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A belated tribute



Father Ernest Poruthota:

By Uditha Devapriya

Prasanna Vithanage remembers the afternoons of his adolescence quite clearly. “I’d take the train to Panadura from Bambalapitiya at 1.57 after school ended, and by 3 I’d be home.” A quick wash and a quick lunch would be followed by a tedious routine: studying, reading, perhaps some play, dinner, sleep. In some ways that came to be my routine also: a quick bath, a quick lunch, and evenings spent hitting the books and indulging in artistic flights of fancy. The only difference was that I didn’t take the train. I took the van.

On Mondays and Fridays, however, Prasanna would change that routine. “I’d spend an hour at home and take the train back to Colombo. By 5.45 I would get down at Fort.” From Fort he walked to a decrepit building in Malwatte Road, where “a group of film enthusiasts screened movies from Britain, the US, France, Germany, Russia, and beyond the Iron Curtain.” They called it Martin Piyathumage Punchi Cinema Hala, and it was officiated, as a church would, by a man of the cloth.

Prasanna made his contact with that man, Ernest Poruthota, at that theatre. It became the first in a long line of encounters, which, as he puts it, “just kept on coming.”

In other words those encounters never ended, and he didn’t have to wait until Monday and Friday for them. “On Poya days Father Poruthota organised discussions on Sinhala films yet to be shown to the public.” At one of these discussions he met H. D. Premaratne; at another he met Dharmasena Pathiraja. Sunil Mihindukula served as the moderator.

From that rendezvous he leapt to another, with a seminar “at Aquinas College where, over three days, we watched three Sinhala films, including Premaratne’s Apeksha and Pathiraja’s Para Dige, and picked up the basics of feature and documentary filmmaking.”

The seminar marked Prasanna’s initiation into films, and it would be followed by another, also organised by Poruthota: “Sri Lanka’s first ever practical film training course”, overseen by Andrew Jayamanne and informally called “the Super 8mm Workshop.” Prasanna made his debut Miniththu, based on a short story by the late Jayalath Manoratne, after the course ended. A decade later he would make his first feature film, Sisila Gini Gani, which like much of his subsequent work revolved around a real incident. He was by then around the same age Dharmasena Pathiraja had been when he’d made his debut, Ahas Gawwa, in 1974; like that landmark classic, Sisila Gini Gani unleashed a new wave in the local cinema, winning practically every award and accolade at every ceremony.

Among those accolades were eight awards at the OCIC Film Festival. There too Prasanna made contact with Father Poruthota; after all, the latter was the first director of the OCIC’s chapter in Sri Lanka. During his tenure he had changed the format of the Festival by turning it into an all category event. The most important such ceremony until then, the Sarasaviya Awards, had been halted after 1971; it wouldn’t be revived until 1980. The OCIC under Poruthota thus filled not only a gap, but also a need.

Meanwhile Prasanna’s encounters with the man continued, long after Sisila Gini Gani, and they proved to be more than coincidental. “An entire generation of directors, including me, Christy Shelton Fernando, and Udayakantha Warnasuriya, emerged from those encounters. In more ways than one, it was all Father Poruthota’s doing.”

The full scope of Poruthota’s contribution can’t really be laid out in a single conversation. Neither Prasanna’s summing up of it, nor Poruthota’s own assessment of it, can do so. And yet an attempt must be made, not least because Poruthota, who died on June 16 at the age of 88, made his contribution to the cinema of this country at a time when the institutions he represented were only just beginning to embrace such secular realms. President Gotabaya Rajapaksa paid tribute to that contribution in his condolence message, where he noted the Father’s “love for the Sinhala language, literature, and our unique identity.”

The man who was to change the way religious authorities looked at the cinema and the arts was very much a product of his time. He was born Raymond Ernest Alexander in 1931 in Marawila, Puttalam. His father, Jokinu Fernando, had worked as a lecturer at the Maggona Teachers’ College. Owing to some disagreements with authorities there, however, he had been dismissed and transferred to Marawila, where he became a head teacher; later, he fell in love with and married a woman from Dambaduraya, Seeduwa. Jokinu also gained a reputation as a publisher of scientific and literary books; among the more popular titles was one on Physical Science, unostentatiously called Kaayika Vidyawa.

