By Neville Ladduwahetty
During a recent TV interview, the Host asked the Guest whether Sri Lanka’s Foreign Policy is in “shambles”. The reason for the question was perhaps because of the lack of consistency between the statement made by the President and the Secretary to the Foreign Ministry relating to Foreign Policy. For instance, the first clear and unambiguous statement made by the newly elected President during his acceptance speech delivered in Sinhala in the holy city of Anuradhapura in which the only comment in English was that his Foreign Policy would be Neutral. This was followed during his address to Parliament titled: The Policy statement made by Gotabaya Rajapaksa, President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka at the inauguration of the Fourth Session of the 8th Parliament of Sri Lanka on January 3, 2020, in which he stated: “We follow a neutral foreign policy”.
However, the Secretary to the Foreign Ministry has on different occasions stated that Sri Lanka’s Foreign Policy is “Neutral and Non-Aligned”. Perhaps, his view may have been influenced by the President’s Manifesto, “Vistas of Prosperity and Splendour”, that stated that out of 10 key policies the second was “Friendly, Non-Aligned, Foreign Policy”
The question that needs to be addressed is whether both Neutrality and Non-Alignment could realistically coexist as policies to guide Sri Lanka in the conduct of its relations with other Nation-States. Since neutrality is a defined policy that has a legal basis and has a history that precedes Non-Alignment, there is a need for the Neutral State to conduct its relations with other States according to recognised codified norms with reciprocity. On the other hand, Non-Alignment was essentially a commitment to a set of principles by a group of countries that had emerged from colonial rule and wanted to protect their newly won independence and sovereignty in the context of a bi-polar world. The policy of Non-Alignment therefore, should apply ONLY to the members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). Thus, Non-Alignment, being only a set of principles adopted by a group of like-minded sovereign States to protect and preserve their common self-interests, its conduct in respect of States outside the Non-Aligned Movement becomes unstated and therefore undefined. Neutrality instead is a clear policy that defines how a neutral country such as Sri Lanka conducts its relations with other countries, and how other countries relate with Sri Lanka primarily in respect of the inviolability of its territory.
NON-ALIGNED and the NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
A statement dated August 22, 2012 by the External Affairs Ministry of the Government of India on the historical evolution of the Non-Alignment Movement states:
“The principles that would govern relations among large and small nations, known as the “Ten Principles of Bandung”, were proclaimed at that Conference (1955). Such principles were adopted later as the main goals and objectives of the policy of non-alignment. The fulfillment of those principles became the essential criterion for Non-Aligned Movement membership; it is what was known as “quintessence of the Movement until early 1990s” (Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India, “History and Evolution of Non-Aligned Movement, August 22, 2012).
“Thus, the primary objectives of the non-aligned countries focused on the support of self-determination, national independence and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States; opposition to apartheid; non-adherence to multilateral military pacts and the independence of non-aligned countries from great power or block influences and rivalries; the struggle against imperialism in all its forms and manifestations; the struggle against colonialism, neocolonialism, racism, foreign occupation and domination; disarmament; non-interference into the internal affairs of States and peaceful coexistence among all nations; rejection of the use or threat of use of force in international relations; the strengthening of the United Nations; the democratization of international relations; socioeconomic development and the restructuring of the international economic system; as well as international cooperation on an equal footing” (Ibid).
These commitments did not deter countries such as India from violating the very principles India committed to in Bandung. To start with, India undermined the security of Sri Lanka by nurturing and supporting the training of non-state actors in late 1970s. Having made Sri Lanka vulnerable, India proceeded to coerce Sri Lanka to accept the Indo-Lanka Accord under which India was committed to disarm the militants. Having failed much to its shame, India violated the principle of the right of self-determination when it compelled Sri Lanka to devolve power to a merged North-East Province. All these actions amounted to a complete disregard and the mockery of the lofty principles of NAM undertaken to protect India’s self-interest. What is clear from India’s actions with regard to Sri Lanka is that when push comes to shove, self-interest overrides multi-lateral commitments.
In a similar vein Sri Lanka too, driven by self-interest, voted in support of UK’s intervention in the Falklands because of the debt owed by Sri Lanka to the UK for the outright grant given to construct the Victoria Hydro Power Scheme, although conscious of the fact that by doing so Sri Lanka was discrediting itself for not supporting the resolution initiated by NAM to oppose UK’s actions. These instances demonstrate that Non-Alignment as a Foreign Policy is subservient to self-interest thereby underscoring the fact that it cannot be a clear policy to guide how a State conducts itself in relation to other States.
Commenting on the issues of limitations imposed by being a Member of NAM Shelton E. Kodikara states: “For Sri Lanka as indeed for many of the smaller states among the non-aligned community, membership of the Non-Aligned Movement and commitment to its consensual decisions implied a widening of the institutional area of foreign policy decision-making, and collective decision-making also implied a limitation of the area of choice among foreign policy options…” (Foreign Policy of Sri Lanka, 1982, p. 151).
