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Americans without ethnic prefixes

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by Vijaya Chandrasoma

After the mass shooting a few weeks ago in Atlanta, Georgia, which left six Asian American women dead, Maizie Hirono, Democratic senator from Hawaii proposed legislation to contain the rise of hate crimes against Asian Americans, fueled by rhetoric that blamed the Chinese for the spread of the Covid-19 virus.

In an address last week, President Biden condemned “vicious hate crimes against Asian Americans who have been attacked, harassed, blamed and scapegoated”.

Attacked and scapegoated with third grade insults against China from the bully pulpit of the former hate mongering president. A president who had no clue how to alleviate the pandemic, resorting to his characteristic refusal to accept responsibility for his incompetence by blaming China, the country of origin of the virus. His infamous taunts of the “China Virus”, “China Plague”, “Kung Flu” inflamed the anger and hatred of his white base to attack Asian Americans, who they imagined, in their racist delusions, were responsible for the spread of the virus.

The legislation aimed to mitigate violence against Asian Americans passed 94 – 6 in the Senate. The six senators from deep red states who voted against the legislation were Josh Hawley (Missouri), who incited the insurrectionists against the Capitol on January 6, Tom Cotton (Arkansas), Ted Cruz (Texas), Roger Marshall (Kansas), Rand Paul (Kentucky) and Tommy Tuberville (Alabama). The modern counterparts of Hitler’s cronies, Goebbels, Himmler, Goring and Mengele, they are staunch sycophants of the deposed and disgraced American president. They are all vociferous propagandists of the Big Lie that the 2020 election was stolen from their Fuhrer.

Asian Americans, like all Americans of color, have been subjected to racist slurs and violence by white racists for centuries. Hate crimes against Asian Americans have accelerated in the past year; over 3,800 cases of racist violence have been reported against Americans of Asian origin during this period.

So the American theme, its modern doctrine, is now clear. In a way, the doctrine is very similar to the white supremacist symbol of 1488 – 14 for the 14 words of the motto of white supremacy: “We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children”, followed by a repetition of the number 88 for the eighth letter of the alphabet, the letter HH, representing the Nazi salute, Heil Hitler. According to these white racists, America is for white Americans, Hitler’s Aryans. Immigrants from non-white nations are tolerated on grudging sufferance.

When a disaster occurs in a foreign country which has an adverse effect on America, the American descendants of that country who have been legal American citizens for decades, sometimes centuries, become responsible for that disaster, and are worthy targets for violence. The latest example is Asian Americans. There are many other such targets, even today.

The classic example of the doctrine are the Africans who were kidnapped from their homes, brought in chains to America, and forced to slave in American plantations. The forced, unpaid, tortured labor of these slaves built the economic powerhouse that America is today. They are Americans of several generations, they have absolutely no connection with Africa. They are racially profiled and brutally murdered on a depressingly regular basis. And after four centuries, they are still not Americans, they are African Americans.

The Chinese emigrated to America in waves. Immigrants in the 19th century worked mainly on the transcontinental railroad network. They suffered racial discrimination at every level, contemptuously called “The Yellow Peril”. White Americans, while enjoying the benefits of their cheap labor, denied them citizenship, they were not allowed to own land or marry Caucasians. Most of these immigrants have little or no connection with their country of origin. But they are still known as “Chinese Americans” or “Asian Americans”.

Significant Japanese immigration to America began in the mid-19th century, caused by economic necessities. Poor living conditions and high unemployment forced them to look to America for a better life for themselves and their families. They also shared with the Chinese the discrimination, racism and slurs, and were considered an extension of the “Yellow Peril”.

When Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941, and America declared war against Japan, an estimated 120,000 Americans of Japanese origin, who had no connection with Japan, certainly none with the attacks, were forcibly incarcerated in internment camps based solely on their ethnic origin, although America had been their home for decades. They are still known as “Japanese Americans” or “Asian Americans”.