Poruthota rebelled against his elders from early on. In an interview I had with him in 2016, he wondered whether he gained his militant streak from his father. “He was a stubborn man. So stubborn, in fact, that when they transferred him he didn’t make a single attempt to appeal it.” Unfortunately for Poruthota though, the old man didn’t take too well to his son taking after him. “I hated going to school. I told my parents I didn’t want to. Obviously they didn’t listen. So every day I’d be dragged from home, along the road, to St Xavier’s College in Marawila, where I obtained my primary education.”

Much of the education he received came from home; in addition to his father’s publishing interests, “he was also a painter of some repute in the locality.” The old man, in fact, stimulated an interest in the decorative arts in him.

By 1940 however, the exasperated parents had realised that, come what may, their headstrong son wasn’t going to finish school. So they decided on the priesthood. “Father and mother came to believe that my vocation lay in the church. With that in mind, in 1942 they admitted me to St Aloysius Seminary in Borella.”

Young Poruthota had his first brush with the cinema at the Borella Seminary, perhaps the unlikeliest of all places where one could see films, given that relations between the Catholic Church and the cinema were, at best, tenuous. Fortunately for Poruthota though, the Rector of the Seminary had an unlikely friend: the Chairman and Managing Director of Ceylon Theatres, Albert Page. “Page had a habit of watching foreign movies, predominantly English movies, at the now defunct Empire Theatre in Colombo before giving the green light for their release. He sent some of them to our Rector and we watched them from time to time.” Forget the usual box office hits though: Poruthota and his friends got to see “only religious parables and epics”, like The Song of Bernadette. Westerns were out of the question, as were screwball comedies and detective thrillers.

If the cinema came to Poruthota through the Seminary, the Seminary at the same time sustained his interest in the decorative arts. Apparently he and his colleagues had been taken on compulsory walks every Thursday. One such walk, in 1948, had taken them around Torrington Junction, near Independence Square, where they had come across the unveiling of the National Flag at what he recalled as “a rehearsal for the independence ceremony.” Young Poruthota had been awed by the whole thing: “More than the historical significance, what appealed to me were the decorations, the colour, and the liveliness. I was so awed by it that when we returned, I set about replicating the decorations on crepe paper.” I asked him whether this fascination crept up through the artist in him trying to defy the strictures of the Seminary. “Perhaps,” he replied, with a telling smile.

In 1957 Thomas Benjamin Cooray, then Archbishop of Colombo, ordained Poruthota at St Lucia’s Cathedral in Kotahena. Even at that point the attitude of Church authorities to the cinema remained tenuous, if not strained. Two years later, for instance, Roger Vadim’s controversial film And God Created Woman went to the Public Performance Board, which banned it from local theatres. The Catholic Messenger in an editorial on the issue (dated February 1959) hailed the decision, praising the Board over “the high principles formulated by them according to which films must be judged.”

Consider here that the Board was now in the hands of officials appointed by a populist, leftwing government the Church opposed, and you can discern the irony of the congratulatory missive: the Messenger was, in effect, commending an administration it opposed for taking a decision based on religious morals that happened to coincide with their views on the cinema. This becomes even more relevant when we realise the Church departed from such a hostile approach to the arts later on.

The tide began to turn with the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965), at which a key decree, Inter mirifica, urged officials to make use of all forms of social communication, including the cinema. Until then the Church had considered the performing arts as a temporal activity; with the decree, they were anointed a place among spiritual affairs. When the Archbishop returned to Sri Lanka from the Council, he hence took action to enact the letter and spirit of the document. That culminated in the founding of a national office for the OCIC in 1971. In my interview, Father Poruthota told me the OCIC appointed him as director in 1977, but this is an error; according to official accounts, he was appointed in 1972.

Poruthota’s involvement in the theatre predated his work in the cinema. As Sarath Amunugama recalled in an article to The Island, thanks to his friendship with Cyril B. Perera, the ideologue of Sugathapala de Silva’s “Ape Kattiya”, Poruthota allowed the latter troupe to rehearse their plays “in his parish premises.” “Ape Kattiya” staged translations of contemporary Western plays, many of which delved into taboo subjects like homosexuality which the Church frowned upon. And yet, committed as he was to his love for the theatre, Poruthota continued to associate with them. Through them he rekindled his friendship with two other Catholic artists: Tony Ranasinghe and his brother, Ralex.