Therefore, arrangements with common interests such as those by the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) or Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) or any other group of countries with common interests, are mechanisms whose support and solidarity could be sought when needed to advance causes, as for instance when Sri Lanka advanced the concept of making the Indian Ocean a Zone of Peace, and later in 2009 did so in Geneva. Notwithstanding such advantages, the hard reality is that Non-Alignment does not represent a clear statement as to how a State conducts its relations with Nation-States outside the Non-Aligned Movement. Therefore, it follows that Non-Alignment cannot be considered a statement of Foreign Policy by a State.
THE CURRENT CONTEXT
The statement by the Foreign Affairs Ministry of India cited above that the “quintessence” of the principles of the Non-Alignment lasted until early 1990s, was because the bi-polar world that was the cause for the formation of NAM had ceased to exist with the territorial break-up of one of the power blocks – the USSR. Consequently, the USSR lost its influence as a global power. In this vacuum what exists currently is one recognized global power with other powers aspiring to be part of a multi polar world. In the absence of recognized power blocks the need to align or not to align does not arise because Nation-States are free to evolve their own arrangements as to how they conduct their relations with each other. Consequently, the concept of Non-Alignment individually or collectively is a matter of choice depending on the particularity of circumstance, but not as a general Foreign Policy to address current challenges.
With China attempting to regain its lost territory and glory as a civilizational State following its century of shame, the geopolitical matrix has changed dramatically. The economic gains of China the likes of which are unprecedented alarmed the Western world to the point that the US deemed it necessary to adopt a policy of Pivot to Asia thereby making the Indian and Pacific Oceans the focus for great power engagement. This shift of focus has caused new strategic security alliances such as the Quad to emerge to contain the growing influence of China among the States in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. With the Maldives joining India as the latest members of Quad, Sri Lanka has become isolated; a development that has brought Sri Lanka’s location in the Indian Ocean into sharp focus as being of pivotal strategic interest to great and emerging powers.
It is in this newly formed geopolitical context that Sri Lanka has to formulate its Foreign Policy that necessarily must be fresh if Sri Lanka is to equip itself to meet the new challenges created by a coalition of States to contain the rise of China. One option is to join the Quad. This could mean Sri Lanka distancing itself from engaging with China. The other option is to engage with China to the exclusion of the Quad. Either of these options would cause Sri Lanka to lose its independence and the freedom to protect its core values and interests. Therefore, the choice is not to settle for either option.
These unprecedented circumstances and challenges cannot be countered by harking back to the glory days of Non-Alignment, because major influences of the movement (NAM) such as India, have recently abandoned the original principles it subscribed to when it became a part of Quad. Therefore, although NAM still represents a body of likeminded interests with the ability to influence causes limited only to resolutions that further the interests of its members, it is not in a position to ensure the inviolability of the territory and the freedom of a State to make its
own hard choices. It is only if a Nation-State proclaims that its relations with other Nation-States is Neutral that provisions codified under the Hague Conventions of 1907 that would entitle Sri Lanka to use the inviolability of its territory to underpin its relations with other Nation-States. Therefore, the Foreign Policy statement as made by the President to Parliament should guide Sri Lanka in its relations with States because it is relevant and appropriate in the geopolitical context that currently exists.
The Foreign Policy of a State is greatly influenced by its History and Geography. Historically Sri Lanka’s Foreign Policy has been one of Non-Alignment. Furthermore, Sri Lanka participated in the Conference in Bandung in 1955; a date recognized as the beginning of the Non-Aligned Movement. Thus, although the geographic location of a State is well defined, the significance of its location could dramatically be transformed by geopolitical developments. The staggering economic revival of China from early seventies under the leadership of President Deng Xiaoping whose philosophy was to hide capacity, bide time and never claim leadership, was perhaps the reason for China’s tremendous transformations both economic and social, to proceed relatively unnoticed.
It was only with the announcement of President Xi Jinping’s policy of the Belt and Road Initiative announced in 2013, that the world came to realize that the power and influence of China was unstoppable. This policy resulted in China establishing its footprint in strategically located countries in the Indian and Pacific Oceans by funding and constructing infrastructure projects. Sri Lanka happened to be one such country. The need for the U.S along with India, Australia and Japan to form a security alliance to contain the growing power and influence of China in the Indian and Pacific Oceans was inevitable.
India’s alliance with the US has shifted the balance in Asia causing China to be the stand alone great power in Asia. As far as Sri Lanka is concerned this new dynamic compels Sri Lanka to make one of four choices. One is to align and develop relations with the US and its allies. Second is to align and develop relations with China. The third is be Non-Aligned with either. The fourth and preferred option is to be Neutral not only with the Quad and China, but also with all other States, and develop friendly relations individually with all States.
The policy of Non-Alignment by a State is an external declaration of intent that a nation would not align itself with either a collective or individual center of power such as the Quad or China, in the conduct of its relations. Neutrality by a State, instead, means not only a statement that it would be Neutral when conducting relations with collective or individual centers of power and other States, but also how such a State expects all States to respect its Neutrality; a policy that would be in keeping with Sri Lanka’s unique strategic location in South Asia. Thus, while the former works outwards the latter works both ways. More importantly, how Neutrality works is governed by internationally codified laws that are in place to guide reciprocal relations.