Ironically, when America entered the same war against Hitler’s Germany and Italy’s Mussolini in 1941, a few Germans and Italians were “deemed enemy aliens,” and placed under curfew. A couple hundred were even locked in “internment camps”. There were 1.2 million and five million of German first and second generation immigrants, respectively, and over 600,000 first generation Italian immigrants. The vast majority of Germans and Italian immigrants were treated as “Americans”. The reason is obvious, the Asians are the Yellow Peril, Hispanics the Brown Invasion. There is nothing called a White Peril. Not to white Americans, anyway.

Cuban Refugees who fled the Castro regime, and settled in America in the 1950s are “Cuban Americans”. Mexicans and immigrants from other Central and South American countries, some who had lived in the United States when it was Mexico, which became Texas or New Mexico when the US government “annexed” their homelands, are simply Hispanics, or Hispanic Americans.

And the original inhabitants of the land stolen from by the white man are also prefixed as Native Americans!

Then we come to 9/11, when 19 Al-Qaeda terrorists committed the most terrible domestic attack against the United States in its history. The terrorists were from four countries, 15 from Saudi Arabia, two from the United Arab Emirates, one each from Lebanon and Egypt.

A 2017 study estimated that there were 3.45 million Americans of Arabic origin living in America, many second and third generation Americans. The vast majority oppose Islamic terrorism and expressed their horror of the 9/11 attacks. They have little connection to their countries of origin. They are adherents of Islam, the third most popular religion in the US, after Christianity and Judaism. Predictably, Muslims have been targeted for violence ever since 9/11. Many ignorant, racist Americans (and recent events have proved that they number in the tens of millions) have assaulted and murdered not only Muslims, but anyone who looked Arabic to their racist eyes. They are still known as Arab Americans.

Immigrants take the pledge of allegiance to the United States of America when they are granted citizenship. They also renounce their allegiance to their country of origin. For first generation immigrants, this may be an impossible emotional exercise.

I can best explain this conundrum with my personal experience. I emigrated to the United States in 1990 at age 49, to escape the general violence of an ethnic war, and the personal violence against political rivals of the administration at the time. I chose the United States because my older son was already there on a scholarship to a leading university, which he was awarded while he was in Colombo, on the basis of his scholastic performance. I received my Green Card in 1998 and my citizenship in 2003 as did my family. I will be forever grateful to the USA for giving me the second chance which I desperately sought; which enabled my children to grasp with both hands the wonderful educational opportunities available during the Clinton years to kids who were willing to work hard.

But despite the fact that I swore my allegiance to my adopted country, I have always been a Sri Lankan by emotion, an American by document. When peace finally returned to Sri Lanka in 2009, I had little hesitation in retiring in my home country. My children, who were in their teens when they emigrated, still have an affection for the old country. They speak Sinhalese, have many friends here and visit often. But, after 30 years, America is their home. My grandchildren are Americans, pure and simple. I believe this to be the natural evolution of assimilation for immigrants everywhere.

When Mexico played soccer against the Americans at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena in 2013, there was a capacity crowd of 90,000 spectators, 89,000 Mexican Americans cheering the Mexican team on, waving 89,000 Mexican flags! Old Glory was hardly to be seen.

It has to be stressed that Americans of every color and creed have fought for America, against Nazism of the Germany of the 1940s, and more recently, to stave off a Nazi/Russian attack on its democracy. Americans of every color and creed have given their lives enforcing the laws of America and defending its constitution. There are grave sites of many nationalities in the Arlington Memorial Cemetery. They were all true Americans, sacrificing their lives for their country. Death is one route to drop the ethnic prefix of a true American.

The only other route is the privilege of having a white skin. Orange is also acceptable. There are no English Americans, no German or French Americans. They are all white, all Americans, all Caucasians. The rest of us will always be Arab Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Pacific islanders or when in doubt, “Other”. Never ethnic adjective-free Americans, not unless we die for America. Italian Americans may be the exception to this rule, but in any job or official application or document, there is no box for Italian Americans, they tick the magic box that says “Caucasian.”