When he changed the OCIC Awards to an all category ceremony in 1977, Father Poruthota achieved two things. Firstly, he brought in a group of radical critics to the jury, a precedent given that most film juries until then, even at the Sarasaviya Awards, included old civil servants. The 1977 OCIC jury, for instance, had Edwin Ariyadasa, Cyril B. Perera, Professor Chandrasiri Palliyaguru, Ashley Ratnabivushana, Neil I. Perera, Lakshman Welikala, and Ralex Ranasinghe. Secondly, by bringing in these radical critics, he ensured recognition for the emerging left cinema. It’s not a coincidence, after all, that most major winners at the OCIC Awards in this period were articulators of the new cinema; the most coveted and feted among them, of course, being Dharmasena Pathiraja.

That ran into its own share of controversies – in certain years more than one contender had to share the top prize, highlighting the growing rift between the old giants and the new rebels in the industry – but the net result of it was that the OCIC, despite what may have been the resistance of more conservative sections of the Church, gave precedence to a leftwing if not left-of-centre cinematic and cultural discourse. For better or worse, this new wave in the cinema and in film criticism became the doing of the OCIC, and of the man behind the OCIC. It may have not been to everyone’s liking, yet that is what it was and that is what it eventually became.

Where do all these reflections leave Father Poruthota? He didn’t want to be a divisive figure, and in the end, despite his outspokenness, or rather because of it – in particular, his opposition to censorship “of any form” – he prevailed. This wasn’t limited to the cinema of course, though we can contend that it was where his biggest contribution lay; as Prasanna Vithanage put it, “he brought so many newcomers to the industry.” Vithanage, in fact, compared what he did to the opening of a door: “Church fathers, from their pulpits, appeal to the gatekeepers of heaven to let us in. I feel Father Poruthota opened many doors and windows for budding filmmakers like me to enter, right here on earth.”

The writer can be reached at

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Sat Mag

Teach students animal rights for a better world



Five years ago, I requested the Head of the Bar Council of India to get animal welfare introduced as a subject in the law colleges. He did it immediately. The result has been much more sensitive and informed lawyers, an annual moot court that is hosted by NLU Bangalore, PhDs in animal welfare (the first one was in NLU Cuttack), more people aware of animal welfare activism and far more sensitive judges. A big thank you to Shri Manan Kumar Mishra!

22 years ago, at the instance of Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee, who supported all new ideas, we built the National Institute for Animal Welfare in Ballabgarh. Unfortunately, the government fell when it was ready. The Congress shut it down, and now the BJP is in its seventh year without restarting it. The Minister for Environment gave it to JNU. They fooled around for 2 years and then returned it to the Ministry, who slept on it for two years and then handed it to Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, who have ignored it for three years and only now have appointed a retired vet to make a course. I have lost all hope. In 2002, I wrote out all the courses, made some textbooks, contacted Oxford, Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh, for teachers, got a grant from UNEP for the library. But nothing has happened and nothing ever will. The magnificent seven-acre centre now houses ten people of the Animal Welfare Board of India and runs “awareness” courses of three days each for the student vets of The Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS).

But there are huge job opportunities for trained animal welfare people: shelter managers, gaushala managers, laboratory managers, forest and wildlife officers, city management of animals, elephant rescue centres, city snake rescuers, poultries, slaughterhouses, to begin with and hundreds of others. I simply cannot understand why it has taken so long for even one course to begin.

A huge thank you to the Vice Chancellor of IGNOU, Prof. Nageshwar Rao, and to Professor P. V. K. Sasidhar, for starting the first-degree related course in India for animal welfare. Prof. Sasidhar has been labouring at the modules for over three years now. The first session itself has over 800 students!