Confessions of a global gypsy – Part 20
A winning streak
By Dr. Chandana (Chandi) Jayawardena DPhil
President – Chandi J. Associates Inc. Consulting, Canada
Founder & Administrator – Global Hospitality Forum
Learning from the Past to Create a Bright Future
Last week, I was pleased to be invited by a newly established International Hotel School (IHS) Guild to talk on the above topic. IHS Guild organized their first webinar of a series on the day I celebrated my 50 years in the field of hospitality – on October 10, 2021. As their keynote speaker, I spoke about the vision, the mission and the passion needed. It was in relation to the how the IHS – the second oldest hotel school in Sri Lanka, was created within Mount Lavinia Hotel 30 years ago. As the hotel industry in Sri Lanka is planning to re-bounce and rebuild after the global pandemic, it is vital for industry leaders to learn from the past in becoming innovative leaders for the future.
Managing an Inn at age twenty
In 1974, my first management position fell on my lap when I was still a 24-year old third-year student at the Ceylon Hotel School (CHS). The company making the offer was very impressed with my experience in eight part-time positions within a short two and half years at CHS. Most of my peers interested in this position had only two or three part-time positions on their resumes. My focus on being ‘street smart’ by action learning at any job I could find rather than being ‘book smart’, finally paid dividends.
This company, with five boutique hotels (in Colombo, Kandy and Nuwara Eliya) – Yahala Group, offered me the post of the Resident Secretary of the Tropical Gardens Club & Inn in the most expensive location in Sri Lanka (Colombo Seven). I accepted the offer immediately. Every afternoon, soon after I finished my classes at CHS, I wore a tie and rushed to the this small 10-bedroom inn with a busy restaurant, bar and a club. Around 4:00 pm every weekday, I took over the keys and the entire operation from Mrs. S. Wijesinghe, the manageress.
I was paid only Rs. 200 a month. However, to the amazement of my batchmates I was provided with à la carte restaurant dining facilities and an air-conditioned room for overnight stay, on complimentary basis. Air-conditioning was a luxury in mid-1970s in Sri Lanka. Around midnight, I managed to do a little bit of studying for the forthcoming final examinations at CHS in my luxurious hotel bedroom, rather than in a crowded dormitory at the CHS hostel.
The manageress was an early bird. Every morning, I handed over the inn back to her and rushed to CHS. During the weekends I worked longer hours. I did not get many opportunities to practice my newly improved culinary skills but enjoyed being in charge of the inn during its busiest time of the day. I was the number two of the inn combined with duties of the duty manager and night manager. The employees respected me after I commenced mini sessions of service training. In my ninth part-time job I learnt how to lead a small team and keep them motivated.
Winning Big at Sports
In spite of my hectic schedule, I found time to continue practising Judo and Rugby Football. I was chosen to the five-member team of Colombo YMCA Judo club. After a hectic five-bout team event, we won the 1974 national Judo Championship in Sri Lanka.
For the third time, as the Tournament Secretary of the Nationalised Services Rugby Football Club I led the organizing of a 16-team seven-a-side tournament. CHS competed once again and won the championship for the first time. We played against strong teams with several top Sri Lanka national team players, such as Dan Ratnam (Captain of the Havelock Sports Club, fondly known as Havies Rugger team). Our hard work at early morning practices at the Galle Face Green and our youthful fitness were the key winning factors in our favour.
I was angered when the team captain and my friend, Neil Maurice nearly dropped me from the team for not attending some of the practice sessions. However, he was particularly pleased with my performance during our final match. After a 60-meter sprint, I scored an early try within minutes of the opening whistle. After we won the trophy, Neil gave me a big hug and said, “Machang, no hard feelings. We won mainly because of that first minute try by you.”
Getting Promoted to Havelock Tourinn
During my third month at Tropical Gardens Club & Inn, the company appointed a Group General Manager in charge of all five boutique hotels. Mr C. Nagendra was a Chartered Accountant returning to Sri Lanka after spending a long time in the UK. He immediately interviewed me and offered me a transfer and promotion. He transferred me to the company’s flagship hotel – Havelock Tourinn on Dickman’s Road, Colombo-4 as one of his two deputies. Mr. Nagendra made my job a full-time job and doubled my salary, to Rs. 400 a month. At that time, that was a very good salary for a 20-year old.
One of my batchmates, Hiran Seneviratne and I were both appointed Assistant Managers. Hiran was a smooth operator and was a friendly roommate at the CHS hostel. Hiran and I shared one office with Mr. Nagendra, who was familiarizing himself with hotel operations. He was a good administrator, but did not have experience in hotel operations. He kept on asking us operational questions and we learnt hotel accounting from him.