Countries which have attracted most mass immigration from other countries for a variety of reasons, poverty, violence or seeking a better life for their families are, besides the USA, Canada, Britain, Australia and New Zealand. When these immigrants become citizens of their country of choice, they are Canadians, Brits, Aussies or Kiwis. The white racists in these countries have their own slurs for their immigrants. But they have no official classification as African Canadians, Pakistani British, Asian Australians or Sri Lankan New Zealanders. The United States of America is the only country which officially identifies, advertises and endorses its concept of white racism. Perhaps unknowingly, even instinctively.

This concept may finally disappear when the most haunting fears of white racists – the loss of white dominance, privilege and supremacy over colored immigrants – become a reality, predicted for 2040. When the browns, the blacks and immigrants of all other hues will form the national majority and restore racial balance.

Racial and social justice for all, which will make the USA, at long last, a true Nation of Immigrants. All Americans, no ethnic prefix.

Hopefully, when my granddaughter and/or grandson are vying for the presidency of the United States in a few decades, they will simply be known as Americans, and not as Japanese/European/Tamil/Sinhalese Americans. Although, truth be told, that does have a nice, global ring to it.



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Implementing 13A: Some thoughts

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The 13A requires the Government to establish a National Land Commission, which would be responsible for the formulation of a national policy, concerning the use of State land. This Commission will include representatives of all Provincial Councils. The Commission will have a Technical Secretariat, representing all the relevant disciplines required to evaluate the physical as well as the socio-economic factors that are relevant to natural resources management. National policy, on land, use will be based on technical aspects, but not political or communal aspects.

by Dr Jayampathy Wickramaratne, President’s Counsel

The 13th Amendment to the Constitution (13A), which introduced devolution of power to the periphery, is again in the news, this time on the need to fully implement it. President Ranil Wickremesinghe first raised the issue in Parliament, asking the various parties whether they are for 13 Plus, meaning improving on 13A. SJB’s Lakshman Kiriella, an avowed supporter of devolution, while saying that his party is for it, asked the President whether Mahinda Rajapaksa’s SLPP, which provides the President with the Parliamentary majority he needs for his legislative agenda, was supportive. Pressed by the President and Kiriella for a response, Rajapaksa, who had promised India to improve on 13A, rose reluctantly and said ‘13 Plus’.

President Wickremesinghe’s attempt to get a consensus on a constitutional settlement of the national question did not get off the ground. The SLPP is unlikely to abandon its Sinhala-nationalist platform. Opposition parties were sceptical. Realising the impossibility of a far-reaching amendment, the President has changed his strategy to one of fully implementing 13A, without changes, or with minor changes, that could muster SLPP support.

Several Opposition parties, that attended the previous meetings of the All-Party Conference (APC), stayed away from the meeting, held on January 27. While the SJB said that the APC was a mere ‘talk show,’ its ally among the Hill Country Tamils, the TPA, said that the President had not considered the issues facing them. The SJB’s Muslim allies did participate. MP Harini Amarasuriya clarified that while the NPP supported the 13A, in principle, it did not consider the President’s statement, on fully implementing the13A, credible.

The main areas in which the 13A has not been implemented are law and order (Police powers) and land. To add to this, successive governments have, over the last 35 years, taken back several subjects, and functions, that legitimately belong to the Provincial Councils (PCs) – agrarian services being one of them. The high point of central intrusion was the Divineguma Act of 2013, under which several functions of PCs, related to rural development, were taken over, using the two-thirds majority that the Government possessed.

Constitutional and legislative changes

The President spoke of the need to establish the National Land Commission, a requirement of the 13A, but which successive governments had not done. He also said that a decision on whether to continue with Provincial Police Commissions, or to bring the Provincial Police, under the National Police Commission, had to be taken. The latter would be a centralising feature—a 13 Minus—that will be to the disappointment of pro-devolution forces.