It is a PG Diploma in Animal Welfare (PGDAW) and the admissions are open for the January 2021 Session. The Online Admissions ink:

The PGDAW programme is meant for animal welfare volunteers and professionals across India, and for graduates / post-graduates interested in studying animal welfare. I have seen the learning module and I like it. I wish I had been able to compile the 3000+ articles I have written on every aspect of animal welfare. They could have been part of the course. But my editor has been fooling around with the 7 volume compilations for 5 years now, and I have no idea when she will be done. National Book Trust had offered to print them all, but not even the first volume is ready.

The IGNOU course has four core components: Animal welfare science and ethics, Animal welfare issues, Animal welfare laws and policies, and Animal welfare practices and standards.

Animal welfare is concerned about the welfare of all animals that are managed in some way by humans. Farm animal welfare means the care of animals grown for milk and meat, and that is where animals suffer the most. Welfare issues, pertaining to working, performing, companion, zoo, lab and street animals, need a great deal of attention as well. The PGDAW programme, in 85 modules, has covered welfare, science, ethics, issues, laws and standards, of all farm and draught animals – cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry, working animals like donkeys and horses, performing animals, pets, zoo and lab animals. These modules have been developed in collaboration with The Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education, University of Edinburgh, UK.

It’s a one-year course, and graduates from any discipline can take it. It has two objectives: To impart science-based animal welfare education through open and distance learning. To build the capacities of stakeholders to take socially responsible decisions concerning animal welfare. The total fee of the course is Rs. 5400/-.

Who should take this course : Obviously all young people interested in animals, Employees Working in Animal Welfare Organizations/NGOs/Gaushalas, Faculty, Researchers, Technical Staff & PG/PhD Students in Universities, Research Organizations and Veterinary Colleges, Veterinarians / Para-veterinarians in State Central Government/RVC & Para-Military Forces, Members of State Animal Welfare Boards/SPCAs, Members of CPCSEA/ Institutional Animal Ethics Committees /Animal House Facilities, Civil Servants, Officials and Researchers Working in Forest Departments, Zoos and Wild Life Institutes, Faculty and Research Scholars under Zoological Survey of India and Zoology Departments, Law Professionals and Police Personnel dealing with Animal Welfare Laws and their Enforcement, Graduates Seeking Career as Animal Welfare Professionals.

Ideally, I would make it compulsory for all schools – if we want a better India.

The Programme Coordinator, Prof. P.V.K. Sasidhar, School of Extension and Development Studies, IGNOU, New Delhi (e-mail:, has great credentials himself. He has been in the Agricultural Research Service of ICAR (2003-09), a Norman Borlaug Fellow of USDA, Tuskegee University, USA (2008), USAID Fellow, Michigan State University, USA (2015), and an OIE Performance of Veterinary Services Evaluator, OIE (2018).

 If you want to join this, now is the time. Also, if you have suggestions to make it better, write to the Professor. I would recommend it for activists in Sri Lanka and Nepal as well, as the issues are the same.

( To join the animal welfare movement contact,

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Sat Mag




A tale of a boy’s courage

By Uditha Devapriya

Situated at Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Planetarium continues to captivate and fascinate, yet unless you strain your eyes, you can easily miss it. It’s one of those places you go to, through a prior appointment, and emerge from wishing you could go back in again. I must have been in Grade Five when I visited it on a class trip in 2004. Supun Jayasinghe was in Grade Five, too, when he went there with the rest of his class seven years later. The only exception, apart from the year of the visit, was where he came from: a 100 miles away, in Dambulla. It was the first time he had been to the city.

Intriguing and exhilarating as such a trip may have been, he had other things in his head. A few months later, he wouldbe sitting the Grade Five Scholarship Exam. How would he study for it? What marks would he score? Where would he go, if those marks turned out to be high? These questions nagged him, yet for the moment he let them off.

In any case, the ride had been exhausting: having started at four in the morning, it was about nine when the bus entered the city. It made its way to Independence Avenue, and from there towards the University of Colombo.

Between Independence Avenue and Stanley Wijesundera Mawatha, the Race Course faces Royal College. Intrigued by the Arcade, then the College, Supun and his classmates turned to their teacher. Standing up, he looked at them and described what they were, laying emphasis on the school more than the complex. Having described it in detail – the oldest public school, the most popular such institution, and so on – he brought the discussion back to his audience. “You have your scholarship exams this year,” he reminded them. “Try scoring as high as you can, because if you do, you’ll get a chance to come and study there.”