I looked after the kitchen, bar and the Flame Room Restaurant then famous for flambé dishes. I had a team of young, smart and English-fluent waiters who came from Colombo schools. I did some training sessions for them. In later years, most of them became good restaurant managers and food and beverage managers of top hotels in Sri Lanka and the Middle East. Hiran looked after the rest of the operations. In my tenth job at times, I also acted for the General Manager.
I did well at the final examinations. CHS arranged a grand graduation ceremony at Hotel Samudra with Dr. N. M. Perera, the Minister of Finance, as the chief guest. Although it was a happy moment, I was saddened to leave the hostel and many friends at CHS. We were also getting ready to bid farewell to three of my batchmates who were awarded Carl Duisberg Society scholarships to undergo two years of postgraduate industrial training in West Germany. In addition, my friend, Neil Maurice decided to migrate to Australia soon after the graduation.
Our two junior batches at CHS organized a grand graduation ball event at the Colombo Holiday Inn. They followed the traditions we set during our time at CHS. Our memorable three years at CHS ended on a high note.
Career Planning – The Next Move?
Early hours of that morning, after the graduation ball, I went to my bedroom at Havelock Tourinn instead of my home which was a just a five-minute walk from the hotel. I did not fall asleep as I had a long thought about my next career move. I thought about the ten part-time jobs I held during my student years at CHS, and identified key lessons I learnt by doing or observing in each of those jobs:
1. Hotel Samdura – Following rules to avoid getting fired
2. Pegasus Reef Hotel – Win-win formula for successful buffet products
3. Mount Lavina Hyatt Hotel – Restaurant service and fair dealing with trade unions
4. Barberyn Reef Hotel – Analysing personalities of superiors and customers
5. Windmill Restaurant – Fast food operations
6. Hotel Ceylon InterContinental – Five-star banquet service
7. Lever Brothers – Staff canteen mass food production
8. Bentota Beach Hotel – Bar controls and kitchen operations
9. Tropical Gardens Club & Inn – Club management and staff training
10. Havelock Tourinn – Kitchen, food and beverage and general management.
At age 20, I was working as the Assistant Manager of a reputed hotel in Colombo with free board and lodging, and walking distance to my family home. It was also not far from my club (YMCA Judo Club) and many key venues for social activities in Colombo. This was somewhat a dream job for most young graduates of CHS. I was very comfortable at my current job, but settling in a comfort zone was short-sighted. There were many other key aspects of hotel operations I needed to get practical experience of. Therefore, I concluded that I needed to move.
In my opinion, kitchen operations is a weak aspect of most hotel managers/general managers. As a result, some executive chefs behaved with attitudes which undermined the hotels manager’s authority. At Havelock Tourinn I had three experienced chefs (including Mrs. Marie Nugapitiya who later became a Culinary Lecturer at CHS) reporting to me. I was not experienced enough in kitchen operations to supervise such qualified and experienced chefs who were also much senior to me in age.
I decided that before I became a hotel general manager, I must master kitchen management initially as a junior chef and then after a couple of years, as an executive chef. Although I loved Bentota Beach hotel, it did not have an opening there. Meanwhile, the largest hotel in Sri Lanka – Hotel Lanka Oberoi, in preparation to open in a few months’ time, had advertised many middle management operational job positions. A newspaper advertisement seeking suitably qualified applicants for the posts of chef de partie (station chef) caught my eye. That morning I posted my application to Hotel Lanka Oberoi. That was the first time I applied to a hotel position in writing.
Dr. Chandana (Chandi) Jayawardena
has been an Executive Chef, Food & Beverage Director, Hotel GM, MD, VP, President, Chairman, Professor, Dean, Leadership Coach and Consultant. He has published 21 text books. This weekly column narrates ‘fun’ stories from his 50-year career in South Asia, the Middle East, Europe, South America, the Caribbean and North America, and his travels to 98 countries and assignments in 44 countries.
CBK had an impulsive streak but was gracious in admitting mistakes
Personality that was a unique amalgam of pride, humility, grace & inner toughness
From the memoirs of Chandra Wickremasinghe Retired Additional Secretary to the President
With President Chandrika Kumaratunge assuming office, there was once again a flurry of activity in the Presidential Secretariat and in the Ministries, as she was anxious to expeditiously push through various development programmes she had in mind. Although she did not believe in an overly centralized system of Presidential rule, she kept a close tab particularly on the major development projects and programmes of Ministries by having regular review meetings with them.
She was very sincere in her efforts to find an abiding solution to the ethnic problem. Her many overtures to Prabhakaran towards this end, proved futile and abortive as the latter continued playing his little games with her as he had done with her predecessors. With the late Lakshman Kadirgamar, the suave diplomat par excellence, at the helm of the Foreign Ministry, she pursued a highly urbane foreign policy aimed at winning over the neighbouring countries in Asia as well as the major powers in the West, and getting them to align with Sri Lanka in the bitter on-going battle with the LTTE terrorists. These sophisticated approaches in foreign relations enabled Sri Lanka to get the LTTE banned as a terrorist organization in many countries across the globe.