At the time of the 13A, there was no National Police Commission. Appointments, transfers, etc., of Police personnel, were handled by the Public Service Commission, with the Cabinet of Ministers having the power to overturn decisions of the PSC. To set up the National Police Commission and Provincial Police Commissions, provided for by the 13A, the Police Commission Act No. 1 of 1990 was passed but has not been brought into force by successive Presidents. Under the 13A, a Provincial Police Commission would consist of the Deputy Inspector General of Police, a person nominated by the Public Service Commission, in consultation with the President, and a nominee of the Chief Minister. Since the 13A, a National Police Commission was set up by the 17th and 19th Amendments, and the President now appoints its members on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. The writer submits that these changes must be reflected in the Provincial Police Commissions, as well. The sub-committee on Law and Order, of the Constitutional Assembly of the previous Parliament, recommended that the Chairman, and the members of the Provincial Police Commissions, should be recommended by the Constitutional Council, having considered nominations, jointly provided by the Chief Minister and the Leader of the Opposition of the respective Provincial Council. The writer submits that a better option would be for a Provincial Police Commission to be appointed by the Governor, on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, which should be required to call for nominations from the general public and also consult the Chief Minister and the Leader of the Opposition of the Province concerned. Any such change would require a constitutional amendment.

The 13A requires the Government to establish a National Land Commission, which would be responsible for the formulation of a national policy, concerning the use of State land. This Commission will include representatives of all Provincial Councils. The Commission will have a Technical Secretariat, representing all the relevant disciplines required to evaluate the physical as well as the socio-economic factors that are relevant to natural resources management. National policy, on land, use will be based on technical aspects, but not political or communal aspects. The Commission will lay down general norms, regarding the use of land, having regard to soil, climate, rainfall, soil erosion, forest cover, environmental factors, economic viability, etc. In the exercise of the powers devolved on them, Provincial Councils shall have due regard to national policy, formulated by the National Land Commission. The Constitution does not set out the composition, etc., of the National Land Commission. The establishment of the Commission would have to be ordinary legislation.

Broad consensus needed

President Wickremesinghe, with former President Mahinda Rajapaksa, and Premier Dinesh Gunawardena, sitting beside him, told the APC that the Cabinet of Ministers had approved the full implementation of the 13A. If as President Wickremesinghe confidently says, he has the support of the Cabinet of Ministers and, thus, of the SLPP, the full implementation of 13A would be certainly possible. But it is important that the President reaches out to the Opposition parties, as well. The SJB is for devolution as a solution to the national issue. Sajith Premadasa’s Presidential election manifesto pledged maximum devolution, within an undivided and indivisible Sri Lanka. Premadasa won areas dominated by Tamils, Muslims and Hill Country Tamils, with percentages second only to those secured by President Kumaratunga, in 1994. SJB’s Muslim and Hill Country allies support devolution, but the President needs to talk to parties representing those communities, about issues pertaining to them, too.

The new ‘Helicopter’ alliance seems unable to take a unified stand on the 13A. Dullas and Dilan Perera were at the forefront of CBK’s campaign for devolution, and Professor G.L. Pieris was the architect of her devolution proposals. Tissa Vitarana did an admirable job of getting a consensus on the national issue, through the APRC process. The Left parties in the Utttara Sabhagaya are strong supporters of devolution, while their nationalist allies are against it. Former President Sirisena spoke in support of implementing the 13A at the APC. The JVP/NPP is unlikely to oppose moves to implement the 13A.

It must not be assumed that the President’s declared intention to implement the 13A could be put into practice easily. Sinhala nationalists, in the Uttara Sabhagaya, have already declared war against fully implementing the 13A, and not all SLPP elements would be enthusiastic about supporting the proposed changes. They are sure to be joined by Sinhala extremists outside Parliament. Anti-13A forces would attempt to use discontent among the masses suffering due to the economic mess the country is in. In these circumstances, the Government needs to convince the people, and the Opposition, of the genuineness of the exercise and the chances of its success. Lest the extremists raise the ‘separatist’ bogey, President Wickremesinghe and the Government must meet such arguments, taking the bull by its horns, and also explain to the people that power-sharing, through devolution, is a must, not only to solve the ethnic issue but also for the development of the periphery. Given its composition, the present Government cannot do so on its own. It must reach out and build a broad consensus on the issue.

