date database.   In a move to create awareness at community level on the new initiative, TVEC has galvanized its network of Skills Development Assistants, regional industrial forums and District Coordinating Committees (DCC) at District Secretariats.

The ‘skills passport’ which is a concept proposed by the Employers’ Federation of Ceylon (EFC), is an important means to empower all Lankans irrespective of whether they work locally or overseas says the EFC’s Director General, Kanishka Weerasinghe. “The EFC will firmly support state policies implemented through the Ministries of Education and Skills Development and the relevant institutions that function thereunder in order to establish and sustain the National Skills Database. This will finally enable us to promote our country as a skills destination, doing justice to our people and their status as being highly literate and educated. In fact, the ultimate common objective is to ensure that every citizen entering the workforce, at least by 2035, to be certified in their skills and be registered in the database.”

Aside from establishing a reliable means of understanding and addressing the relentless issues relating to dearth of skills, the country could focus on aligning the domestic education policies to create more opportunities in ‘growth industries’ to spur the economy including those which are nationally important such as agriculture, Weerasinghe further says. “It is hoped that certification of skills including the recognition of prior learning will be a boon to workers of all ages, particularly to young job seekers. Similarly, we hope that the ‘mutual recognition’ aspect of the ‘skills passport’ will also enable our people to be recognized in their skills when they seek overseas employment and ensure that they are placed to obtain better status and terms by their overseas employers.”

The EFC’s DG goes on to note that as responsible employers they are mindful of the schemes that link skills to wages, which will also lead to sustainable outcomes for employers such as availability of skilled employees locally and be a solution to issues such as those associated with low productivity. Moreover, standardization of education in terms of NVQ will be a win-win to those aspiring to enter the workforce as well as educational institutions, maintains Weerasinghe.

Remarking that developing people’s skills is a core area of ILOs work, the ILO Country Director for Sri Lanka and the Maldives, Simrin Singh notes, “Skills Passport is an innovative endeavour to not only develop but to recognize people’s skills. The ILO is delighted to have supported the development of the Skills Passport from the very onset; now fully owned and driven by local employers and government constituents”.

The first-ever National Skills Passport (NSP) programme in the plantations industry was initiated by the Hayleys Plantations Sector, setting a new benchmark for human resource development. Hundred field officers representing Talawakelle Tea Estates (TTEL), Kelani Valley Plantations (KVPL) and Horana Plantations (HPL) were selected for the National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) which is the gateway to the NSP.

“When skills development is combined with technology, we are able to create powerful new opportunities. As an organization that has won global acclaim for our efforts to raise the quality of living for our employees, Hayleys Plantations is proud to have been the first to support our employees in joining a digitally empowered workforce and helping innovate new solutions to resolve long-standing challenges in our industry and the national economy as a whole,” Managing Director of Hayleys Plantations, Dr. Roshan Rajadurai says.

Field officers selected for the scheme possess a minimum of one year of experience in the field and are evaluated by NAITA for both theoretical and practical aspects in preliminary and final evaluation rounds. Once the evaluation process is complete, the respective staff member is issued a digital Skills Passport, which is a smart card with a QR code facilitating the convenient search of their skills online. 

“By producing field officers with NVQ qualifications, which is strengthened by them being awarded the first-ever Skills Passports, our innovative training and development drive recognized by several global and HR platforms is given more muscle,” HR and Corporate Sustainability General Manager of Kelani Valley Plantations, Anuruddha Gamage remarks.

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Vesak Sirisara – Buddhist Annual 2564/2020

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The first article in this annual is by Ven Siri Vajiraramaye Nanasiha Thera on ‘Taming the Animal Within’. He cites the Buddha in a sermon directed at a misbehaving monk when he compares unrestrained behaviour in man to six untamed animals and very effectively and succinctly points out that man’s six senses, if allowed to run unchecked, will surely cause untold damage to the man himself and to society in general. One of the strongest senses in a human, akin to animal instincts, is the sexual urge. It is necessary to gratify it for procreation and judiciously, but not by any means in an unrestrained manner. Of the six senses, the most difficult to hold in check is the mental faculty, identified by the Buddha as the forerunner of all good and evil.

K H J Wijedasa’s

‘Buddha Dhamma and Human Health’ is particularly apt in this time of raging infection. The article starts thus: “Even though the fundamental objective of Buddha Dhamma is to proclaim to humanity the way to release from the woes of Samsara, Buddha’s teachings include a multitude of guidelines that enable them to lead their mundane lives….”

Buddha declared “Arogya Parama Labha” and in its context guidelines for the preservation of environmental, physical and mental health were laid down, which are effective even at present. He enunciated ways to good health to those living monastic lives and to lay persons. The writer deals in detail on advice in the Buddha Dhamma on environmental health and physical and mental health of man. He mentions the benefit and power of meditation and ends with Kisa Gotami and how Buddha was a kind and concerned psychiatrist to her.

The other erudite articles you can choose from are:

‘Nature of Arahath’ by Prof N A de S Amaratunge; ‘Living the Dhamma’ by Asoka Jayasinghe; W A S Perera’s exposition of the Dhammachakkappvattana Sutta including a short biography of Kondanna Thera. More pragmatic are: ‘The importance of practicing generosity’ by Ven Ayagama Suseela Thera; ‘Be your own guru’ by Dr Susunage Weerapperuma; ‘The social service concept in Buddhist texts’ by Dr Leel Gunasaekera; and ‘Living the Dhamma’ by Asoka Mahinda Jayasinha. ‘Material phenomena and the mind’ by Dr Mass R Usuf; and ‘Pattica Samuppaada’ by Palitha Manchanayake are more in-depth studies of profound subject areas. Dr Usuf also contributed the concluding poem, which begins and ends with the cryptic:

“I know not …who am I!”

Chandra Wickramasinghe poetically explains the passing away of earthly glory headed by a Latin dictum: ‘Transit Gloria Mundi’ in which he poetically describes a cremation with flowers strewn from above. The inherent message is that all is unsubstantial; all end in death. This poem is somewhat different to most of Chandra’s poems with their allusions to the ancient classics and encapsulation of much into single words and phrases. The language here is simple.

Claudia Weeraperuma deals with Samatha –Tranquility in her poem.

Thus is seen the range of topics dealt with; and the balance of philosophical or esoteric in thought provoking articles along with the practical: translating Buddha’s advice on good lives and living graciously, striving to shorten samsaric existence.

Vesak Sirisara/ Buddhist Annual 2020 is in its 64th year of publication and free distribution, by the Government Services Buddhist Association whose current Editor is Neville Piyadigama; Assistant editor P Weerahandi. It is very commendable that a prestigious journal such as the Vesak Sirisara has continued its publication through the years with invaluable articles on Buddhism, by well known persons. This edition is dedicated to the memory of late Ven Dr K Sri Dhammananda Nayake Maha Thera of Malaysia.

The tranquility inducing beautiful cover design in soft shades of beige against a darker background is by Deepal Jayawardena who writes that it is a Ghandara statue of the first century BC; where the head of the Buddha shows Greek influence. The back cover carries a clear picture of the Dewanagala Raja Maha Viharaya in Mawanella.

N P Wanasundera

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