President Kumaratunge possessed a personality which reflected a rather unique amalgam of pride, humility, grace and inner toughness. Kusum Balapatambendi who succeeded Wijedasa as Secretary/President, was basically a clever political firefighter. Being a senior public servant and a smart lawyer to boot, he was able to hold the fort successfully assisting the President in her administrative duties as well as in the many political wrangles she had to settle.
President Kumaratunge had an excellent rapport with the officers who worked for her. There were times when she was needlessly and harshly critical of certain actions of her officials but she was quick to graciously relent when she realized that the concerned officials had acted only in her larger interests. I recall an incident which brings out in good measure the impulsive streak in her personality as well as her magnanimity in graciously admitting her mistakes. Those wielding power, are often inebriated by it and think they are infallible. She was, I must say, an exception in this regard.
It was an interesting little episode where she had dashed off a rather rude minute to me in Sinhala in a file (she had this habit of writing abrasive minutes to officers in Sinhala when she was angry) faulting me for some action I had allegedly not taken. It was a case where I had refrained from taking action as directed by her, for certain very valid reasons which I had pointed out to her in an earlier minute. Without looking at my earlier minute, she had impetuously dashed off this minute of her’s to me; I was naturally very angry, as the office staff too had seen her minute.
I telephoned Sarath Gonagala who had functioned as my Asst. Secy., before I, on my own initiative, sent him to the President to help her maintain her diary of appointments and to ensure that Ambassadors and other VIPs were not kept waiting unduly; (I must say that this attempt of mine proved an unmitigated failure as punctuality and the Lady President continued to remain enemies!) and conveyed to him what she had written on the minute sheet. I also told him that I would be sending a sharp rejoinder on a loose minute sheet which I wanted him to show the President and tear up before sending the file back to me.
Within two days Sarath G telephoned to say the Lady wanted to see me. When I entered her room, she was seated at the desk alone and asked me to take a seat. After a couple of minutes, she looked up and said quietly that she should not have written that minute to me, in reply to which I immediately said ‘of course you shouldn’t have as you had done so without seeing my earlier minute to you on the matter advising against your proposed action, pointing out that it was imprudent to do so as the media would have gone to town on the matter the next day’.
She then asked me “What shall I do?” I was so touched by her show of remorse and the disarming way she readily admitted her mistake that all the anger in me evaporated and I could only request her to send the file back to me. The particular file however, never came back. When I enquired from her about the file much later, she would only smile! I thought of referring to this incident as she was one President you could speak to candidly, on any matter- one to one, without running the grave risk of being misunderstood, with whatever other untoward consequences that may have followed.
Dhammika Amarasinghe and I who continued to function as Additional Secretaries to the President (as Neville Piyadigama had by then left the Presidential Secretariat to take charge of a Ministry), worked very conscientiously for her, with each of us overseeing about six Ministries from the Presidential Secretariat. She was quick and perceptive, sitting with us for long hours, going through our recommendations in detail and making her own additions and subtractions. It was indeed a pleasure working for her as she appreciated the work officers did for her.
The President who was acutely conscious of the need to plan to meet the energy shortages that were likely to occur in the future, was keen on expanding hydro power generation and exploring alternative source of energy like wind and solar power. I headed a delegation comprising senior CEB engineers to study BOT projects etc. in Pakistan and the Philippines in March 1995. One of the recommendation made by the delegation was to obtain the services of Dr. Tariq, the engineer in charge of the Tarbela Dam Project, to advice on the huge leakage of water at the Samanalawewa reservoir. Dr. Tariq visited S.L and made certain recommendations to the govt. which helped in reducing the leakage substantially.
In September 1996 Secretary President and I visited Islamabad to study that country’s success in the implementation of their BOO/BOT projects.
Presidential Committee on the alienation of State Land
Soon after President Kumarathunge assumed office, she appointed me to Chair a Presidential Committee to examine and recommend policies relating to the alienation of State Land. The Committee comprised seven Ministry Secretaries, the Chief Valuer, a representative of the Attorney General etc. When I showed her the names of the Secretaries who were to be members of the Committee, she picked out one name saying she did not want him to be on the Committee as she did not trust him. When I protested and said that the particular Secretary had to be on the Committee as land was a subject that came very much within his purview, she agreed after cautioning me to be careful with any proposals that would be made by him. The recommendations of this Committee were accepted by Govt. and were issued as circular instructions which are, I am happy to note, operative even today, apart from a few amendments made to adjust to changing times and circumstances.
The President’s Fund
President Kumaratunge further appointed me to manage the President’s Fund as Secretary to the Fund. I enjoyed this assignment which I did in addition to my work as Addnl. Secy. to the President. Personally, I found this work most satisfying as I was able to help poor patients suffering particularly from heart and kidney disease with money given from the Fund to undergo cardiac by-pass surgery/kidney transplantation, both in Sri Lanka and abroad. There were many other programmes initiated by President Kumaratunge viz. Presidential Scholarships awarded to promising poor students to pursue higher studies as well as scholarships awarded to public officers to pursue post graduate studies in fields which were considered to be of special relevance to the development needs of the country.