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Aiyo, Sirisena

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By Dr Upul Wijayawardhana

Former president Sirisena has declared that he is poor and therefore has to go begging to pay compensation awarded by the Supreme Court to the victims of the Easter Sunday massacre! He was unwilling to stand in the dock when he appeared as an accused in a subsequent case and had to be ordered to do so by the Magistrate.

Just imagine an ex-president going around begging from the populace that was made destitute by the actions of the government he headed and the government that followed, which he was part of! To make matters even worse he gives totally ludicrous and unbelievable explanations. Let me add a few of my thoughts to many opinions expressed so far, including those in the editorial “Sirisena’s plea” (The Island, 24 January) wherein the editor quite rightly names those responsible for making this totally undeserved person the President, and suggests that they should help him pay, if at all.

The two important issues that need consideration are whether Sirisena is guilty of neglecting his duties as president in not defending the country from terrorism and who is responsible for paying the compensation awarded by the Supreme court.

I pose the first question because in numerous press conferences, Sirisena has stated that the Supreme Court awarded compensation because he was indirectly responsible for the actions of security chiefs he appointed, implying that there is no direct responsibility! One wonders whether Sirisena is unable to understand the judgement, which categorically states that there were lapses such as the malfunctioning security council for which he was directly responsible. In fact, what surprised me was the reflected annoyance or frustrations of the honourable justices by their use of terms like “what takes the cake” in referring to some of these terrible lapses! Though Sirisena does not come from an academic background, having been a cabinet minister and the general secretary of a major political party for years, surely, he should be able to grasp the contents of a judgement.

Obviously, Sirisena cannot challenge the judgement as it was delivered by the highest court in the land and he cannot criticise the judgement as it would amount to contempt of court. Therefore, it is pretty obvious that he is using a diversionary tactic hoping to fool us. Perhaps, he is unaware of the famous adage: “You can fool all the people some of the time and some of the people all the time, but you cannot fool all the people all the time.”

Sirisena seems to have developed total amnesia about the commission he appointed to inquire into the Easter Sunday massacre! From parts of the report released, it was pretty obvious that the blame lay, in addition to the security establishment, on him as well as the prime minister of the day, who as the present president must be having bad dreams of the day when he no longer has presidential immunity!

In fact, one of the reasons for the downfall of President Gotabhaya Rajapaksa was his reluctance to take action on that report. Perhaps, he did so at the behest of his younger brother who was obsessed with the two thirds majority.

Sirisena seems to disregard facts and is on a shameless mission to deceive the public again by stating that he has no means to pay compensation. He claims that his only income is from a mango plantation and that he does not own even a motorcycle. But have we ever seen him riding a bicycle or travelling by bus?

Although he has not provided any proof, Sirisena claims that he was in a hospital in Singapore for an urgent medical condition at the time of the attack. Why did he go to Singapore instead of seeking treatment at home? Afterall, he was the Minister of Health before contesting the presidency! How did the urgency resolve for him to return the following day? How did this poor mango grower have the money to go to Singapore for treatment? Did the public coffers cough up the money for allegedly a shopping trip he did for his son’s wedding?

In spite of the Presidential Commission he himself appointed finding him guilty and the highest court of the land directing him to pay compensation to victims, Sirisena has failed the nation by refusing to show any remorse or take his share of responsibility. Instead, he is attempting to make a political drama out of it. What about his brother Dudley, who roared like a lion threatening to teach a lesson to anybody who tried to punish his elder brother in any way? Why is he hiding like a lizard not offering to foot the bill? Has Sirisena no shame in allowing one of his supporters to beg under the Bo tree in Pettah? A decent politician would have opted to go to jail rather than beg but decency is, perhaps, something totally alien to Sirisena!