The memory of those words remained in Supun for a long time. The moment he heard them, he vowed to get as high a mark as he could, to get that chance, to come here.

Whatever the shortcomings of the Scholarship Exam may be, there’s no denying that it has opened up a world of opportunity for an aspiring lower middle-class. Supun’s father, a businessman, and mother, a teacher, hailed from this middle-class. Having attended a local Montessori and a Model School, he spent the whole of 2011 studying for the exam, forfeiting what little free time he had poring over books under a tree in his front yard. Yet, while he hit the books as hard and as much as he could, he did not push himself to compete with his peers. He’d told everyone he would ace the paper, but that owed less to a desire to be the best in the class than to a yearning to enter the best school he thought there was.

In any case, he got what he wanted. The marks came home somewhere in December 2011: having aimed at 180, he had scored 186. An even better piece of news came soon afterwards: the cut-off mark for Royal in 2012 happened to be 182. This meant only one thing: he would be boarded at the College Hostel, the following month, the following year.

The decision to go to Colombo did not come easy. Supun’s mother had opposed it at first, claiming it was too far. The marks were what convinced her. Even so, going to a city he’d only heard about and seen just once, and choosing to stay there for the better part of the next seven or so years, was a challenge. How would he fit in? What would he have to adjust to? Did people act there the way they did here? Did they differ in how they studied, read books, wrote answers? How they ate, drank, walked, and talked? He had much to think about, and as the weeks drew the year to a close, not much time to think them over.

Before everything, of course, there was the question of visiting the Hostel. On January 8 a letter arrived at his home, notifying them that the new term would commence a few weeks later, and that an orientation would be held before it did, on January 20.

Excited as he was, Supun nevertheless felt uneasy. On January 19, he and his father made their way to a rented house at Mount Lavinia, where a not-so distant relative lived. The next day came slowly, excruciatingly slowly. “I couldn’t sleep, I did not want to,” he remembers it today. Somehow, the night passed, and the following morning, having consulted and checked out at an auspicious time, the two of them made their way to Colombo.

Sri Lanka’s public schools, in particular those whose origins go back to the 19th century, are distinctly British in their architecture. The historian K. M. de Silva not unjustifiably calls it bland, unremarkable, and passé, when compared with Portuguese and Dutch architecture. For all their blandness, though, the British invested these buildings with an aura of expansiveness, with corridors giving way to gardens, quadrangles, and still other corridors.

Finding their way through an endless maze of entrances and exits, Supun and his father could not locate the Hostel. When they finally did, they were ushered into an orientation. Supun remembers two things from that day: his new class (6N), and the school song. The latter awed him: he hadn’t listened to many English songs, let alone school anthems, until then.

Having returned home after the orientation, father and son were told that the new term would begin five days later, on January 25. The second time around they came to Colombo in a car. Starting the journey of more than a hundred miles at four in the morning, they arrived at their destination at one or two in the afternoon.

At the Hostel the usual procedure was followed. The seniors directed him to his room. Each room had bunker beds. Not used to sleeping on them, he chose the first compartment, sharing the bunker with three others. When the last of the parents left, he predictably felt his nerves on the edge. The old fears returned: would he be able to fit in?

As with all public schools located in the city, the history of Royal College has woven itself into the history of its surroundings. Confusing at first, its topography extends from one end to another, covering a great many sites. To socialise into and familiarise himself with such an environment physically was not, however, tough for Supun. The real challenge lay elsewhere: the all too ubiquitous presence of English, and the melange of race and religion within the classroom. In other words, language proficiency plus cultural assimilation.

Glancing through his achievements from then, it struck me how his resolve stood out in them all. Back in Dambulla he had neither let the achievements of his peers ruffle him nor allowed himself to be overtaken by a desire to do better than them. He always, for instance, came first at his first school, but not because he wanted to beat everyone else to it; he just wanted to do something, and when he put his mind to it, he tried to do it somehow, on his own.