The allocations were generous, and often covered the full cost of by-pass surgery and kidney transplantation and the full cost of the scholarship awards, as the Fund at that stage was well endowed with regular income from the Development Lottery as well as from it’s other investments.
Distinct advantages in working for a President
There are distinct advantages working directly under the President of the country. One privilege I valued very much was that politicians, including Ministers did not interfere with your work and it was also easy to obtain the co-operation of Ministers and officials in the Ministries one oversaw from the President’s office. They were extremely wary in their dealings with you particularly during President Premadasa’s time. But all this came with the heavy responsibility of keeping a tab on anything untoward happening in the Ministries concerned which had to be reported fully to the President along with the detailed explanation given by the Secretary concerned.
President Premadasa in particular, was always watchful of any misdemeanors occurring in Ministries and would follow up on matters till they were rectified. President Kumaratunge did not interfere with the work of Ministers to that extent, but kept herself informed of progress made on development projects etc. at the regular meetings she had with particular Ministries.
When a President realizes that you are a conscientious worker who will work with dedication and integrity, you will be given numerous assignments to study problems and report on them, despite their being subjects falling at times, outside your officially assigned legitimate functions.
Rice Genetic Improvement Odyssey of Past Centuries
by M. P. Dhanapala
Former Director, Rice Research and Development Institute, Batalagoda
History is important. It keeps you away from reinventing the wheel and repeating the mistakes already committed in the past. In history, there should not be hidden expressions to read between lines as “the ten giants of King Dutugamunu were fed with traditional rice,”concealing the details of what the others were eating and why they were not giants or that “we have been exporting rice during the past in such and such era” without disclosing the quantities and the recipient countries. For that matter if you go through the export details, we do export rice even now.
The green revolution was criticized as the contributing factor for the so called unidentified Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin (CKDu) which was reported primarily from the North Central Province. Whatever the causal factor of CKDu is, Norman Borlaug or his green revolution has nothing to do with the kidney disease or rice in Sri Lanka. It is true that his innovative ideology in wheat breeding induced the rice breeders worldwide to develop a physiologically efficient rice plant type by changing the plant stature and canopy characteristics. The Sri Lankan rice varieties were developed within the country, by the Sri Lankan scientists. It was an extension of the breeding process initiated by the British scientists during the colonial era. The progress of rice breeding from its inception by different generations will be unfolded in this write-up to judge the calculated decisions taken by the ancestral breeders to improve rice productivity in the country.
I would like to lay the baseline from a report published by Edward Elliott, a British Civil Servant in 1913. (Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. XLI, No. 6, Dec. 1913). He states that the forced labor (Rajakariya) that existed then was abolished in 1832. Subsequently, the communal cooperation system (Atththam) also ceased to exist gradually. These two incidents were cited as the major reasons for the neglect of irrigation structures and subsequent decline of rice production in the mid 19th Century. The annual rice production estimated for the period of 10 years ending in 1856 was 5.5 million bushels, the lowest in the recorded history.
Enacting the Paddy Ordinance in 1857 allowed voluntary restoration of old irrigation structures which eventually led to the gradual increase in the cultivated extent and the annual rice production. Estimated rice production data during this era and at the turn of the century are summarized in Table 1. The original data were in acres and bushels. The data were transformed into hectares and kilograms and tonnes assuming 20 kg as the bushel weight. The transformed data in Table 1 appear within parentheses.
See table 1.
Annual rice production statistics from the latter half of the 19th and early 20th Century (Elliot, 1913)
The rice production data above are estimates based on returns from paddy, probably grain tax, in the Government Blue Books. You may realize that these estimates are sometimes too high when actual data appear towards 1940s. However, at the turn of the 19th Century, the rice varieties were exclusively traditional types maintained by farmers and the Department of Agriculture was not established.
Many critics maintain that we had innumerable different varieties of rice in the past. The earliest recorded in the history was a collection of 300 rice varieties displayed by Nugawela Dissawe for the agri-horticultural exhibition held in 1902 (Molegoda, 1924) (Trop. Agric. XLII (4): 218-224.). This probably represented almost all the cultivars in the field during this period. This was the largest collection of rice varieties in the recorded history in Ceylon, leaving out the recent collections performed in the latter half of the 20th century. Molegoda explains very comprehensively the status of rice varieties and the procedure followed in naming them.
The rice cultivation at the beginning of 20th century was entirely organic manure dependent. The farmers then were apparently more competent in traditional methods of rice cultivation. The most striking feature during this era was that the average yields were below one ton/ha (<20 bu/ac) even in the best productive year, 1903 (Table 1).
In 1914, an encouraging note on Extension of Paddy Cultivation by A. W. Beven (Trop. Agric. XLIII (6): 421-424.) appears with the suggestion of seed selection to improve rice yields. He states that in the year 1913 the yield estimate of 9,622,320 bushels was too high a target, i.e.14.2 bu/ac (0.71 t/ha), for the cultivated extent of 671,711ac (271,827ha), but suggests that with seed selection accompanied by proper land preparation, manuring and transplanting, the yields could be increased up to 25 bu/ac (1.25t/ha). This suggestion was at the inception of the Department of Agriculture which was established in 1912.