Sirisena, who really should set an example to others who were ordered to pay compensation, does not seem even to follow their behaviour of silent acceptance. He should remember that we have not forgotten what was stated by the ex-IGP that Sirisena offered him a diplomatic posting provided he accepted responsibility. He must be regretting the refusal! Those who should go round begging are government servants who have no means to pay compensation, not the mango grower whose brother is one of the richest “Hal Mudalalis”!

Mr Sirisena! You have no sense of shame and you have done everything possible to deflect blame. What I fail to comprehend is why the SLFP does not get rid of you. Perhaps, it has a death-wish and so do the ex-Pohottuwa chaps who decided ‘helicopter’! It clearly shows that ours is the land of politicians with no sense of shame!

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Harassment of women in politics on the rise

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by Rathindra Kuruwita

Election monitors and activists express concern that digital harassment of female politicians will increase when the local council elections campaign gets into full swing in the coming weeks.According to the preliminary results of a survey conducted by the Campaign for Free and Fair Elections (CaFFE), more than 70 percent of female local councillors and grassroots political activists have faced digital harassment.

CaFFE Executive Director Manas Makeen said the majority of those who were subjected to digital harassment (around 80 percent) had not lodged complaints with the law enforcement authorities or with the political party leadership because they felt it was an exercise in futility.

“Even if these women politicians go to the police or their party leadership, there is no solution. They have to find solutions themselves. The introduction of the quota for women candidates at the local council level has upset some politicians and they have resorted to the digital sphere to undermine their female opponents,” he said.

Makeen said the survey had also revealed that about 55 percent of women politicians and activists had faced physical harassment during their political careers. However, digital harassment was the most common form of harassment now. He said almost 90 percent of those who were harassed online believed politicians in the same party were behind the attack.

Nilka Perera (not her real name) is a member of a local council in Puttalam.

The 33-year-old politician said the harassment had begun with the announcement of the 25-percent-female-candidate quota ahead of the last local council elections, in 2018.

“Some religious leaders gave sermons on why people should not vote for women and their video clips are all over social media,” she said, noting that such misconceptions were not limited to one religion or community. “People were initially sceptical about women in politics and male politicians were quick to latch on to it. While there is misogyny in society, most attacks on female politicians are organised campaigns,” she said.

SJB MP Rohini Kavirathne said the Women Parliamentarian’s Caucus was well aware of systematic digital harassment of female politicians. She said that all female politicians including her had been victims of online harassment and that the Caucus had been active in assisting women in need.

“We have always been willing to help women, on an individual basis. We have also contributed and worked with election monitors, the Elections Department, and other relevant parties to empower women and stop the harassment. While the harassment continues, I am glad to see that women are becoming stronger and are proactively countering propaganda against them,” she said.

The CaFFE survey also found that although the majority of participants received some kind of training from a government or a civil society organisation in countering digital harassment, most of the female politicians over the age of 55 were unable to answer what they would do if they faced digital harassment.

The People’s Action for Free and Fair Elections (PAFFREL) Executive Director Rohana Hettiarachchi said he, too, had noted a spike in digital harassment of female politicians during the campaign for the 2018 local council elections after the 25 percent female candidate quota was given legal effect. At least 25 percent of the names on the nomination lists, submitted by parties or independent groups should be female candidates.

“Targeted harassment of female politicians, especially those who engage in grassroots-level politics, continues to be a serious problem,” he said, expressing fears that the problem would only aggravate with the election season approaching without any proactive countermeasures from political parties.

There was also a lot of character assassination through social media, and such campaigns were ongoing, Hettiarachchi said.

Pointing out that Sri Lanka did not have a mechanism to take swift action against election malpractice, he said this was a major lacuna that should be addressed, especially given the harassment female candidates faced in the digital sphere.

“Our law enforcement mechanisms are slow. During an election period, immediate action should be taken against election law violators,” he said. “What’s the point in taking action against a campaign of digital harassment a few months after the elections are over?”

Police spokesman Nihal Thalduwa said the Sri Lanka Police Computer Crime Investigation Division had been established to help victims of computer crimes including digital harassment.