In Colombo this remained his philosophy. Whether it was winning creative composition and literary criticism prizes, becoming Junior Prefect (2015) and Junior Steward (2018), right before winding up as Steward (2019) and Chairman or Secretary of a great many clubs and societies (to list just some: Philatelic, Science, Library Readers), he let himself into whatever he took a fancy to. He did not, however, abandon his academics; studying for his O Levels, he ended up with nine As. Needless to say, on the field and in the class, at studies and sports, he confronted, and got over, those two challenges of proficiency and assimilation.

Supun’s story, I realise when I read through it, at once reflects and deviates from the norm. Reflects, because it conforms to the general pattern (initial difficulties at getting used to life in the city being followed by assimilation into the cultural and social patterns of that city), and deviates from, because his willpower is hard to find among his peers, or at least most of them. There is a reason for that: born with congenital anomalies on his right hand and leg, he has refused to let them get in his way, having won medals at the Para Games (2018) as well as for volleyball, boxing, table tennis, hockey, baseball, scouting (with a President’s Badge in 2019 to boot). By all accounts, this is to be admired, as it should be even now.

Steven Kemper dedicates the last chapter of his book on advertising in Sri Lanka (Buying and Believing) to a Sinhala lower middle-class family, residing in the outskirts of Colombo, who manage to realise their aspirations through their second son gaining entry to Supun’s school. Kemper, ever sensitive to the vagaries of class, points out how two-pronged entering a better school can be: a “singular opportunity”, yet one that comes with the price of accommodation “in a hostel.” Boarding their son, the family later relocates to Colombo. They make that move because they have to: the son is their link to the city, and to all it represents.

This country is home to a great many families who aspire for a better life, and one way through which they seek that life is education: not merely what you study, but where you study. Supun’s case is therefore illustrative: it’s the story of every other middle-class child. What’s interesting is how their integration to the city has brought about a transformation in the country’s elite schools. In that sense Supun’s story, as with that of the family in Kemper’s book, is not only illustrative, but also instructive. A Senior Prefect today, waiting for his A Level results, he finishes the conversation with a simple personal credo: “I’ve always aimed high and big, and I think I’ve always got there.” I am inclined to agree.

The writer can be reached at

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Sat Mag

Cleaner production – an urgent need



By Dr. Debapriya Mukherjee
Former Senior Scientist
Central Pollution Control Board, India

If we look into the areas close to the industrial sector, production of pollutants particularly from Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) has damaged the natural environment by excess emission of wastewater, gas or other solid waste. Environmental agencies are failing miserably in controlling pollution from most of the SMEs across the country. SME contributes asignificant fraction of total environmental burden in developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh. Despite enforcement of environmental acts and regulations, the consumption of huge quantities of resources and energy, within a remarkably short period through industrial production had a far-reaching influence on natural environment. Reducing this burden needs environmental improvement at the micro level, a goal which has been stubbornly elusive in India. 

According to my observations, the major problems in SMEs, are old technologies, poor management practices, limited availability of funds, inadequately trained officials, lack of appropriate inspection and monitoring and overall sustainable gap between enforcement agencies, industries and communities because impassivity of top management in environmental sector and political will have impeded sustainable environment management.  Regulatory pressure on the SMEs could not implicate positive effect on environment to maintain sound ecosystem as observed in many areas close to SMEs such as foundry, sponge iron, electroplating industry, food processing, tannery and others. 

Environment Sustainability (ES) to maintain wholesomeness of the environment by controlling production of pollutants has been practically jeopardized. The possible reason is that several industrial complexes have been established without considering environmental and social impacts and thereby sustainability of industrial development is not gaining momentum. This dismal ES remains well hidden because social aspects (such as human rights, corruption, poverty, child mortality, land degradation, illiteracy and health problems) and their interrelation with economic and environment aspects are not considered with due emphasis by the regulatory agencies. The traditional approach of enforcing environmental acts and regulations is unable to explain and address the complex dynamic inter-relation among economics, environmental and social aspects with time. Though environmental impact assessment and environmental management system as per the Environment (Protection) Ac are mandatory to establish and to operate any project but, ES, and social benefits are always questionable. Industrial growth without ES under prevailing socio-economic condition is definitely neglected and delayed.