The earliest record on rice varietal improvement dates back to seed selection in 1914 by Dr. Lock at Peradeniya. This was done more or less parallel with the establishment of Johannsen’s pure line theory (1903). In the literature, Dr. Lock’s improved Hatial (a seven month variety) appears from time to time as a standard variety in yield tests.
The next most important step was the pure-line selection. Initially, three Economic Botanists, F. Summers (1921), R.O. Iliffe (1922), L. Lord (1927) and at latter stages Paddy Officer G.V. Wickremasekera were involved in the selection of pure- lines (Trop. Agric. LVIII (2): 67-70; Trop. Agric. LXVIII (5): 309-318). Pure-line selection exploited heterogeneity within the farmer maintained traditional rice cultivars. Each cultivar composed of different types within it. As a result, individual plant selection within cultivars produced progenies with better genetic potential, but resembling the mother plant selected; they bred true to type as rice is an obligate inbreeder. This was the essence of pure-line theory established by Johannsen (1903).
Pure-line selection was initiated with a representative collection of traditional varieties. The most popular varieties were included in the process. Pure-line selection was done at two major locations, Mahailluppallama and Peradeniya. Subsequently, selection was regionalized to accommodate regionally adapted varieties in the process. The best isolated progenies were tested at 19 test locations in different agro-ecological regions for adaptability, prior to recommendation. The best adapted pure-lines (21 lines – Table 2) were identified for purity maintenance at four different paddy stations – Ambalantota (nine lines), Mahailluppallama (eight lines), Madampe (two lines) and Batalagoda (two lines). Further multiplication of seeds was done in government farms under the supervision of Agricultural Officers and distributed as seed paddy for cultivation (Trop. Agric. CIV (2): 97-98.).
See table 2.
Pure-line varieties identified for cultivation (Extract from Amended Departmental Circular No. 156 – Trop. Agric. CIV (2): 97-98.)
While the pure-line selection process was on, Joachim (1927) (Trop. Agric. LXIX 137) warned that the sustenance of increased yields by cultivation of high yielding pure-lines has to be met with liberal manuring. However, despite of all these attempts during the two decades from 1920s, the paddy yields were not substantially increased (Table 3). Rice yield data presented in Table 3 shows lower values compared to yield estimates from Government Blue Books presented in Table 1. The data in Table 3 being more reliable, the Table 1 data could be overestimates.
However, the majority of the harvested rice crop in the 1940s could be from potentially better pure-line selections, but the yields were much below the anticipated levels. The total production was around 15 million bushels (0.3 m tons) and yields stagnated at around 14 bu/ac (0.7 t/ha).
The Draft Scheme for Development of the Paddy Industry in Ceylon drawn in 1945 (Trop. Agric. CI (3) 191-195) begins with the statement that only a third of the annual requirement is met by the local rice production.
The balance was imported; the population was less than seven million during that period and the paddy cultivation was done organically with the best adapted pure-lines of traditional cultivars, though it failed to deliver what was intended.
The importance of inorganic (chemical) fertilizer was felt during this period as the only option to improve paddy yields further. Use of sodium nitrate (Na NO3) as the source of nitrogen (N) was attempted in rice prior to 1905 based on American experience in soybean cultivation, but nitrite (NO2–) toxicity under reduced conditions in submerged paddy soils prohibited its use. Superiority of NH4 form of N was demonstrated by Nagaoka (1905) and Daikuhara and Imaseki (1907). However, the application of N promoted vegetative growth in pure-lines derived from traditional rice varieties causing premature lodging. Furthermore, two fungal diseases, blast and brown spot, became prominent. Around this period some introduced varieties were tested without much success. Among them, Ptb 16 from Pathambi, India, popularly called Riyan wee, with long panicles and slender grains (Buriyani rice) became popular, but self sufficiency in rice appeared to be far away.
Transition to another phase in rice breeding began as the rice breeders over the world employed cross-bred populations to create genetic variability to bring together desirable characteristics of different rice cultivars to develop better varieties. Rice hybridization techniques were developed around early 1920s and a major break through in changing the plant-type was accomplished in Japan with the use of Jikkoku, a dwarf natural mutant of Japonica rice. The performance of Japonica varieties exhibited substantial improvement with this transition. Influenced by the Japanese experience, the Food and Agriculture Organization sponsored a cross breeding program of Japonica with Indica rices in Cuttak, India to change the Indica plant type too in this direction, but without success due to incompatibility between the two groups (Japonica and Indica) leading to grain sterility in subsequent generations.