“I don’t have numbers on the top of my head, but I don’t think we get a lot of complaints from grassroots-level female politicians about digital harassment,” the Senior Superintendent of Police said.

He said this was probably because the women politicians feared they would antagonise their party leaders if they complained to the police.

“However, since you brought this issue up, the police must work closely with other stakeholders as the elections approach,” he said.

The urban-rural divide

When the then government introduced a quota for women in late 2017, weeks before the nominations for local council elections were called, most political parties had not been ready, said Kalana Weerasinghe, Chief Operating Officer at the Federation of Sri Lankan Local Government Authorities (FSLGA). He said several political parties nominated friends and family members to fill the 25 percent female-candidate quota.

“Women were often made candidates in wards that male party leaders thought they would lose. However, now we have more than 2,000 female local councillors out of some 8,000, and they can be divided into three categories.

“First, there are seasoned female politicians who have been in politics for decades and some of them are even more popular than their parties’ electoral organisers. They could easily win parliamentary elections, too, if they were given an opportunity. Then there are friends and family members of political party officials, and they have no interest in politics although they are now elected people’s representatives. The third group comprises newcomers who are passionate about what they are doing.

“So, when it comes to digital harassment, the first group is capable of handling any personal attacks. The second group probably will drop out but those in the third group have learnt to adapt and fight back though they were at first depressed by digital media harassment,” Weerasinghe said.

He said the fightback was especially visible in the urban areas where women politicians were more educated and apt in digital technologies than their rural counterparts. These women realise the power of digital media, and how it can benefit their careers. “Being in politics also makes them tougher,” he said.

With the mainstream media giving little or no space for women local council politicians, social media was the main tool they could use to build up a larger support base and tell the voters about what they did and what they believed in, Weerasinghe said.

“A person who is facing harassment can lock his or her profile pic, but a politician can’t do so. No country has been able to reduce online harassment to zero. So, it is also about empowering women and building support structures. We have to make female politicians resilient and there is a lot that the government, political parties and civil society groups can do,” he said.

Role of civil society and govt.

While some female politicians in urban areas are coming to terms with the digital landscape, there are other women and activists who are not yet tech savvy to promote themselves or deal with increasing levels of online harassment.

Makeen said that although most women politicians were on Facebook, quite a few did not know how to use the platform to promote their political careers. If they faced online harassment, they would lock their profiles or stop using social media, he said.

“Early this year, we did a study on online harassment faced by women politicians. We found that they knew about the platforms and online harassment, but they did not know how to use social media to boost their career or how to proactively deal with cyberbullies,” he said.

Makeen said they had also held a series of consultations with national-level female politicians and found out they had also been victims of concerted digital harassment.

“A young former MP once told us that at the beginning of her career, she had been devastated by cyberbullying. This is the case of someone coming from a political family and had gone through trauma. She said it was so bad that she had even contemplated quitting politics. With the backing of her family, she had learnt to ignore the bullies and connect with those who supported her although she is one of the most memed female politicians today,” he said.

Women fighting back

Manjula Gajanayake, Executive Director of the Institute of Democratic Reforms and Electoral Studies (IRES), said several young and educated female politicians including those at the grassroots level had learnt how to navigate the digital sphere.

While digital harassment continued to be a serious problem, there were signs of female local councillors building the necessary support structures to overcome it, he said.

“Initially, a lot of local women councillors were devastated by digital media harassment. I was told that some families were on the verge of breaking up. However, in the past few years, we have seen a counterattack. Female local councillors who are serious about their work have behaved with great integrity and now they are getting social recognition. Their family members, who were initially hesitant or upset about them being in politics, have now warmed up,” he said.

Describing the trend as a positive change, Gajanayake called on the government and political parties to step up efforts to end digital harassment of women candidates.

He said that often targeted digital harassment was carried out by political actors and sometimes by those in the same party.

“If the political parties are stricter and take complaints by their women candidates more seriously, we would see a sharp drop in instances of targeted digital harassment,” he said.

* This story is produced under the ANFREL Asian Media Fellowship on Election Reporting.

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