Survey of these industries reveals that SMEs are mainly dependent on end-of pipe(EOP) technology and their functionality are not consistent. Regulatory pressure compelled these industries to install a pollution control system for compliance with standards. But non-compliance is a common feature due to non-availability/ non-operation/ failure of pollution control system. Though regulatory agencies inspect the industries once or twice a year they are unable to ensure consistent control of pollution. Also, the regulatory authority cannot evaluate the different compliance level and thereby violation of standard to any extent is subject to the same penalties as it is marginal violation. Environmental managers can easily control the pollution level within a permissible limit during inspection by manipulating raw materials feeding and/or by operating the pollution control devices. It is not always feasible with limited trained/experienced personnel to conduct in-depth study on material and water balance in order to justify the quantity of pollutants emitted to environment based on the monitoring data. Enforcement agencies put emphasis on performance evaluation of EOP technology as per the stipulated standard without considering ecological crisis and social problems in the area closed to the industries.  As a result, owners of the industries are not serious to initiate CP despite economic benefits associated with its implementation.  On the contrary, owners of the industries are well versed on how to tackle an adverse situation temporarily and make their units in operation. Regulatory agencies  issue time to time   closure notices or directives to improve the performance of pollution control system to the non-compliant industries.  In response to these notices, owners of the industries with the help of outside experts, find out temporary solution with little financial investment just to fulfill the legal requirement and not “real” requirement. As a result, actual compliance status over time remains well hidden and thereby environmental and social problems remain unattended. One ofthe reasons may be vested interests of the concerned officers entrusted for verification of the report. Otherwise why water, air and soil are still so much polluted?

In this context it may be  mentioned that the majority of residents are poor and do not have access to higher authorities for solving their problems as well as they are not well educated to explain their sufferings to the media/press highlighting ecological crisis created by these industries. Government has already launched various projects to remove poverty, to educate the people, to provide health facility and to create environmental awareness among the people to highlight the  pollution problem,  but implementation status of these projects is not always satisfactory. This has resulted environmental and social problems reaching alarming proportion in many industrial clusters in India and simply visual inspections supplement these findings. Limitations in government’s actions to solve the problems are not disseminated via media for public awareness for various reasons. Moreover accountability of government employees for implementing the projects in terms of success and failure is not properly evaluated because knowledge and hardship required for evaluating degree of success are practically lacking. 

This problem in regulatory organization, may be attributed to top management persons because they often recruit either new scientists/engineers or retired government engineers/scientists on the basis of political connections or bribes or nepotism to look after activities related to environment management but their style of management clearly exhibit impassivity towards CP implementation because of their poor technical capability. Whereas huge potential offered by the country’s young population is far from being leveraged. Also many highly qualified young scientists/engineers refuse to take up the challenging works related to environment management in these organizations because of the lack of knowledgeable and skilled experts to guide the newly recruited personnel, hostile environment and bureaucracy. 

This is really a disturbing situation. Thereby, India needs innovative minds to meet its formidable challenges. For this, both the state and central governments should take urgent action and must appoint highly qualified, broad-minded top most officers, who will recruit qualified competent engineers/scientists and give them state-of-the-art technology based on sound scientific evidence with no external interference. Fixing our organization system will require a complete overhaul of the recruitment system, changes in environment policy and implementation of CP concept in these SMEs. According to UN Environmental Progrmme (UNEP) CP is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy towards processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment. However this will be difficult with the present disconnect between science and policy in these organizations.

My experience clearly established the economic efficiency of CP through incremental innovation based on  production process optimization and thereby the payback period of investment towards CP technology was short.   Unfortunately, in India actual level of implementation of CP in industries in particular all SMEs as found in other countries  to deliver environmental advantage is not determined. Therefore, evaluation of actual environmental and economic performance improvement is an emergent need to maintain sustainable industrial development, social welfare, social equity and sound ecosystem. In India, the manufacturing industries and the government can play a major role in this sustainable development.  However, community pressure followed by enforcement of environmental acts and regulation has slowly changed the attitude of these industries but overall success towards consistent compliance is still a distant dream. 

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