In Sri Lanka, the first paper on rice hybridization techniques was published in 1951 by J.J. Niles, an assistant in Economic Botany, guided by Prof. M. F. Chandraratne, the Economic Botanist (Trop. Agric. CVII (1):25-29.). Prof. Chandraratne was instrumental in initiation of rice hybridization. Simultaneously rice hybridization work began at the Dry Zone Agricultural Research Station at Mahailluppallama under the guidance of Dr. Ernest Abeyratne. The Central Rice Breeding Station, Batalagoda was established in 1952 and Dr. H. Weeraratne was transferred from Mahailluppallama to Batalagoda as the rice breeder with the hybrid populations already developed at Mahailluppallama.
Dr. Weeraratne, influenced by his superiors, Prof. Chandraratne and Dr. Abeyratne, continued rice hybridization to create genetic variability for selection. The hybridization techniques adopted by him were published in 1954 (Trop. Agric. CX (2) 93-97). Apparently, the labor intensive pedigree method was employed by Dr. Weeraratne to identify and fix desirable genotypes from segregating populations. And this was the beginning of the “H” series of varieties that revolutionized the rice sector in Sri Lanka. The letter “H” was used to imply that the varieties were of hybrid origin and were different from traditional varieties or pure-lines, but not to imply that they are hybrids.
The Central Rice Breeding Station, Batalagoda, Department of Agriculture
The first of the series, H4 (4.5 month, red bold), released in 1957, reached its peak popularity after a five year lapse of time and covered over 60% of the cultivated extent in Maha season, 62/63. The others in the series were H7 (3.5 month, white bold), H8 (4.5 month, white samba), H9 (5-6 month, white bold), H10 (3 month, red bold). Release of H varieties (1) minimized crop losses due to blast disease, (2) changed rice cropping pattern from single to double cropping, (3) use of N fertilizer increased by 350% due to their moderate response to fertilizer, (4) increased national yield level up to 3.5 t/ha (Senadhira et. al., Rice Symposium, Department of Agriculture, 1980). This effort, though appreciated widely, fell short of self sufficiency again.
The most controversial phase for the critics in rice breeding was initiated in mid 1960s, while “H” varieties were replacing the pure-lines and the traditional varieties from paddy fields. The International Rice Research Institute was established in 1960 and the plant physiologists conceptualized the plant type structure of rice to make it physiologically efficient. The development of “H” varieties (Old Improved Varieties) abruptly ended with these new innovations.
The breeders responsible for developing this new plant type in Sri Lanka, specifically the Bg varieties, were Dr. H. Weeraratne, Dr. N. Vignarajah, Dr. D. Senadhira and Mr. C.A. Sandanayake. None of them are among us any more. I joined the team in the late 1960s, at the tail end of H varieties and continued the process till the country reached the brim of self reliance in rice.
The Bg and other modern varieties are physiologically efficient. They are devoid of unproductive plant tissues and ineffective tillers. The plant structure is designed to reduce mutual shading of leaves and trap solar radiation effectively by every leaf in the canopy thus reducing the respiratory losses and promoting the net assimilation rate. They out yield traditional and H varieties at any level of soil fertility and show positive grain yield response to added fertilizer. They are lodging resistant and incorporated with resistance/tolerance to major pests and diseases prevalent in the country. More preciously, we have reversed the source-sink relationship of the rice plant to translocate photosynthates to produce more grains and less straw. The potential yield of improved varieties exceeds 6t/ha. All these traits listed above have been tested in controlled experiments in the field to confirm the superiority of new improved varieties. We reap around 4.5 tons/ha as our national average yield at present; the country is self sufficient in rice, the dream every political leader had since independence.
This in a nut shell is what the rice breeders have accomplished and for which they were given the title “Kumbandayas” in an article written apparently by a medical professional. The local rice scientists embark only on innovations backed by scientific facts. They do not have to exaggerate or lie. They know little more than those who seek cheap popularity by being critical about the accomplishments of rice scientists. This country needs people dedicated and confined to their respective professions allowing other professionals to play their own role. At any time rice breeders can take the country back to the traditional rice era if you want to begin all over again from the beginning. The traditional accessions are in long-term storage at the Plant Genetic Resource Center (PGRC), Gannoruwa, Department of Agriculture, and can be taken out for multiplication at any time as the seed samples are viable.
Now I repent why we produced rice with more grains and less straw. There appears to be unsatisfied demand for straw. I like to conclude this disclosure with a statement made by Dr. N. M. Perera at the University of Ceylon, Peradeniya in the mid 1960s. “Comrade, I can give you facts and figures, but I am sorry; I am unable to implant a brain in you”.
(The writer holds a Ph D, Genetics and Plant Breeding, North Dakota University, USA, 1990, M Sc., Plant Breeding, Saga University, Japan, 1978 and B sc. Agric. University of Ceylon, Sri-Lanka, 1968. He has served as Research Officer, Rice Breeding (1969 – 1995) Central Rice Breeding Station, Batalagoda, Director, Rice Research and Development Institute, (1996 – 2000), Batalagoda, Affiliate Scientist, International Rice Research Institute (2000 – 2003), Philippines and Technical Advisor, JICA,, Tsukuba International Center, (2004 – 2012), Japan)
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